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CHAPTER 14 IMMIGRATION AND URBANIZATION

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CHAPTER 14 IMMIGRATION AND URBANIZATION How did American urban life change between 1875 and 1914? – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CHAPTER 14 IMMIGRATION AND URBANIZATION


1
CHAPTER 14 IMMIGRATION AND URBANIZATION
  • How did American urban life change between 1875
    and 1914?

2
Standards
  • SSUSH 12
  • The student will analyze important consequences
    of American industrial growth.
  • a. Describe Ellis Island, the change in
    immigrants origins to southern and eastern
    Europe, and the impact of this change on urban
    America.

3
The New Immigrants
  • Why did immigrants come to the U.S., and what
    impact did they have upon society?
  • Vocabulary
  • new immigrant Americanization
  • steerage melting pot
  • Ellis Island Angel Island
  • Chinese Exclusion Act nativism

4
Sec 1 The New Immigrants
The New Immigrants
New Immigrants Come to America   Main Idea In
contrast to old immigrants, new immigrants
were often unskilled, poor, Catholic or Jewish,
and likely to settle in cities rather than on
farms. Many native-born Americans felt threatened
by these newcomers with different cultures and
languages. Immigrants Decide to Leave Home Main
Idea Two types of factors lead to immigration.
Push factors are those that compel people to
leave their homes, such as famine, war, or
persecution. Pull factors are those that draw
people to a new place, such as economic
opportunity or religious freedom. Many immigrants
in the late nineteenth century had both push and
pull factors that helped them decide to leave the
familiar for the unknown. The Immigrant
Experience Main Idea Immigrant experiences
varied greatly. However, there were common
themes a tough decision to leave home and
family, a hard and costly journey with an
uncertain end, and the difficulties of learning a
new language and adjusting to a foreign
culture.



Continued
5
The New Immigrants (continued)
Opportunities and Challenges in America Main
Idea Once in America, immigrants immediately
faced tough decisions such as where to settle and
how to find work. On top of that, most had to
learn a new language and new customs. Lucky
immigrants had contacts through family and
friends who could help them navigate a new and
strange world. Immigrants Change America Main
Idea Despite opposition, immigrants transformed
American society. They fueled industrial growth,
elected politicians, and made their traditions
part of American culture.
6
POLITICS IN THE GILDED AGE During the late 1800s,
big business and reform efforts dominated
American politics. The Big Idea Period between
18771900 is known as the Gilded Age Gilded
means covered in a thin layer of gold During
the Gilded Age, Americas big businesses
prospered Beneath this layer of prosperity
were the problems of poverty, discrimination and
corruption Term first used by American writer
Mark Twain
7
The New Immigrants During the late 1800s and
early 1900s, immigrants from around the world
came to the United States in search of a better
life. The Big Idea Immigration to the United
States by Region, 18711920
8
Immigrants Decide to Leave Home
  • Push Factors
  • Land reform
  • Low prices for grain
  • Repeated wars and political revolutions
  • Religious persecution
  • Better opportunities in U.S.
  • Pull Factors
  • Plentiful land and employment
  • Chain immigrants
  • Freedom of religion
  • Political freedom

9
The Immigrant Experience
  • Crossing the Ocean
  • 1-3 weeks on a ship
  • Most traveled in steerage
  • Almost 70 arrived through New York Ellis
    Island
  • Most settled with their own kind
  • Path of acceptance was more difficult for Asians
    Angel Island
  • Chinese Exclusion Act 1882
  • Japanese Segregation

10
Helping the Needy
  • Charity Organization Movement
  • Making charity scientific (like welfare system)
  • Kept details of who received help so that they
    knew who was worthy of help or not
  • Many expected immigrant to adopt American middle
    class standards of living
  • The Social Gospel movement
  • Applied religious principles of charity and
    justice for the poor
  • Supported labor reforms and improved living
    conditions
  • Settlement Movement (Jane Addams/Ellen Gates
    Starr)
  • Created settlement houses to offer social
    services and to help the poor

11
Transparency Chinatown
Chinatown
TRANSPARENCY
12
Opportunities and Challenges
  • Assimilation
  • Stayed in cities
  • Lived in ethnic neighborhoods
  • Americanization
  • Melting Pot
  • Hostility
  • Nativism
  • Religion
  • Chinese Exclusion Act 1882

13
Note Taking Reading Skill Main Ideas
Reading Skill Main Ideas
NOTE TAKING
14
Analyze Political Cartoons Keeping Foreigners
Out
Political Cartoons Keeping Foreigners Out
ANALYZE
15
Progress Monitoring Transparency Section 1
PM TRANSPARENCY
Progress Monitoring Transparency
16
Cities Expand and Change Section 2
  • What challenges did city dwellers face and how
    did they meet them?
  • Vocabulary
  • urbanization mass transit
  • skyscraper Frederick Law Olmsted
  • suburb Elisha Otis
  • tenement
  • rural-to-urban migrant

17
Cities Expand and Change
America Becomes a Nation of Cities Main Idea In
the late nineteenth century, America experienced
a period of urbanization in which the number of
cities and city dwellers increased dramatically.
Over time, their urban values became part of
American culture. Technology Improves City
Life Main Idea As cities swelled in size,
politicians and workers struggled to keep up with
the demands of growth to provide water, sewers,
schools, and safety. American innovators stepped
up to the task by developing new technologies to
improve living conditions. Urban Living Creates
Problems Main Idea Growing cities faced many
problems caused by overcrowding and poverty. As
immigrants and rural migrants arrived, they
crowded into neighborhoods that already seemed to
be overflowing. Housing conditions deteriorated,
and risks arose from fire, crime, conflict, and
lack of sanitation.
18
Chart Immigration 1870-1910
Immigration, 1870-1910
CHART
19
From Farms to Cities
  • Women were needed less for farmwork
  • New farm machines replaced laborers
  • 1880-1910 population on farms fell from 72 to 54
    percent
  • African Americans migrated north

20
City Advantages
  • Jobs in factories or service industries
  • More opportunities for women factory jobs,
    piecework, domestic servants, teachers, office
    workers
  • Opportunity to move into middle class
  • Education for children
  • Theaters, social clubs, museums, churches
  • Available transportation

21
How Cities Grew
  • Suburbs residential communities
  • People that could afford it moved out and took
    horse drawn carriages in
  • Motorized Transportation
  • Subways, trolley cars, elevated trains (El),
    automobile
  • Growing Upward
  • Skyscrapers
  • Chicagos Home Insurance Company building was the
    first 10 story buildiing

22
Urban Living Conditions
  • Tenements
  • Speculators built tenements and packed many
    people in them
  • Created slums
  • Slum Conditions
  • Poverty, overcrowding, neglect, fire danger
  • Great Chicago Fire 1871
  • 18,000 building burned, 250 dead, 100,000
    homeless
  • Property damage was 200 Million (2 Billion
    today)
  • Ghettos
  • Slums where one ethnic or racial group dominated
  • Restrictive covenants dont let certain people
    buy land
  • Jacob Riis
  • Worked to improve the lives of the urban poor
  • NY passed first laws to improve tenements b/c of
    Riis

23
Note Taking Reading Skill Identify Main Ideas
Reading Skill Identify Main Ideas
NOTE TAKING
24
Cities Expand and Change The arrival of millions
of new residents brought progress, poverty, and
political changes to American cities. The Big
Idea Political Machines
Run by powerful "boss who has influence with
city officials
Machines hand out jobs, contracts, and favors to
city residents
Political machines work to control city politics
Machines maintain power over city governments
Residents vote for candidates supported by
machines
25
The Results of City Growth
  • Rise of Political Bosses
  • Political Machine
  • Unofficial city organization designed to keep a
    particular party in power
  • Usually headed by a powerful boss
  • Boss would handpick candidates for local office
    in return for economic favors
  • Supported by immigrants and poor people
  • Graft using ones job to gain profits
  • William Boss Tweed
  • Controlled Tammany Hall in New York
  • Ran New Yorks Democratic Party

26
Growth of Public Schools
  • Immigrants and education
  • Uneven support for schools
  • - segregated schools
  • - minorities received less support

27
Higher Education Expands
  • Many new colleges opened
  • Leland Stanford-Stanford University
  • Women and higher education-coeducation increased
  • African Americans- most attended black colleges

28
IDEAS FOR REFORM
THE BIG IDEA - The desire to improve conditions
in American cities led to the formation of new
reform groups
29
Transparency Subway Systems Change Cities
Subway Systems Change Cities
TRANSPARENCY
30
Chart Technology Advances
Technology Advances
CHART
31
Progress Monitoring Transparency Section 2
PM TRANSPARENCY
Progress Monitoring Transparency
32
Social and Cultural Trends Section 3
  • What luxuries did cities offer to the middle
    class?
  • Vocabulary
  • Mark Twain Joseph Pulitzer
  • Gilded Age Horatio Alger
  • conspicuous consumerism
  • William Randolph Hearst
  • mass culture
  • vaudeville

33
Social and Cultural Trends
Americans Become Consumers   Main Idea As a
result of industrialization and urbanization,
more people began to work for wages rather than
for themselves on farms. At the same time, more
products were available than ever before and at
lower prices. This led to a culture of
conspicuous consumerism, in which people wanted
and bought the many new products on the
market. Mass Culture Main Idea One of the
effects of the spread of transportation,
communication, and advertising was that Americans
all across the country became more and more alike
in their consumption patterns. This phenomenon is
known as mass culture. New Forms of Popular
Entertainment Main Idea Urban areas with
thousands of people became centers for new types
of entertainment in the Gilded Age. Clubs, music
halls, and sports venues attracted large crowds
with time and money to spend.
34
Americans Become Consumers
  • Conspicuous consumerism
  • Advertising
  • Higher standards of living
  • Victorian Era
  • Public transportation
  • Commuters

35
Mass Culture
  • Newspapers Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph
    Hearst
  • Literature Horatio Alger
  • Education
  • Popular Entertainments amusement parks,
    vaudeville, movie theaters, sports

36
Note Taking Reading Skill Identify Main Ideas
Reading Skill Identify Main Ideas
NOTE TAKING
37
Infographic New Ways of Shopping
New Ways of Shopping
INFOGRAPHIC
38
Transparency Mail Order Catalogs
Mail Order Catalogs
TRANSPARENCY
39
Chart U.S. Literacy Rates, 1870-1920
U.S. Literacy Rates, 1870-1920
CHART
40
Transparency Educating Americans
Educating Americans
TRANSPARENCY
41
Progress Monitoring Transparency Section 3
PM TRANSPARENCY
Progress Monitoring Transparency
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