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Politics and a Thin Prosperity

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Politics and a Thin Prosperity A Slipping economy – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Politics and a Thin Prosperity


1
Politics and a Thin Prosperity
  • A Slipping economy

2
Americans Confront Postwar Controversy
  • 1919 Boston Police go out on strike
  • No wage increased
  • Cost of living had doubled
  • Appealed to the Police Commissioner who promptly
    fired them all
  • No police protection
  • Looting / gambling became commonplace
  • Governor Cal Coolidge called out the National
    Guard to restore peace
  • Coolidge said, There is no right to strike
    against the public safety by anyone, anywhere,
    anytime

3
The Boston Police Strike (1919)
  • The police commissioner fired all of the police
    officers who lobbied for a raise.
  • Those police officers who were not fired chose to
    go on strike.
  • As the strike ended the police commissioner
    refused to rehire the striking police officers
  • The newly hired officers received everything the
    strikers asked for

4
Russian Revolution (1917)
  • A civil war occurs to gain power over Russia.
  • The Whites (supported by the US who actually
    sends troops) are defeated by the Bolsheviks
    (Reds) who change their name to Communists
  • Russia became known as the Union of Soviet
    Socialist Republics (USSR) or Soviet Union with
    Vladimir Lenin as their leader.

5
The Red Scare Fear of a communist workers
revolution
  • 1919 saw over 3,000 strikes
  • Was it the beginning of a Communist workers
    revolution?
  • Since the Russian Revolution, many Americans were
    afraid a Bolshevik revolution could happen here
  • Reality of the Strikes
  • Wages had not kept up with prices
  • Employers would not give workers a pay raise
  • Returning war veterans had difficulty finding
    jobs

6
The Red Scare
  • There were about 70,000 people who joined the
    Communist party in the U.S. shortly after the
    Russian Revolution.
  • Most had ties to labor unions like the Industrial
    Workers of the World.
  • Despite the small number, some Americans became
    very fearful of a communist revolution in the
    U.S.

7
The Red Scare
  • People feared that if communism came to the U.S.,
    it would mean the government abolishing private
    property government ownership of factories,
    railroads, all other businesses.
  • People feared that reds or communists would
    violently takeover the U.S.

8
(No Transcript)
9
Political Cartoon
10
A. Mitchell Palmer Attorney General
  • Palmer Raids against alleged communists and
  • Anarchists-those who oppose all forms of
    government
  • Civil liberties were often violated during the
    raids

11
The Palmer Raids
  • Under Palmers leadership, government agents were
    allowed to use tactics that went beyond the
    Constitution.
  • Agents invaded private homes, meeting halls, and
    private offices without using search warrants.
  • Suspects were jailed for weeks without being
    allowed to see their lawyers.
  • Visitors of jailed suspects were arrested.
  • Hundreds of suspects (immigrants) were deported
    without the benefit of a trial.

12
After a Palmer Raid
13
The Ku Klux Klan Resurges in the Twenties
  • The Ku Klux Klan claimed to be devoted to 100
    percent Americanism.
  • Its members claimed to be white male persons,
    native-born, gentile citizens.
  • The Klans social positions were
  • Anti-Black
  • Anti-Immigrant or Foreigner
  • Anti-Labor Union
  • Anti-Catholic
  • Anti-Jew
  • Anti-Urban Intellectual
  • Anti-Evolution
  • Anti-Wet (Wets were people who drank).
  • Pro-Prohibition
  • Pro- Fundamentalist Protestant Christian

Xenophobia fear of foreigners
14
The Ku Klux Klan Resurges in the Twenties
  • Anti-Immigrant feelings in the 1920s refueled the
    Ku Klux Klan membership.
  • The Great Migration of African Americans that
    began during World War I continued in the 1920s
    also led to the KKK reaching its highest
    membership numbers in Northern states.
  • In fact, Indiana had more KKK members in the
    1920s than any other state in the Union.
  • Even Indianas governor had KKK ties.

15
The Ku Klux Klan Resurges in the Twenties
  • KKK Grand Wizard Hiram Evans described his
    members as plain peoplethe everyday, not
    highly cultured, overly intellectualized, but
    entirely unspoiledcitizens of old stock.
  • Klan members felt very threatened from the
    changes that started to occur during World War I
    and continued in to the 1920s.
  • They did not like the new job opportunities that
    African Americans gained during World War I.
  • They worried about immigrants taking their jobs.
  • They worried that foreigners threatened the
    American way of life.
  • They felt that urban intellectuals threatened
    their values.

16
The Ku Klux Klan Resurges in the Twenties
  • The Klan expressed their view with parades and
    racial violence
  • The Klan embraced racial violence and often
    committed violence and murder without being
    punished.
  • Many Klan led lynching's occurred with no arrests
    or convictions.

17
The Ku Klux Klan Resurges in the Twenties
  • This picture was taken in 1925 when almost 60,000
    Ku Klux Klan members marched down Pennsylvania
    Avenue in Washington, D.C.

18
The KKK Yesterday and Today
19
Sacco Vanzetti
  • At the height of the Red Scare in April of 1920,
    the Sacco Vanzetti case revealed the fear of
    foreigners (xenophobia) immigrants that was
    resurging in the 1920s.
  • Nicola Sacco Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian
    immigrants who were anarchists draft evaders.
  • The two men were accused of shooting killing a
    factory paymaster in Braintree, Massachusetts
    running off with 15,000.
  • Circumstantial evidence
  • Judge not impartial
  • Found guilty and sentenced to death


20
Warren G. Harding President 1920 1923
Republican
  • Ohio politician not well respected
  • Return to Normalcy and Isolation
  • No government interference with business
  • No social welfare programs
  • US did not join League of Nations
  • Made questionable political appointments
  • Ohio Gang his poker playing Ohio buddies given
    political positions
  • Scandalous and corrupt Administration
  • Died of a heart attack in 1923
  • I have no trouble with my enemiesbut my
  • damn friends, theyre the ones that keep me
  • walking the floor at night Harding

21
Cal Coolidge President 1923 1928 Republican
  • The chief business of the American people is
    business Coolidge
  • Hardings vice-president
  • Silent Cal a simple and honest man
  • Kept taxes down and business up
  • Keep Cool with Coolidge campaign slogan in 1924
  • Business boomed
  • Many new consumer goods which used electricity
  • People bought on credit using installment plans
  • Banks provided low interest loans

22
The Business of America is Business
  • Planned obsolescence
  • It wont last so youll have to buy more!!
  • Assembly line mass produced goods revolutionized
    industry
  • Advertising was used to sell products you didnt
    need
  • Overproduction occurred huge overstock of goods
  • Installment plan buying due to easy credit
  • Speculating (making risky investments) on the
    stock market by the average guy
  • Farmers already feeling the coming depression
  • Farmers had borrowed heavily during WW I to
    produce more food and already had huge debts

23
Selling new products Advertising
24
Henry Ford revolutionized the way we produced
goods in America
25
New Products in a modern society
26
Appealing to the public
27
These products made life easier and more
interesting
28
The changing kitchen
29
Edisons phonograph Everyone loved it
30
Labor Movement Struggles in the Twenties
  • Although labor union membership rose during the
    World War I era, labor unions were outlawed from
    striking, greatly limiting the power of labor
    unions.
  • The government threatened workers to either work
    or fight.
  • Immediately following World War I, strikes
    broke-out in great numbers.
  • There were over 3,000 strikes in 1919, but
    striking and union membership declined after
    1920.

31
Labor Movement Struggles in the Twenties
  • During World War I continuing into the 1920s,
    wages had not kept up with prices.
  • Employers tried to avoid wage increases tried
    to discourage labor unions.
  • Many employers tried to stir up rumors that union
    members were planning revolution.
  • Newspapers published fearful headlines like
  • Crimes Against Society
  • Conspiracies Against the Government.
  • Plots to Establish Communism
  • The picture shows an IWW labor union office that
    was raided by federal authorities searching for
    communist revolutionary activities.

32
President Wilson deals with labor strikes in 1919
  • The Steel Strike
  • Difficult and dangerous working conditions
  • Seven days a week, 12 hours a day
  • US Steel refused to meet with Union reps so they
    walked off the job
  • They demanded the right to shorter working hours
    and a living wage
  • US Steel hired non-union workers or
    strikebreakers (scabs) and used force
  • Propaganda campaign against the strikers
  • 18 workers were killed and wounded or beat
    hundreds more
  • In 1923 a Protestant interfaith committee
    published a report documenting the dire labor
    conditions.
  • The report did pressure U.S. Steel to give steel
    workers an 8 hour workday, but the steel workers
    did not regain its union.

33
The Coal Miners Strike (1919)
  • John L. Lewis became the new leader of the United
    Mine Workers of America in 1919.
  • When John L. Lewis called for a strike on
    November 1, 1919, Attorney General A. Mitchell
    Palmer got a court order demanding that the
    strikers return to work.
  • Lewis declared the strike over but quietly gave
    the order to continue the strike
  • An arbitrator was appointed
  • The miners received a 27 pay raise
  • A shorter work day and week will be achieved in
    the 1930s

34
Labor Movement Loses Appeal
  • Many believed labor unions fostered communism
  • Many immigrants had no choice but to work in poor
    labor conditions
  • Immigrants spoke many languages making them
    difficult to organize
  • Farmers who moved to cities were difficult to
    organize because they were use to relying on
    themselves
  • Blacks were excluded from joining many unions

35
Black Tuesday - October 29,1929 The American
start of the Great Depression
Causes of this worldwide depression
  • Uneven distribution of income few rich, many
    poor
  • Easy credit and the installment plan personal
    debt - too many people owed money
  • Speculating - buying stock on margin put 10
    down borrow the rest of the money from a
    stockbroker. Hopefully you can sell, make a
    profit
  • Imbalance of foreign trade we were not trading
    with foreign countries due to tariffs (tax on
    imported foreign goods)
  • Mechanization of industry machines doing the
    job of people

36
Politics of the 1920s Our return to normalcy!
  • Isolationism The US will stay out of world
    affairs
  • Nativism prejudice against immigrates and
    non-whites
  • The threat of communism and anarchists
  • Political conservatism
  • No more progressive reforms like helping
    workers, the poor and regulating businesses
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