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WWII

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Title: WWII


1
WWII
  • History 12
  • Ms Leslie

2
Technology
  • Items for war had to be produced on a large scale
    quickly
  • Nature of war had changed to be air dominated
  • Aerial bombing did not slow production -
    Germanys production increased until 1944
  • Can only slow production through embargos

3
  • Airplane and tank more important tool -
    stalemates a thing of the past
  • Competition increased to get the fastest and most
    agile with the biggest payload

4
  • Nature of war different
  • WWI - little territory gain
  • WWII - Massive territory covered

5
Radar and Sonar
  • Crucial in the fight of the Battle of Britain and
    the Battle of the Atlantic
  • British mathematicians were crucial in breaking
    Enigma codes

6
Communications
  • Radio used for the first time for mass
    communication
  • Used radio to rally the home front
  • Propaganda very important - conserve, buy bonds,
    control gossip

7
Whos to blame?
  1. Allied powers for being spineless and allowing
    appeasement
  2. Hitler being overly aggressive
  3. WWI and WWII are just the same war. Europe just
    took a break

8
German Quick facts
  1. After WWI, still far more powerful then
    neighbours
  2. Has a growing population
  3. Not prepared for a long drawn out war.
  4. Hitler was aware of the effects of WWI on Germany
    Social cohesion.
  5. Hitler has many enemies social democrats, Jews
    and Roman Catholics

9
Blitzkrieg
  • Short, intense attacks. Air craft would attack
    first, followed by Panzers
  • Short wars less drain on economy
  • Allowed German civilian life remain normal until
    1942 when the USSR fights back

10
The Polish Campaign
  • German commander Gudenrian
  • Deploy 40 infantry divisions 14 mechanized
    divisions
  • Attack starts Sept 1, 1939.
  • Polish airforce is flattened and they have no
    motorized divisions - still had a Calvary

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  • With in 1 week, the Nazi army is outside Warsaw.
  • Sept 17 USSR invades from the East

13
  • Sept 18, Polish govt flees into exile.
  • Polish troops in Warsaw continue fighting
    bitterly until Sept 28, some units outside the
    city last until Oct 5.
  • But it was futile - Poland was no more

14
The Phony War
  • Sept 1939 - April 1940
  • No attack on the Western Front Until Hitlers
    invasion of Norway
  • German and French troops hunkered down in the
    Siegfried line or Maginot Line.
  • Both waiting for a major push

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18
Baltic States and the Russo-Finnish War
  • Part of the Nazi-Soviet (Molotov-Ribbentrop) pact
  • Oct 1939 Soviet troops enter Estonia, Latvia and
    Lithuania. Finland refuses
  • Nov 30, USSR starts the Winter War with Finland.

19
Winter War
  • Soviets only successful in far north
  • USSR inadequate and inferior troops
  • Difficult terrain
  • Bad communications
  • Invasion declared illegal by League of Nations
  • Feb 1, 1940 Red Army attacks again and Finland
    falls in March and signs the Moscow Peace treaty
    with USSR.

20
Beginning of Atlantic War
  • U-boats sank 110 vessels in first 4 months
  • Both sides laying mines
  • Soon the German surface fleet is sunk or in
    retreat - never a significant force

21
Towards Scandinavia
  • A British destroyer chases the German vessel
    Altmark in to a Norwegian fjord and rescued 300
    British prisoners on board.
  • This violation of Norwegian neutrality
    convinced Hitler that the Allies could not be
    trusted to stay out of Scandinavia.

22
Scandinavia 1940
  • March - French and British navies mine the waters
    and land in Norweigen Ports.
  • April 9 Germans land in Oslo, Kristiansand,
    stavanger, Bergen and Trondhelm

23
  • Norwegian resistance was quickly over come since
    Norwegian forces were not even mobilized and
    local Nazis led by Vidkun Quisling helped the
    invaders.
  • Quisling is despised by Norwegians and his name
    becomes a term to describe traitors

24
  • Allies landed on the coast but it was too little,
    too late.
  • Allies continue to fight until May but its
    futile
  • Demark in attacked at the same time, complete
    German success came with in hours.

25
Holland, Belgium and France
  • May 10, 1940 the assault in the west begins
  • Germany decides to avoid the Maginot Line by
    going through Belgium.
  • They must go through Holland first
  • The Dutch have a small, ill trained army, an air
    force of only 130 ish and they loose 50 of it

26
  • Luftwaffe bombs airfields
  • Parachute troops into key locations to secure
    bridges
  • The main transportation in Holland is the rivers,
    take those and the Dutch navy is stuck.

27
  • May 14, German tanks outside of Rotterdam.
  • Decide to use the destruction of the city to
    shock politicians in to surrendering
  • City is flattened, 30,000 die
  • Same day, govt flees to UK and orders troops to
    lay down arms
  • Skirmishes end on the 16
  • Blitzkrieg takes the country in 4 days

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29
Belgium and France
  • Again paratroopers near bridges in Belgium
  • British and French armies slow the advance in the
    North, but German advancement in the South make
    that position difficult to maintain

30
  • Von Runstedt takes German army through the
    supposedly impassable Ardennes.
  • May 12 - over the Meuse River
  • Rapid German advance confusion behind French
    lines.

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  • Nazi armies able to surround British
    expeditionary Force (BEF)
  • Allies cut in half, Germans take Ports
  • May 21, Britain strikes back at Dunkirk -
    Successful and shakes up the German high command
  • British tanks match Nazi tanks

33
  • Attempt at Dunkirk fails because Nazis use
    anti-aircraft guns
  • May 23rd, Evacuations at Bollogne start, 4,000
    troops at first, another 1,000 later by fishermen
  • Britain has suffered worst defeat ever
  • Winston Churchill become Prime Minister

34
  • May 23 - BEF and French forces are split
  • BEF near Lille, 40 miles from Dunkirk
  • French are further south
  • German Panzers are 10 miles from Dunkirk

35
  • "Nothing but a miracle can save the BEF now,"
    wrote General Brooke in his diary.
  • On 23 May, he put the army on half-rations. In
    Britain, 26 May was designated a "Day of National
    Prayer" for the Army
  • WWII is about to end in German victory

36
But..
  • May 24 - Hitler inexplicably halts the attack
    against the BEF
  • Might want to be saving his troops to attack
    France
  • This event leads to the escape of hundreds of
    thousands of troops

37
Evacuation of Dunkirk
  • May 25 it starts
  • While being pounded from the Luftwaffe, 120,000
    BEF pulled out by May 30th
  • Luftwaffe is also dropping leaflets reading
    British soldiers! Look at the map it gives your
    true situation! Your troops are entirely
    surrounded stop fighting! Put down your arms!
  • The Allied soldiers mostly used these as toilet
    paper.

38
  • June 2nd - 224,000 more BEF evacuated and 94,000
    French
  • By June 4 it was over - 338,000 troops in Britain
    while their equipment is on the beach
  • Dunkirk film part 1, Part 2, Part 3.

39
Reasons for success
  • RAF and Royal Navy
  • 900 fishing vessels and private yachts men
  • Waters at Dunkirk are shallow, so battle ships
    cant get close
  • Soldiers would wade out into the ocean and wait
    for fishing boats to pick them up and take them
    to the navy ships

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  • Showed the solidarity of the British
  • Some came as far at the Isle of Man and Glasgow
  • Dunkirk spirit
  • http//www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/launc
    h_ani_fall_france_campaign.shtml

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Invasion of France
  • June 7 - Rommel heads south
  • June 9 - Cross the Seine
  • June 10 - French Govt moved to Tours, Italy
    declares war on France
  • June 12 - French commander tells Reynaud France
    is beaten
  • June 14 - Paris falls, Govt flees to Vichy

44
  • June 16 - Reynaud resigns and his successor
    Petain asks the Germans for armistice
  • June 22 - French surrender happened in the same
    railway coach, at Compiegne, that the 1918
    armistice had been signed in.
  • Germany occupied the Northern and Western coasts,
    gaining fine submarine bases, and the French army
    was demobilized.
  • Britain is now alone in the fight against
    Germany.

45
  • There are now effectively 3 Frances
  • Nazi occupied France in the North
  • Vichy France lead by Petain in the South
  • Free France fighting the war lead by de Gaulle

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47
Why were the Germans successful?
  • Maginot Line useless
  • France did not use tanks efficiently
  • German Panzers and Luftwaffe superior.
  • Germans actually had a smaller army but awesome
    leadership
  • Allies had out of date ideas - fighting in an
    old-fashioned way.

48
French failures
  • French high command obsessed with defense
  • Ignored experts like Charles de Gaulle that tanks
    should be massed together for rapid movement
  • Airpower ignored
  • France not ready for was economically and
    psychologically
  • France already had a rising fascist movement

49
Terms of surrender
  • Northern France and ports given to Germany
  • French army dissolved
  • South France turned into Vichy France -
    collaborates with the Nazis

50
Britain's reaction?
  • Sinks as much as the French navy as it can so it
    doesnt get handed over to Hitler

51
Battle of Britain
  • Nazis called it Operation Sea lion
  • Refers to the air battle over Britian
  • Luftwaffe 2,800 planes RAF 700 and counting
    its like a 31 ratio
  • Luftwaffe commanded by Goering who promised to
    wipeout the RAF in 4 days

52
  • August 12 - aerial attacks on harbours, radar
    stations, aerodromes and munitions factories
  • RAF Spitfires have superior maneuverability
  • Also have better Radar to detect German fighters
    still over the Channel

53
Change in tactics
  • Aug 24 a German squadron gets lost and bombs
    London
  • Churchill responds by Bombing Berlin
  • Hitler wants revenge and focuses bombings on
    London
  • Gives the RAF a chances to rest and rebuild - UK
    was running out of pilots..

54
The Blitz
  • Refers to the aerial bombardment of London
  • Sept 7 Luftwaffe bombards London in retaliation
    for an RAF bombing of Berlin
  • London bombed for 57 nights in a row
  • Blitz lasts from Sept 1940-May 1941
  • 127 large night attacks, 71 of which are in London

55
  • 2 million houses destroyed, 60 are in London
  • 60,000 civilians die, 87,000 wounded
  • The Queen, a teenager at the time, lives through
    it all
  • Battle For Britain Part 1, Part 2, Part 3

56
We Can Take it
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59
RAF advantages
  • Parachuted pilots land on home soil
  • Luftwaffe can only be in the air 60-90 mins
  • Britain had superior radar

60
  • 1,389 Luftwaffe lost - 792 RAF lost
  • Operation Sea lion called off as with out air
    superiority any invasion force would be cut to
    pieces by the Royal Navy

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Results
  • Hitler eventually gives up
  • First time Hitler fails at conquest!!!
  • Prolongs the war - not good for Hitler
  • Allies have a European location to springboard
    attacks from

63
In Greece
  • June 10, 1940 Italy declares war and invaded
    Greece
  • Italy could not handle the Greek on its own
  • Britain helps out Greece and the Royal Navy sinks
    half the Italian fleet in harbour at Taranto
  • In Greece the Italians are pushed back to Albania.

64
  • April 1941, Germany invades Yugoslavia and Greece
    to bail out the Italians
  • Push through to Athens and push out the British
    and the Anzac troops
  • May 1941, Crete falls to Germany
  • 36,000 allied troops die
  • Yugoslavia surrenders April 17, Greece April 27

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Operation Barbarossa
  • June 1941
  • Hitler does not count on the USSR staying out of
    the war.
  • He invades on the premise its always been part
    of the plan for the 1,000 year Reich
  • Lebensraum
  • Wants the Ukraine - Europes Bread Basket
  • Defeat communism - this arch-rival

67
  • Attack a tactical mistake
  • 3 pronged toward Leningrad in the North, Moscow
    in the center and Ukraine in the South
  • 3.5 million troops are committed with 3,500 tanks
    and 5,000 aircraft

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  • USSR caught off guard - silly since Stalin was
    warned - major cities fall quickly
  • Leningrad and Moscow remain out of reach as
    Panzers become bogged down in the rain and mud of
    October and the -40 C weather in the winter

70
Initial attack
  • June 22, 1941 - Hitler violates the
    non-aggression pact with a front line stretching
    from the Baltic to Black seas
  • 2000 miles covered by 153 divisions
  • In 4 years, 8 million men would do battle here

71
  • Germany advanced 50 miles in the first day using
    Blitzkrieg.
  • Red Army hurting from the purge of Officers and
    lacked leadership
  • 2 million became POWs

72
Civilian response
  • First welcomed Nazis as liberators
  • Then realized quickly life under Stalin not so
    bad!
  • Stalin implored people to fight for Mother
    Russia

73
Scorched earth
  • As soviet forces retreated they burned everything
    to the ground
  • Villages, food, animals slaughtered, wells
    poisoned
  • Same tactic used against Napoleon
  • German forces could not feed itself

74
Fall 1941
  • Nazi forces laid seige on Leningrad, captured
    Kiev and were just outside Moscow
  • Lasted 4 months longer then Hitlers anticipated
    8 week invasion
  • November it began to rain - Nazis brought to a
    stand still

75
War in the Far East
  • Hitler had hoped Japan would enter the war
    against Russia
  • They attack the USA instead
  • On July 26, 1941 Japan made an agreement with
    Vichy France to occupy bases in French Indo-China
  • USA responds with an oil embargo on Japan

76
  • USA also demands Japan pull out of China
  • Tojo has become Prime Minister
  • He plans to launch an attack on American, the
    Dutch and Britain

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Pearl Harbour
  • Dec 7 , 1941
  • 353 Japanese planes wreck havoc for 2 hours
  • Destroy 350 aircraft, 5 battle ships and kill
    3,700 people
  • On the same day Japan attacked the Philippines
    and Hong Kong

79
  • Japan sank British Naval ships Prince of Wales
    and Repulse as they came to help intervene
  • Dec 8 , 1941 USA joins the fight - Something the
    Japanese did not anticipate
  • pearl Harbour Film

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  • By May 1942, the Japanese had captured Malaya,
    Singapore, Burma, Hong Kong, the Dutch East
    Indies, the Philippines, Guam and Wake Island
  • Turning their attention to Australia

85
Things looking up for the Allies
  • With the USA in the war, any war of attrition
    would eventually go in favour of the allies
  • The peak of the Axis power is between the summers
    of 1943 and 42, its all down hill from there

86
Battle of the Coral Sea
  • May 1942
  • Whole battle is aircraft only
  • A tie
  • Set the stage for the next major battle
  • Japan had also lost 2 aircraft carriers

87
Battle of Midway
  • Turning point in the Pacific War
  • June 4-7 1942, Americans counter attack Japanese
    forces
  • 5 aircraft carriers and 5,000 soldiers
  • They sink 4 Japanese carriers, mostly because Ame
    ricans had broken the code and knew when Japanese
    attacks would happen

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  • In the battle of the Pacific, air power is
    crucial. Japanese losses at Midway were huge

90
1943 - Pacific
  • General Macarthur starts Island Hopping in the
    Solomon Islands, heading towards Japan
  • Take strategic Islands from Japan instead of
    every single one
  • Mostly taken by air craft

91
North Africa
  • Why?
  • Suez Canal
  • Oil - in the middle east

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North Africa
  • In Africa, Mussolini has no success, Britain
    pushed Italian troops into Libya, Capturing
    130,000 prisoners and 400 tanks
  • Rommel and the German Afrika Korps had to bail
    out the Italians
  • North Africa Film

94
Tide turns in Africa
  • Rommel able to push British out of Lybia
  • June 1942 German forces 70 miles from Alexandria,
    Egypt

95
  • 13 Sept, 1940. Mussolini attacked Egypt.
  • Britain retaliates in December
  • Feb 1941, General Rommel (desert fox) becomes
    commander of the German Afrika Korps
  • Aug 1942, General Montgomery (Monty) in command
    of the British forces in Africa

96
El Alamein, Egypt Oct 1942
  • Turning point in Africa
  • Located about 60 miles from Suez Canal
  • Winner would control the Canal and oil
  • Suez Canal controled by allies at the time
  • Will prove that Hitlers elite forces can be
    beaten

97
  • Rommels Afrika Korps driven back by Montgomerys
    8th army
  • Allied army uses a lot of deception to win
  • Radioed wrong locations of attacks
  • Built a dummy pipeline
  • Made dummy tanks of plywood attached to jeeps in
    the South

98
  • In the North tanks were disguised to look like
    lorries
  • Axis powers laid a half million landmines
  • German forces - 80,000 soldiers and 540 tanks
  • Allied forced 230,000 and 1,440 tanks
  • RAF superior

99
  • Allies had broken the code to they knew in
    advance German plans
  • Axis powers pushed back to Tunisia
  • Nov 8, 1942, Allies landed in Morocco and
    Algeria, opening up a front in the west as well -
    Led by General Eisenhower (Ike)

100
Operation Torch
  • Eisenhower advanced from the west
  • Montgomery from the east, Trapping the Germans

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103
  • Rommel had received a "Victory or Death" message
    from Adolph Hitler, halting any withdrawal.
  • Rommel able to escape with about 1000 men

104
  • 275,000 German and Italian troops surrendered and
    an invasion of Italy was made possible.
  • Winston Churchill said of this victory "This is
    not the end, this is not the beginning, nor is it
    even the beginning of the end, but it is,
    perhaps, the end of the beginning."
  • He also wrote "Before Alamein, we had no victory
    and after it we had no defeats".

105
N. Africa Victory results
  • Prepared for a liberation of Italy
  • Reopened routes to middle east
  • Hitler can be defeated!
  • First AmericanEuropean action

106
Turning Point - Eastern Front
  • Winter 1941-42 coldest in 50 years
  • Tanks and airplanes frozen - metal so cold it
    cracked
  • Germans only had Summer clothing
  • Stalin Launched a 100 division counterattack to
    save Moscow
  • Hitler regroups and goes north to Leningrad and
    South to Stalingrad

107
Battle of Stalingrad
  • July 17, 1942 - Feb 2 - 1943
  • Why Stalingrad?
  • Its called Stalingrad
  • Huge Industrial City
  • Give Germany a base in USSR
  • Huge oil fields in the Caucasus

108
  • German 6th Army led by General von Paulus with
    330,000 troops
  • City destroyed by the end of August
  • Luftwaffe dropped incendiary bombs onto wooden
    houses
  • But the Russians refused to surrender

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  • Red army pushed back to a 3-4 km stretch along
    the Volga River
  • Able to supply their troops by barges
  • Germans never try to cross the Volga
  • The Germans, however, were growing dispirited by
    heavy losses, by fatigue, and by the approach of
    winter

111
Operation Uranus
  • November 1942
  • Red army encircles the remaining 250,000 member
    6th army
  • Hitler refuses to allowed Paulus to retreat and
    orders him to stand and fight
  • 6th army grows weaker as they start to run out of
    food and are not prepared for winter

112
  • A German division was sent eastward to rescue the
    6th army, but Paulus was not allowed to fight
    Westward to meet up with them.
  • Hitler told them to fight to the death
  • promotes Paulus to field marshal (and reminds
    Paulus that no German officer of that rank had
    ever surrendered indicating Hitler expected him
    to commit suicide).

113
  • Jan 31, 1943 Paulus surrenders, defying Hitler
  • Twenty-four generals surrendered with him, and on
    February 2 the last of 91,000 frozen, starving
    men (all that was left of the 6th and 4th armies)
    turned themselves over to the Soviets.
  • they no longer respected Hitler.
  • Paulus was catholic and therefore would not
    commit suicide

114
  • Soviets recovered 250,000 German corpses around
    Stalingrad another 550,000 Germans were wounded
    or missing.
  • Of the 91,000 Germans captured half would die in
    a march to Siberian prisoner camps only 5-6,000
    made it home. The last of them returned in 1955.
  • Paulus was captured, tried and released in 1953.
    He became an outspoken opponent of Hitler and
    served as a witness against the Nazis during the
    War crime tribunals.
  • There were probably 1.1 million Red Army soldiers
    that died and 40,000 civilians

115
Reasons the 6th Army lost
  1. Blitzkrieg only good for long distance
  2. Civilians fought back
  3. Luftwaffe outnumbered
  4. Stalin would not allow retreat
  5. Germans never attempted to cross the Volga
  6. Hitler did not expect a long fight

116
The importance of the Battle
  • Hitler Lost some of his best units
  • Shattered the myth of German invincibility
  • Soviet forces were now superior to Germany
  • Hitler denied Caucus Oil fields

117
What was the Battle of Stalingrad like?
  • Bitter fighting raged for every ruin, street,
    factory, house, basement, and staircase. Even the
    sewers were battle grounds
  • Some of the taller buildings, saw floor-by-floor,
    close-quarters combat, with the Germans on one
    level, Soviets on the next, Germans on the next,
    etc., firing at each other through holes in the
    floors.
  • A lot of Snipers

118
  • http//www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic-video/56
    2720/18896/In-the-Battle-of-Stalingrad-the-advanci
    ng-Germans-are-finally

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Time line of important victories in the East
  • July 5-15, 1943 - Largest Tank Battle ever at
    Kursk
  • Dec 24-26 - Red army Begins offensive in Ukraine
  • Jan 6, 1944 - Red Army in Poland
  • Jan 27 - Siege in Leningrad broken
  • April 1944 - Offensive in Crimea

122
  • June 9 - Red Army Moves to Finland
  • June 22 - Starts massive offensive across Eastern
    Front
  • Aug 23 - Romania Surrenders to Allies
  • Oct 20 - 1944 - Belgrade falls to Soviets
  • March 1945 - Soviets take Danzig
  • April 16 1945 - attacked Berlin

123
The Battle of the Atlantic
  • Refers to Britain trying to keep shipping lanes
    open
  • German U-boats hunted in Wolf Packs
  • 1940 Italian fleet crippled
  • May 1941 - Bismark sunk - last German surface
    raider
  • German transports to Crete lost that same month

124
U-boats
  • Advancements in U-boats gave Germans the edge at
    sea
  • Able to dive deeper
  • Have a sound-absorbing rubber coating
  • Have a chemical bubble making decoy

125
Allied advantage over U-boats
  • Sonar can find them underwater really well -
    forces U-boats to stay on the surface
  • Broke the Enigma code
  • USA send more destroyers to Britain

126
The U-boat threat
  • Start of 1942 only 90 U-boats with another 250
    under construction
  • 1942 - allied ships sinking faster then they
    could be built
  • Able to sink 4 million tonnes of shippage while
    only loosing 21 U-boats
  • A U-boat was sunk in the St. Laurence
  • Spotted off the coast of Vancouver Island - Radar
    Hill

127
  • Spring 1942 - in 20 days U-boats sank 107 Allies
    ships
  • How to reverse this trend?

128
  1. Radar and Long rage surveillance planes
  2. Convoys - Freighters arranged in groups up to 50
    protected by battleships

129
  • By July 1943, the Allies could produce ships at a
    faster rate then the U-boats could sink them.
  • June - August - 79 U-boats sunk - mostly by
    aircraft
  • Thanks to additional warships following Americas
    entry into the war.
  • U-boats no longer a threat.

130
War in the Air
  • In the Pacific bombers paved the way for Marines
    in the island hopping campaign
  • American Planes kept the transport of goods to
    Allied troops
  • Paratroopers essential in getting behind enemy
    lines

131
Fire Storms
  • After defeat in Russia, Germany could no longer
    bomb European cities.
  • The allies continued to bomb cities.
  • The Ruhr, Cologne, Hamberg and Berlin

132
What is a Firestorm?
  • It is achieved by dropping incendiary bombs,
    filled with highly combustible chemicals such as
    magnesium, phosphorus or petroleum jelly
    (napalm), in clusters over a specific target.
  • After the area caught fire, the air above the
    bombed area, becomes extremely hot and rose
    rapidly.
  • Cold air then rushed in at ground level from the
    outside and people were sucked into the fire.

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Dresden
  • Feb 13, 1945
  • 40,000 people killed in 1 nights bombing
  • Had not been attacked yet
  • Has no anti-aircraft guns
  • 650,000 people in the city, mostly refugees from
    advancing Red Army

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137
  • Another fire storm in Tokyo in March 1945 killed
    80,000 and destroyed 1/4 of the city

138
  • Despite massive destruction to German cities,
    Production did not falter until October 1944.
  • Krupp Munitions factories permanently out of
    action
  • June 1945, Japanese production destroyed

139
Italian Campaign
  • Allies recognize to attack the weakest first
  • Invade Sicily in July, 9, 1943 successfully
  • Little resistance from Italians, mostly fronNazis
  • Now can advance to the mainland

140
  • Sept 8, Mussolini is dismissed by the King and
    flees North
  • Replaced by Badoglio who dissolved the Fascist
    party in 2 days and declares war on Nazi Germany
  • Italy Film

141
  • Sept 9, 1943 Allies land in Salerno and Taranto.
  • Some of the toughest fighting of the war
  • Take Rome June 4, 1944

142
  • October 1943, Allies capture Naples and Badoglio
    signed an armistice
  • German troops in Italy continued to fight
  • Germany sends troops into Northern Italy
  • Hitler instates Mussolini as leader in the North

143
  • Allied victory in April 1945
  • Mussolini tried to escape to Spain by dressing in
    a German uniform and traveling with the
    retreating German army

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  • He and his mistress are captured by Italian
    Communists and executed
  • After being shot, kicked, and spat upon, the
    bodies were hung upside down on meat hooks from
    the roof of a gas station.
  • The bodies were then stoned by civilians from
    below
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vYFSsRTDACCofeature
    PlayListp4BE0F61FE4A8E015

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France
  • Allies were reluctant to open up an Western front
    after Dieppe
  • an Allied attack on the German-occupied port of
    Dieppe on the northern coast of France on 19
    August 1942.
  • The assault began at 500 AM in the morning and
    by 900 AM the Allied commanders had been forced
    to call a retreat.
  • 3,623 of the 6,086 men who made it ashore were
    either killed, wounded, or captured.

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June 6 - 1944 D-DAY
  • Called D-Day, Operation Overlord, Opening the
    Second Front, Normandy Invasion/Landings, and
    The Longest Day.
  • the Normandy landings began along a 60 mile
    stretch of the Normandy coast between Charbourg
    and Le Havre.

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  • Headed by Eisenhower
  • Attack force of 3 million men
  • New engineering marvels like the mulberry
    harbor's (artificial harbours) and PLUTO
    (pipeline under the ocean) helped the men land
    and remain well supplied.

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  • Americans to take Beaches Utah and Omaha
  • British Gold and Sword
  • Canada got Juno

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  • Paris is Liberated Aug 25
  • Brussels and Antwerp liberated in Sept
  • Allies hoped to end the war by Christmas

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Liberating Holland
  • Operation Market Garden
  • A huge allied set back
  • Paratroopers landed on the wrong bridges
  • 3 airbourne divisions were dropped behind enemy
    lines and why were cut to pieces by germans

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Battle of the Bulge
  • Allied weakspot in the Ardennes forest
  • 200,000 Germans against 80,000 Allies
  • Hitler risks everything that Dec.
  • Nazis loose 600 tanks and 100,000 soldiers (out
    of 500,000)
  • Hitler knows if he doesnt win here the war is
    lost
  • Battle of the Bulge Part 1, Part 2, Part 3.

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  • Fighting over the Ardennes
  • American, UK and Canadian troops involved
  • 600,000 Allies all together
  • Germans had some success at beginning
  • But American and UK troops came stopped them of
    Christmas day
  • By Jan 16 Nazi army in retreat
  • Last large scale attack by Hitler

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  • After the Bulge, Nazis are desperate
  • Release their revenge weapons
  • V-1 Bombs - First Cruise missiles - Unmanned
    flying bombs
  • V-2s - Ballistic missiles that flew at super
    sonic speeds targeted London

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  • Through Feb Allies continue to advance
  • Patton leads his army to Colbenz by March
  • Montgomery crosses the Rhine on March 23-24 after
    an attack from Germany
  • Germans preferred to allow Western allies to
    advance rather then wait for the Soviets to
    occupy them

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The Eastern Front
  • Has the most battles, the most losses
  • After Loosing Kursk and D-day German forces could
    not hold back the Red Army
  • Aug 1944, Romania changes sides and joins the
    allies
  • This opens up an attack route through the south

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  • Oct 20, Belgrade, Serbia, Falls to Titos
    Partisans. Tito was the leader of the Yugoslavia
    resistance. Hes a commie, becomes prime
    minister for 35 years
  • Nov 4 Red army in Budapest, Hungary
  • Finland Surrenders in Sept
  • Jan 17 - USSR takes Poland

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  • April 25 - Berlin encircled
  • Soviet and American troops shake hands at Elbe
    River

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Death of Hitler
  • Hiding in his Führerbunker. (now a parking lot)
  • By Mid-April 1945, Goring and Himmler have
    deserted
  • Midnight April 28 Hitler married his Ling time
    girlfriend Ava Braun
  • April 29 Red Army 1 mile from Führerbunker.
    Hitler hears about Mussolinis fate

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  • Tests a cyanide capsule on his favorite dog,
    Blondi.
  • April 30 - noon- Red Army 1 block away, Has his
    last meal
  • Around 2 pm he and his wife say their good byes
    and retreat to their room. They both take
    cyanide pills and Hitler shoots himself in the
    head

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  • After his death everyone in the bunker started
    smoking, a practice Hitler for forbade.
  • Goebbels has the bodies moved outside and doused
    with gasoline and set on fire
  • The bodies are burned for 3 hours and hastily
    buried in a shell crater

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  • May 1 - Goebbels and His wife poison their 6
    young children
  • They then go up to the garden and have an SS
    officer shoot them in the back of the head.
  • Their bodies were only partially burned.

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  • May 2 - Soviets find Hitler and Ava and his 2
    dogs.
  • Since the bodies were in the soviets possession
    they have since been lost and no one knows what
    happened to Hitlers body for sure

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  • Hitler is succeeded by Admiral Doenitz who does
    not care to fight on
  • Before he surrenders hes able to save 55 of
    Berlins troops and civilians by moving them to
    Western ally occupied areas instead of towards
    the soviets
  • Midnight May 8, 1945 the European War ends

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The Pacific Victory
  • The allies has 2 choices, north through the
    Aleutians or south through Micronesia.
  • First allies take the Solomon Islands and the
    Bismark Archipelago
  • Continue through the Philippines.
  • Japanese resistance is futile as the allies fire
    power is superior.

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Battle of Leyte Gulf
  • Oct 1944
  • Largest Naval battle in History
  • Needed to take the Philippines
  • Kamikaze pilots introduced
  • Means divine wind
  • Japanese lose 1/2 their fleet, including 4 air
    craft carriers

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  • Kamikaze attacks cause a great deal of damage.
  • Cause allied high command to worry about the kind
    of resistance they would meet in a land invasion
    of Japan
  • Feb 1945 -The Fight for Iwo Jima showed the
    Japanese fighting spirit. Of the 18,000 Japanese
    soldiers only 216 survive

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  • June 1945 - In the assault on Okinawa, 355
    kamikaze raids. 5,000 Americans die
  • Worlds largest Battleship the Yamato is sent
    on a suicide mission it only had enough fuel for
    a 1 way trip it is sunk on April 7 _ Americans
    fighting an enemy that would rather die then
    surrender
  • Rangoon (Burma) is Liberated on May 1, 1945

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  • March 1945 - start fire bombing Tokyo
  • Throughout July 1945, Japanese mainland is
    heavily bombed
  • 67 cities fire-bombed
  • Hirohito is given an ultimatum to surrender at
    the Potsdam conference but he refuses

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The Manhattan Project
  • 1942-45 the Americans are working on an atomic
    bomb with American, British, Canadian and Danish
    scientists
  • Fear Germany is also working on an atomic bomb
  • Employed 130,000 people and costs 2 billion

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  • 3 bombs were made in the Project
  • One was tested during the Potsdam conference at
    Los Alamos, New Mexico - it exceeded everyone's
    expectations
  • Truman no longer had to be nice to Stalin to gain
    his support in the Pacific

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Bombing of Hiroshima
  • August 6, 1945.
  • A modern city with concrete structures
  • The bomb was called little boy
  • Killed 140,000 80,000 of which died immediately
  • Missed its target of a bridge and hit a medical
    clinic

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  • Detonated 600 m in the air more damage
  • Total destruction for 1.6 km square with fires
    for 11 km square
  • Americans had warned other civilians in the past
    of bombings with leaflets, but Hiroshima was not
    warned.
  • FYI - Aug 8, USSR declare war on Japan

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Nagasaki
  • Aug 9, 1945
  • Large sea-port, mostly wooden structures
  • The bomb was called fat man
  • Killed 80,000 many were refugees from Hiroshima
  • Detonated 450 m in the air, heat blast of over
    3,900 degrees C and winds of more than 1,000
    km/hour

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  • 1520 died from injuries or the combined effects
    of flash burns, trauma, and radiation burns,
    compounded by illness, malnutrition and radiation
    sickness.
  • August 10 Japan surrenders.
  • Sept 2 WWII officially comes to an end

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Was it necessary?
  • Truman says he was trying to save allied lives by
    preventing a land invasion
  • Was told 1-1.5 million Americans could die in
    combat in the next 12-18 months
  • In July Japan as already talking peace with
    Russia
  • A lot of destruction with the firestorms

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Why did the axis powers lose?
  • Shortage of key materials
  • Allies built more planes and Aircraft carriers
  • Axis powers took on too much
  • There are soooooo many Russians
  • Axis powers did not learn from mistakes

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Effects of the war
  • 30 million killed - half from Russia
  • 21 million displaced
  • No peace treaties like after WWI - occupied
    instead
  • Welfare systems set up
  • Nuclear weapons
  • New world powers - USA and USSR

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  • Cold War starts almost right away
  • United Nations replaces the League.
  • End )
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