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The Christian Church: East and West


... the giver of life, who proceeds from the ... Eucharist consecrated by priests ... today there are Eastern Orthodox Churches and Eastern Rite Catholic ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Christian Church: East and West

The Christian Church East and West
  • The great Western and Eastern schism

  • A schism is a breaking of a relationship between
    two groups who still hold essential beliefs in

As the Eastern and Western sections of the Empire
grew apart, so did the Eastern and Western
  • Political directions
  • Language barrier
  • Religious Leadership
  • Theological disputes
  • Filioque
  • Iconoclast
  • Celebration of the Mass
  • Church structure

Political Directions
  • East
  • West
  • Political issues pope became the emperor
  • Appointed new emperors
  • Waves of Barbarian invasions,
  • small Barbarian kingdoms emerge
  • No centralized state
  • Pope and the Church begin to maintain peace and
  • Political issues line of Emperors back to
  • Rejected the emperor from the West
  • Emperor in charge of politics
  • Pope- in charge of religion
  • Centralized state

Causes of East-West Schism Politics The Pope
steps in Leo, Gregory, etc.
  • Eastern church
  • Western church
  • The emperor is strong and there is no need for a
  • In fact, the Eastern Emperor functions as Super
  • The Pope gains authority so that by the 8th C.,
    he crowns a new Emperor of Rome (e.g.
    Charlemagne) even though there was an Emperor at

Thus, in the West, Empire Falls Papacy Rises
Causes of East-West Schism Language Barriers
  • With the fall of Rome and because of various
    barbarian territories, Church doctrines and
    theology began to develop separately in the east
    and the west.
  • Because people did not travel as much, there was
    less interaction between scholars of Greek and
    Scholars of Latin.
  • Because neither knew what the other was writing
    (because they did not speak the same language),
    they came to different conclusions
  • West church speaks Latin
  • Eastern Church speaks Greek

Causes of East-West Schism Theological Disputes
  • East
  • West
  • No need
  • Father sends both the Son and the Spirit into the
  • Creed belongs to whole church
  • West should not change it
  • Council stated that creed was not to be changed
  • West violated this
  • Bishop of Rome was going too far
  • Eastern Church still today recites the original
  • Without the word and the Son
  • Added the Filioque
  • Filioque means and the Son
  • Filioque was added to the creed as protection
    against Arianism
  • Son is divine
  • Filioque puts the Son on same level as Father
  • Charlemagne accused the Eastern churches of
    heresy for not adding it

Filioque controversy
  • Western church
  • Eastern church
  • . We believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the
    giver of life, who proceeds from the Father and
    the Son (filioque). With the Father and the Son,
    He is worshiped and glorified. He has spoken
    through the Prophets.
  • And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Creator of
    life, Who proceeds from the Father, Who together
    with the Father and the Son is worshipped and
    glorified, Who spoke through the prophets.

Theological disputes Iconoclast Controversy
  • Iconodules image devotees
  • favored icons as a medium for communication with
  • Iconoclasts image breakers discouraged and
    destroyed icons
  • Emperor Leo III in 726 (Eastern)
  • Get rid of icons!
  • They violate the 2nd Commandment
  • You shall not make for yourself any carved
    image, or any likeness of anything that is in
    heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or
    that is in the water under the earth you shall
    not bow down to them nor serve them.
  • Leo thought that the use of icons and images in
    worship hurt efforts to convert Jews and Muslims
    to Christianity because Jews and Muslims more
    strictly observe the 2nd Commandment

  • Pope Gregory II (Western)
  • Icons and images actually help people understand
    the Incarnation of God in the person of Jesus
  • Christ made God visible so its OK to make images
    of the visible God
  • Visual learners
  • Good for those who cannot read

And to this day, Icons in the East, and in the
west are good
Unless you are Protestant
Causes of East-West Schism Religious leadership
  • East
  • West
  • Leadership
  • Priests can marry
  • The Churchs highest authority is the ecumenical
  • Pope is first among equals
  • Leadership
  • Priests can no longer marry
  • The Churchs highest authority is the Bishop of
  • Pope is also first among equals

The Mass and church structure
  • West
  • East
  • In Greek but also in vernacular
  • Altar separated from congregation by curtains and
    wall panels.
  • Eucharist consecrated by priests behind panels.
  • Scripture reading occurred in front of panels, to
  • Men and women seat separately
  • Women cover their hair with a veil
  • In Latin
  • Church architecture altar not hidden
  • Similar structure to today liturgy of the Word,
    then Liturgy of the Eucharist

Church Structure
  • Western church
  • Eastern church

The East-West Schism
  • Refers to the separation of the churches from the
    west and east
  • Officially happened in 1054 .
  • Some Eastern Churches decided to stay in union
    with Rome by accepting the supremacy of the pope
    over the entire church
  • Therefore, today there are Eastern Orthodox
    Churches and Eastern Rite Catholic Churches
  • The vast majority of Eastern Christians are
    Orthodox and are not officially in union with the
    Church centered in Rome