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History of Educational Technology

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Title: History of Educational Technology


1
History of Educational Technology
Source Garo,C. (2007). Teaching educational
technology. Manila Rex Publishing Company.
2
Ancient Civilization
  • use of pointed sticks to inscript signs and
    symbols on the leaves
  • use of knives to inscript signs and symbols on
    the bark of trees

3
Egyptians (3100 B.C.)
  • developed a system of picture writing called
    hieroglyphics
  • Hieroglyphics may represent the objects for
    which they stand for or represent a sound or
    group of sounds
  • Scribes group of men trained on the art of
    writing and came to be the countrys chronicler
    of events

4
Ancient Greece
  • Spartan Education emphasized the development of
    the physical body coupled with discipline
  • Boys ? exercises and activities that promoted
    bodily strength, endurance, and vitality
  • ? activities dancing, wrestling, horseback
    riding, swimming, gymnastics
  • ? Paidonomus the boys teacher a military
    commander in the public barracks
  • Girls ? stayed at home with their mothers and
    were taught housekeeping

5
Athens
  • first to recognize the right of the individual to
    develop to the fullest
  • believed that the mind and the body has a strong
    relationship
  • prime concern of music schools, grammar schools,
    and public gymnasiums / palaestra is developing
    the mind and the body

6
  • Sophists
  • - wandering scholars
  • - emphasized cognitive rules, systematic
    arrangement of subject matter, use of
    instructional technologies, design and
    implementation of effective instructional
    materials

7
Medieval Era
  • establishment of the Medieval University
  • Emperor Frederick I of Bologna in 1158 chartered
    the first university
  • ? degrees offered were expanded which required
    students to engage in more in depth studies and
    to write their theses, defend them in public
    before the deans, facultas, and rectors

8
  • Saracens or the Arabs among the Moors of Spain
  • aim of education was search for knowledge and the
    application of scientific facts to their daily
    lives
  • their curriculum was the most organized and
    complete in the elementary, secondary, and
    collegiate levels
  • their universities and libraries were the models
    in the entire Europe because they invented the
    printing press
  • originated the scientific method of teaching

9
Renaissance Period
  • modern times began
  • lines of concern intellectual, aesthetic, and
    scientific
  • movements humanism, disciplinism, and
    rationalism
  • Rationalism contributed to the development of
    educational technology especially along theories
    and practices

10
  • John Locke nature of the childs mind at birth
    (tabula rasa)
  • Johann Amos Comenius developed the first picture
    book known as Orbis Pictus (The World in
    Pictures)
  • ? pioneer in instructional technology
    development
  • - Maria Montessori use of multi-sensory
    materials in teaching

11
Age of Naturalism
  • - Jean Jacques Rousseau authored the book Emile
  • ? aim of education was the preservation of the
    natural goodness of the individual and the
    formation of society based upon the recognition
    of natural individual rights
  • Herbartian Method of Teaching preparation,
    presentation, comparison and abstraction,
    generalization and application

12
  • Pestallozi believed that teaching is more
    effective if it proceeds from concrete to
    abstract, hence the use of actual and real
    objects that involve most of the senses
  • Froebel father of kindergarten
  • ? emphasized the use of actual objects which
    could be manipulated by the learners
  • ? recommended the use of play and songs

13
19th Century
  • John Dewey formulated the scientific theory of
    learning pragmatist
  • Edward Thorndike laws of learning connectionist
  • paved the way to the development of effective
    educational technology including the production
    of books, use of blackboards, and improvement of
    writing implements

14
  • photography was invented giving way to a movement
    called visual instruction
  • visual media became widely accepted in 1920
  • audio-visual media texts was published
  • in 1926, educational films were used as
    instructional media
  • in 1932, the first instructional TV program was
    aired at the State University of Iowa

15
  • 16mm sound motion picture was developed\
  • during the 2nd World War movies, filmstrips,
    radio, and other pictorial devices were used in
    military trainings
  • programmed instruction by Skinner
  • Blooms taxonomy of educational objectives
  • use of modularized instruction

16
Contemporary Times
  • multimedia resources and computers in classrooms
  • maintenance of an educational media center
  • revision and enrichment of curricular offerings
    to include courses in computer applications
  • use of CAI

17
  • use of multimedia presentations in the classrooms
  • educational organizations are linking up with
    TEIs
  • use of Internet and E-mail for fast-paced
    interactive learning, communication, and search
    for information
  • computer literacy programs for ISYs and OSYs
  • computers became more user-friendly
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