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Politics, Immigration, and Urban Life

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Politics, Immigration, and Urban Life Chapter 15 Section 1 Gilded Ages (Gilded means covered with thin layer of gold ) Post-Reconstruction era Golden period for ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Politics, Immigration, and Urban Life


1
  • Politics, Immigration, and Urban Life
  • Chapter 15

2
Section 1
  • Gilded Ages (Gilded means covered with thin
    layer of gold)
  • Post-Reconstruction era
  • Golden period for American Industrialists.
  • Covered up widespread abuse of power in business
    and government
  • Wealth helped hide problems faced by immigrants,
    laborers and farmers.

3
Laissez-faire
  • Businesses operated without government
    regulation.
  • Hands off approach
  • Term developed by Adam Smith in 1776 in the book
    The Wealth of Nations.
  • Many people supported government involvement when
    it benefited them.
  • Example American businesses accepted land grants
    and subsidies (payment made by the government to
    encourage development of key industries.)

4
Spoils System
  • Elected officials appointed friends to government
    jobs, regardless of qualifications.
  • By the Gilded Ages the government had unqualified
    /dishonest employees.

5
Hayes
  • Rutherford B. Hayes refused to follow spoils
    system.
  • Fired those not needed
  • Hired qualified
  • His attack strengthened the government

6
Pendleton Civil Service Act
  • Upon James Garfield's death Arthur became
    President.
  • Reformed spoils system
  • Pendleton Civil Service Act became law and
    classified government jobs and tested applicants.

7
  • Grover Cleveland became first Democratic
    President in 1856.
  • Favored tight money policies so most businesses
    favored him.
  • Supported more government regulation of the
    powerful railroad companies

8
Depression to Prosperity
  • Boosted by industrial growth, American business
    grew during the late 1880s to 1890s.
  • 1893- depression struck and prosperity did not
    return until 1900.
  • Millions of workers lost jobs
  • Lowered wages
  • Government offered no help

9
Section 2 People on the Move
10
1. Why did immigration boom in the late
1800s? 2. How did immigrants adjust to life in
the U.S.?
11
Do Now What was the most difficult trip you have
ever been on?
  • 1. Where were you going?
  • 2. Why was it so difficult?
  • 3. Was it worth it?

12
Reasons for immigration
  • I. Push Factors- Conditions that drive people
    from their homes
  • A. Poverty, scarce land
  • B. Political and religious persecution
  • 1. Pogroms- organized attacks on Jewish
  • villages

13
  • II. Pull Factors- conditions that attract
    immigrants to a new area

14
  • II. Pull Factors- conditions that attract
    immigrants to a new area
  • A. Promise of freedom and better life

15
  • II. Pull Factors- conditions that attract
    immigrants to a new area
  • A. Promise of freedom and better life
  • B. Family or friends already in the U.S.

16
  • II. Pull Factors- conditions that attract
    immigrants to a new area
  • A. Promise of freedom and better life
  • B. Family or friends already in the U.S.
  • C. Factory jobs available
  • D. Dreamed of getting rich, freedom, education,
    land

17
  • III. The Long Voyage
  • A. Steerage- airless rooms below decks of ships
    where 2000 people were stuffed-diseases spread
  • a. way most immigrants traveled

18
Europeans arrived in New York City- saw the
Statue of Liberty, stopped at Ellis Island-
where they had to pass a medical inspection
19
  • C. On the West Coast, immigrants from China and
    Japan traveled to Angel Island in San Francisco
    Bay

20
IV. Changing patterns of Immigration
  • A. Before 1885- most immigrants from Northwest
    Europe England, Ireland, Germany, Scandinavia

21
  • B. After 1885- many immigrants from Southeast
    Europe Italy, Poland, Greece, Russia, Hungary,
    China

22
V. Adjusting to a New Land
  • A. Most stayed in cities and lived in ethnic
    neighborhoods
  • B. They were torn between old traditions and new
    American ways
  • C. Assimilation- the process of becoming part of
    another culture

23
  • VI. NATIVISM
  • A. Nativists wanted to limit immigration and
    preserve the country for native-born citizens
  • 1. felt immigrants wouldnt assimilate
  • 2. afraid of immigrants taking away jobs
  • B. Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
  • 1. No Chinese laborer could enter the U.S.
  • C. Immigration from Mexico
  • When the Immigration Restriction Act of 1921
    limited immigration from Europe and Asia, labor
    shortages again drew Mexicans across the border.
  • 1925- Los Angeles largest Spanish speaking
    population.
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