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THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE WEST, 1450 - 1750

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Title: THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE WEST, 1450 - 1750


1
THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE WEST, 1450 - 1750
  • An Era of Revolutions

2
TWO RENAISSANCES
  • Italian Renaissance
  • Renaissance, or rebirth of art and learning,
    1350-1600
  • Aristocrats, popes, nobles became wealthy patrons
    and vied to outdo one another
  • City-states sponsored innovations in art and
    architecture
  • Macaccio, Leonard) used linear perspective to
    show depth
  • Sculptors (Donatello and Michelangelo) created
    natural poses
  • Renaissance architecture
  • Simple, elegant style, inherited from classical
    Greek and Roman
  • Magnificent domed cathedrals
  • Brunelleschi's cathedral of Florence
  • St. Peters in Rome
  • Humanists or Man is the Measure of All Things
  • Drew inspiration from classical models especially
    Greece, Rome
  • Leading scholars included Dante, Petrarch
  • Scholars interested in humane letters
  • Literature, history, and moral philosophy
  • Called humanists
  • Recovered and translated many classical works
  • Attention to political and social issues and
    graces, too

3
PROTESTANT REFORMATION
  • Precursors to Luther
  • Great Schism
  • 2/3 popes at same time undermined authority of
    the church
  • Church councils rule/attempt to overrule popes
  • Jan Hus in Holy Roman Empire and Wycliffe in
    England
  • Both attacked aspects of church corruption,
    wealth, practices
  • Both condemned by Church
  • Hus executed, but Wycliffe protected by King of
    England
  • Wycliffe had Bible translated into English
  • Martin Luther (1483-1546)
  • Attacked the sale of indulgences, 1517
  • Attacked corruption in Catholic Church called
    for reform
  • Argument reproduced with printing presses and
    widely read
  • Enthusiastic response from lay Christians,
    princes, many cities
  • By mid-16th century, half Germans adopted
    Lutheranism
  • Reform spread outside Germany
  • Protestant movements popular in Swiss cities,
    Netherlands
  • Scandinavian kings like movement as it removes
    Church as a rival
  • English Reformation sparked by King Henry VIII's
    desire for divorce

4
CATHOLIC REFORMATION
  • Early Attempts to Reform
  • Catholic cardinals, bishops call council in early
    15th century
  • Council of Constance deposes rival popes
  • Attempts to assert authority over pope, initial
    reforms
  • Catholic intellectuals attack Church corruption
  • Emperor Sigismund attempts to reform church in
    Germany
  • Church reaction to Luther, Protestants
  • Charles V, Church condemn, excommunicate Luther
  • King Henry VIII condemns Luther
  • Inquisition unleashed against Protestants
  • Spanish use wealth to fund anti-Protestants
  • The Council of Trent, 1545-1563
  • Directed reform of Roman Catholic Church
  • Attacked corruption
  • Reaffirmed tradition, Bible as co-equal
  • The Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
  • Founded 1540 by Ignatius Loyola
  • High standards in education
  • Combat Protestants with logic, faith, hard work

5
RELIGIOUS CONFLICT
  • Religious wars
  • Between Protestants, Catholics during 16TH
    century
  • Wars as much social, political as religious
  • Neither side is innocent of conflict
  • Civil war in France
  • Between Huguenots (French Calvinists), Catholic
    League
  • Monarchy often a pawn of both sides and nobles
  • Lasted thirty-six years (1562-1598)
  • Ended with new dynasty
  • Spanish Armada
  • War between Catholic Spain, Protestant England,
    1588
  • Spill over from conflict in the Netherlands
  • Question of heir to English throne Catholic
    Scottish Queen or Protestant Elizabeth
  • Protestant provinces of the Netherlands revolted
    against rule of Catholic Spain
  • Originally began as a revolt of all Netherlands
    against Spain
  • Eventually split country into Catholic south
    (Belgium) and Protestant north (Holland)
  • The Thirty Years' War (1618-1648)
  • The most destructive European war up to WWI
  • Began as a local conflict in Bohemia eventually
    involved most of Europe

6
NEW RELIGIOUS MAP
7
STATE BUILDING
  • Italian city-states
  • Flourished with industries and trade
  • Each with independent administration and army
  • Levied direct taxes on citizens
  • More powerful absorbed smallest
  • France and England
  • Hundred Years' War (1337-1453)
  • Fought for control of French lands
  • Imposed direct taxes to pay the costs of war
  • Central government over feudal nobility
  • English War of the Roses leads to Tudor Dynasty
  • Louis XI reduces powers of feudal aristocracy
  • Spain united
  • By marriage of Fernando of Aragon and Isabel of
    Castile
  • Sales tax supported a powerful standing army
  • Conquered Granada from Muslims
  • Seized southern Italy in 1494
  • Sponsored Columbus's quest for western route to
    China
  • Competition among European states

8
NEW MONARCHS
  • New Monarchs
  • Taxes, armies as instruments of national
    monarchies by late fifteenth century
  • Used feudal powers but added new powers to become
    dominant in society
  • Developing towards divine right monarchs
    answerable only to God, not people
  • Henry VII of England and Louis XI of France are
    two best examples
  • France, England and Spain
  • All three united after long wars
  • Kings have new, broad powers
  • Nobles often weakened new nobles created out of
    middle classes
  • Enhanced royal, centralized powers
  • Wealthy treasuries by direct taxes, fines, and
    fees
  • State power enlarged and more centralized
  • Standing armies in France and Spain
  • Professional bureaucrats loyal only to monarch,
    not church
  • Nobility status often sold to wealthy merchants
    to raise funds
  • Reformation increased royal power
  • Kings confiscate wealth, land of the Church
  • Kings sell off lands to middle class, making them
    loyal to state
  • Even Catholic monarchs tended to follow this
    trend

9
ATTEMPTED REVIVAL OF EMPIRE
  • Charles V
  • Reigned 1519-1556
  • Holy Roman Emperor
  • Austria
  • Czech lands, Silesia
  • Hungary, Slovakia,
  • Slovenia, Croatia
  • Netherlands
  • Eastern France
  • Milan, Northern Italy
  • King of Spain
  • Castile
  • Navarre
  • Catalonia
  • Two Sicilies
  • Spanish American Empire, Philippines
  • Inherited a vast empire of far-flung holdings
    through marriage
  • Unable to establish a unified state
  • Disputes with German nobles, France, and Ottoman
    Empire

10
CONTITUTIONAL AND ABSOLUTE MONARCHS
  • Constitutional states of England and the
    Netherlands
  • Divine Right Monarchs limited by war, nobles,
    wealthy
  • Characterized by
  • Powers limited by constitutions, bills of right,
    convention
  • No one is above the law, property is protected by
    law
  • Representative institutions rights of oversight,
    taxation, review, veto
  • Prominent merchant classes enjoyed unusual
    prosperity
  • Commercial empires overseas with minimal state
    interference
  • Dutch constitutional monarchy evolved out of
    religious wars
  • Englands road to rights
  • Constitutional monarchy in England evolved out of
    a civil war
  • English Glorious Revolution 1688
  • English Bill of Rights 1689
  • Absolutism in France, Spain, Austria, and Prussia
  • Based on the theory of the divine right of kings
  • Relied often on bureaucrats, professional armies
  • Great trappings of power especially palaces,
    images
  • Restricted power of aristocracy, legislatures and
    church
  • Relied on mercantilism to generate taxable wealth

11
LOUIS XIV OF FRANCE
  • King of France
  • Called the Sun King
  • Planets revolve around the sun
  • Sun gives light, warmth of the solar system
  • Reigned 1643-1715
  • Bureaucracy
  • Used middle class for professional bureaucrats
  • Established intendants tp carry out wishes
  • Model of royal absolutism the court at
    Versailles
  • Nobles reduced to serving king, state
  • Became generals, diplomats, ministers
  • Lived at Versailles where king spied on them
  • Large professional standing army
  • Well trained, well paid, well equipped
  • Kept, enforced order
  • Mercantilism and Colonies
  • Minister Colbert was mastermind behind wealth
  • Promoted economic development roads, canals
  • Promoted industry, and exports especially
    luxuries

12
EUROPEAN STATE SYSTEM
  • The Peace of Westphalia (1648)
  • Ended the Thirty Years' War
  • Began system of independent sovereign states
  • Abandoned notion of religion unity
  • Did not end war between European states
  • The balance of power
  • No state allowed to dominate others
  • Diplomacy based on shifting alliances
  • No permanent alliances
  • Only permanent interests
  • Religion unimportant to determining alliances
  • Destroy no nation
  • Make no permanent enemies
  • Military development costly and competitive
  • New armaments (cannons and small arms)
  • New military tactics
  • Extremely intricate fortifications
  • Professional navies with modern warships, weapons
  • China, India, and the Islamic states did not keep
    apace

13
THE NATION-STATE
  • Nation-State
  • Ethnic group with common language, culture
  • Shared history, traditions
  • Shared institutions (faith, politics)
  • Occupying a common territory
  • Ruled by a common government
  • Governments job
  • Insure domestic tranquility and happiness
  • Assumed many of the Churchs old social roles
  • Multiple ethnic groups destroy nation-state
  • Belief in Nation-state became new popular
    ideology
  • Love of your nation above others is nationalism
  • Originated as an elite idea of the aristocracy,
    educated elite
  • Loyalty to state, king more important than
    loyalty to church, pope
  • Martin Luther addresses the German People
  • King James, Wycliffe translate Bible into English
  • French have Joan of Arc fighting for France
    against English
  • Scotsmen, English resent Catholic Romish
    influence
  • Dutch, Portuguese, Catalans revolt against
    foreign Spanish rule

14
WAR AND PEACE
15
POPULATION GROWTH
  • Population growth
  • American foods improved European nutrition, diets
  • Increased resistance to epidemics after 1650s
  • Life spans increased
  • Infant deaths decrease
  • Population growth
  • American food crops improved Europeans' nutrition
    and diets
  • Increased resistance to epidemic diseases after
    the mid-seventeenth century
  • European population increased from 81 million in
    1500 to 180 million in 1800
  • Urbanization
  • Rapid growth of major cities Paris from 130,000
    in 1550 to 500,000 in 1650
  • Cities increasingly important as administrative
    and commercial centers
  • Most dramatic in Ireland, England, Poland,
    France, Netherlands
  • Urbanization
  • Rapid growth of major cities
  • For example, Paris from 130,000 (1550) to 500,000
    (1650)
  • London, Amsterdam, St. Petersburg, Berlin, Lyons
  • Cities increasingly important administrative,
    commercial, intellectual centers

16
EARLY CAPITALISM
  • Profits and ethics
  • Medieval theologians considered profit making to
    be selfish and sinful
  • Renaissance merchants supported changes, arts
    becoming influential in society
  • Protestant Reformation saw profit, success as
    signs of Gods Favor
  • Early capitalism
  • Led to increased influence for urban middle
    classes
  • Altered rural society
  • Improved material standards
  • Increased independence of rural workers
  • Capitalism generated deep social strains
  • Bandits, muggers, witch-hunting
  • Began to impoverish urban workers
  • Pricing Revolutions were common
  • Impoverished aristocrats, peasants
  • Too much money chasing too few goods
  • The Price Revolution
  • Use of money replaced barter
  • Imports of gold, silver led to trade imbalances
  • Mercantilism demanded payments in gold, silver

17
GRAPHS OF THE DISASTER
18
COMMERCIAL REVOLUTION
  • The nature of capitalism
  • Private parties sought to take advantage of free
    market conditions
  • Economic decisions by private parties, not by
    governments or nobility
  • Forces of supply and demand determined price
  • New managerial skills and banking arrangements
    arose
  • Supply and demand
  • Merchants built efficient transportation and
    communication networks
  • New institutions and services banks, insurance,
    stock exchanges
  • Joint-stock companies
  • Dutch East Indies, English East/West Indies
    Companies
  • Organized commerce on a new scale
  • Authorized to explore, conquer, colonize distant
    lands
  • Rise of Manufacturing
  • Colonial markets, population stimulated
    manufacturing
  • Putting-out system of 17th and 18th centuries
  • Entrepreneurs bypassed guilds
  • Moved production to countryside
  • Rural labor cheap, cloth production highly
    profitable
  • Capitalism actively supported by governments

19
MORE CHANGES
  • Mass Culture Arises
  • Nationalism, national faiths arise embracing all
  • Use of some luxuries becomes common
  • Rise of leisure time even for poorer peoples
  • Rise of professional entertainment
  • Immigration by commoners to colonies
  • Agriculture changes
  • New technologies applied to farming
  • Draining swamps, animal breeding
  • New tools to increase productivity
  • Introduction of new world crops, i.e. potato
  • Manufacturing
  • Mass produced items common textiles, metal
    products
  • Capitalism stimulates production as profitable
  • New jobs caused people to move into manufacturing
    from agriculture
  • New Social Classes
  • Rise of entrepreneurial class with great wealth
  • Rise of a technological managerial class

20
SOCIAL CHANGE, SOCIAL PROTEST
  • Rise of urban, rural working class
  • Referred to as proletariat
  • Paid low wages in horrible conditions
  • At mercy of price revolutions
  • Many peasants reduced to paid wages
  • Population growth
  • Urbanization increased tensions
  • Growth increased poverty
  • Social Tensions
  • Peasant revolts especially during Reformation
  • In France, Germany rose against landlords
  • Many sought more radical forms of Protestantism
  • Urban citizens also tended towards Protestantism
  • Persecution of witches
  • Elite and Mass Culture
  • Prior to Reformation, there were two cultures,
    elite and common
  • Two rarely intermixed or cooperated
  • Mass culture such as entertainment
  • Faith often became elite culture

21
GENDER ISSUES
  • Renaissance saw expansion of womens rights
  • Books written for women
  • Education of women allowed
  • Women could enter public arena as intellectuals
  • Artesmia Gentileschi was a painter
  • Reformation took back many of the rights
  • Many reformers were women
  • Many threatened males traditional roles
  • Margaritte of Navarre, Elizabeth of England
  • Protestants emphasized family role of women
  • Witch-hunts in Europe
  • Theories, fears of witches intensified in 16th
    century
  • Reformation fed hysteria about witches and devil
    worship
  • About sixty thousand executed, 95 percent of them
    women
  • Commercial, Capitalist Revolution
  • Women needed often to support family by outside
    work
  • Many women merchants very successful
  • Women assumed new economic roles
  • Education and Women

22
SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTIONS
  • The reconception of the universe
  • The Ptolemaic universe
  • A motionless earth surrounded by nine spheres
  • Could not account for observable movement of the
    planets
  • Compatible with Christian conception of creation
  • The Copernican universe
  • Copernicus suggested sun was center of universe,
    1543
  • Implied that the earth was just another planet
  • The Scientific Revolution
  • Science becomes the new authority and challenges
    faith for control
  • Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) demonstrated
    planetary orbits elliptical
  • Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
  • With a telescope saw sunspots, moons of Jupiter,
    mountains of the moon
  • Theory of velocity, falling bodies anticipated
    modern law of inertia
  • Tried by Inquisition as his ideas challenged
    Papal infallibility
  • Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
  • Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy in
    1686
  • Mathematical explanations of laws govern
    movements of bodies
  • Newton's work symbolized the scientific
    revolution

23
ENLIGHTENMENT
  • Enlightenment
  • Thinkers called philosophes
  • Sought natural laws that governed human society
  • Center of Enlightenment was France
  • Theory of progress was ideology of philosophes
  • Apply reason/science to society, government, law
  • Voltaire (1694-1778)
  • Champion of religious liberty and individual
    freedom
  • Prolific writer father of Enlightenment
  • John Locke
  • All human knowledge comes from sense perceptions
  • Life, Liberty and Property 1689 English Bill of
    Rights
  • Allowed persons to revolt against an oppressive
    ruler
  • Adam Smith laws of supply and demand determine
    price
  • Montesquieu checks, balances, balanced
    government
  • Deism
  • Popular among thinkers of Enlightenment
  • Accepted existence of a god
  • Denied supernatural teachings of Christianity
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