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WWII

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Title: WWII


1
WWII
2
Changes Problems in Governing Europe After WWI
3
Europes Influence
  • Loss of dominance in world affairs
  • Japan, US in better financial shape
  • Europe drained of resources

4
New Democracies
  • 1914-1918 Euros last absolute rulers overthrown
  • New democracies were unstable
  • Little experience
  • Fr. Italy- inefficiency due to too many
    political parties (majority)
  • Coalition govt.- temporary alliance to achieve
    majority

5
Why Dawes Plan?
  • Germany defaults on reparations
  • France takes Ruhr
  • France demands gold, not inflated dollars

6
1924 Dawes Plan
  • Helped Germany recover from inflation
  • Strengthen economy
  • 200 mil loan from US
  • Realistic schedule for reparations
  • 1929 factories returned to 1913 levels

7
Treaties Bring Hope
  • Ger. Fr. Foreign Ministers G. Stresemann A.
    Briand- undo worst features of Treaty
  • Locarno Treaty- Fr. Ger. Not go to war, Ger.
    Respected Belgian and French borders, Ger.
    Admitted into League

8
Treaties Bring Hope
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact- war renounced
  • Signed by almost every country
  • No way to enforce- League had no power
  • American economy basis of Euro economy

9
Weimar Republic
10
Weimar Republic
  • Est. 1919
  • Weak- no democratic experience
  • 7 major political parties
  • WWI defeat associated w/ govt.
  • Inflation- during war money printed as needed
  • Only mistake losing war

11
Technology Makes World Smaller
12
Automobile
  • Wartime improvements- electric fuel pumps
    starters, air-filled tires, powerful engines
  • Look of car improved

13
Air Travel
  • 1918 planes fly 100s miles
  • Use for airmail
  • 1927 Lindbergh- 1st nonstop solo transatlantic
    flight
  • 1930s passenger airlines
  • Only for rich
  • Earhart- 1st women to cross Atlantic

14
Radio
  • WWI led to push for development of wireless radio
  • Research given high priority
  • 1920- 1st commercial radio station
  • 1925 Radio was 25

15
Changes in Society
16
New Individual Freedoms
  • Break from tradition
  • Consider new ideas
  • Why WWI interrupted social patterns customs
  • Young people more willing to change

17
Women
  • Work in WWI brings suffrage
  • Most still followed tradition
  • Some followed new lifestyle
  • Women equal partners w/ husband
  • Women in medicine, education, journalism

18
Art Reflects Social Doubts
  • Horrors of WWI reflected
  • TS Eliot- world drained of hope
  • The Wasteland
  • F. Kafka- people caught in circumstances they
    could not understand or escape
  • J. Joyce- break from traditional sentence
    structure

19
Art Reflects Social Doubts
  • Surrealists- influenced by Freuds ideas on
    unconscious mind
  • Freud- behavior explained using past experiences

20
American Culture Spreads
  • WWI proved US economic, political, cultural power
  • Distinct contribution jazz
  • Phonograph radio spread
  • Harlem Renaissance- African American arts
  • Motion pictures-
  • 90 came from Hollywood

21
Social Patterns
  • Children raised differently
  • Strong father, loving mother
  • Freuds Oedipus Complex
  • Parents began to take on both roles
  • Education less strict
  • Girls and boys- same schools

22
Effects of the Great Depression
23
Causes
  • Overproduction underconsumption
  • Plight of farmers
  • Wartime production levels Surplus
  • Speculation in Stock
  • Wall Street losses- economic psychological
    consequences
  • Doubt, fear replace optimism

24
Britain
  • Severely hurt- relied on foreign trade
  • 1931 Coalition cabinet elected (National Govt.)
  • High protective tariff
  • Regulate currency
  • Increase taxes
  • Lower interest (production)

25
Britain
  • 1937 unemployment rate cut in half
  • Production at 1929 levels
  • Mood of discouragement persists

26
France
  • 1930 still agricultural
  • Less dependent on foreign trade
  • Less impacted by Depression
  • Radicals wanted to end democracy and est.
    dictatorship
  • Popular Front- moderates, socialists, communists

27
France
  • Popular Front- pay increases, reforms for workers
  • Unemployment remains high

28
Great Depression
29
Bread Line
30
The Unemployed
31
Tent City
32
Tent City
33
Railcar Home
34
Underpass
35
Fascism
36
Fascism
  • People lost faith during Great Depression
  • Fascist promises
  • Revive economy
  • Restore National Pride
  • Punish those responsible for economic hard time

37
Fascism
  • Ideology stressing nationalism
  • Interests of the state more important than the
    individual
  • Power held by single leader or small group of
    party members
  • Reaction against Communism
  • People more loyal to social class not nation

38
Enemy Communism
  • Similarities
  • Dictatorial one man rule
  • Individuals denied rights
  • Supremacy of state
  • Differences
  • Fascism- no classless society
  • Aristocrats, industrialist
  • Communism- Dictatorship of the Proletariat
  • internationalist

39
Italians Turn to Fascism
  • After WWI Italians felt defeated
  • War causalities
  • Did not gain land promised
  • Food shortages, rising prices, unemployment,
    business failures
  • Peasants seize land,workers revolt
  • Socialist, Communists groups emerge
  • Another Bolshevik revolution?

40
Mussolini
41
Benito Mussolini
  • Teacher of Fascism
  • Hitlers teacher
  • Named Fascism- root Roman Fasces
  • Ax- symbol of power
  • Becomes Il Duce- leader of Italy

42
Benito Mussolini
  • Initially a Socialist
  • WWI organized Fascist party
  • Wanted to bring back glory and military strength
    of ancient Rome
  • Revive economy
  • 1922 Appointed PM by Victor Emmanuel II (legal)

43
Mussolini
44
Benito Mussolini
45
Mussolinis Support
  • Business owners
  • Govt. officials
  • Landowners
  • End strikes
  • End workers political power
  • Middleclass
  • Soldiers
  • War Veterans

46
Mussolini's Black Shirts
47
Mussolini in Ethiopia
48
Mussolinis Policies
  • Democracy weak Dictatorship est. (no political
    parties)
  • Use of secret police, censorship
  • All production into nationwide syndicates
    (State Corps)
  • Organized like corporations
  • Controlled wages, prices, working hours (command
    capitalism)
  • Farmers urged to use modern methods

49
Policies continued
  • It became harder to leave country
  • Single men taxed
  • Jobs for women limited
  • Building families encouraged

50
Mussolini's Child Care
51
Fascist States
  • Italy (Mussolini)
  • Germany (Hitler)
  • Japan (Tojo)
  • Spain (Franco)
  • until 1970s

52
Rise of Hitler
53
Weimar Republic
  • Created 1919-under Stresselman
  • Republican constitution
  • Parliamentary govt.
  • Germans had little experience with democracy
  • Democracy seen as weak
  • Germans used to strict rule

54
Weimar Opposition
  • Opposed by left and right
  • Communists wanted govt. like Russia
  • German nationalists, military, landowners,
    opposed govt.
  • Industrialists feared govt. takeover of industry
  • People felt Republic betrayed them by urging peace

55
Hitlers Beginnings
  • Born Austria, 1889
  • Adolph Snickelgrupper
  • HS dropout
  • Study art in Vienna
  • Vienna- Jews among intellectual, financial
    leaders
  • Beginning of hatred for Jews

56
Hitler Emerges
  • Served for Germany during WWI- won Iron Cross
  • Wanted to overturn Treaty
  • Began as govt. spy (on Nazis)
  • 1920s Helped Organized the Nazis
  • NAZI Army of Brown Shirts SA
  • 1923 Failed Beer Hall Putsch
  • Take over Bavarian govt.
  • Hitler put in jail, writes Mein Kampf

57
National Socialist German Worker's Party
58
Hitler 1914
59
Mein Kampf
  • Dictated to Rudolf Hess
  • Outline of political views
  • Themes
  • Racism (Jews were reason for German problems)
  • Nationalism (Aryans were master race,
    lebenstraum)
  • Released from jail in 9 months

60
The Nordic Men
61
Why Hitler?
  • Economic crisis
  • People out of work
  • Hunger
  • Insecurity
  • Restlessness
  • Hitler gave people
  • Enemy to hate
  • Cause to fight for

62
Hitler Gains Support
  • Used violence and speeches
  • Less wealthy- Hitler would protect them from
    large industrialists, Communists
  • Unemployed-Hitlers private army
  • Food, clothing, shelter, cause
  • Industrialists, bankers, landowners- liked stand
    against Communists, promise to rebuild Germany

63
Nazi Family Propaganda
64
Hitler Youth Parade
65
Hitler Gains Power
  • Jan. 30, 1933 Hitler made chancellor by
    Hindenburg
  • Hoped to contain the Nazis
  • Feb. 27, 1933- Dutch communist Martinus van der
    Lubbe set fire to Reichstag
  • March 1933 Reichstag elections Nazis win 43 of
    vote
  • Reichstag passes Enabling Act- Hitler given
    dictatorial power

66
Reichstag Burns
67
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68
Hitlers Early Policies
  • Trade unions banned
  • Political parties eliminated
  • Army and secret police
  • Brown Shirts (SA)- Hitlers personal army (early
    1920s)
  • Gestapo- secret state police
  • SS-Hitlers body guard (1925)

69
Early Policies cont
  • Nuremberg Laws-
  • Anti-Semitism- became official govt. policy
  • Jews lost citizenship
  • 1933- Jews forbidden from holding govt. jobs or
    owning businesses
  • Not flu flag, write, teach, bankers

70
Anti- Semitic Propaganda
71
Night of Long Knives
  • June 30, 1934
  • SS ordered to eliminate any threats within the
    party
  • As many as 1,000 killed
  • Violence shocked people into obediance

72
Kristallnacht
  • Night of broken glass
  • Cause young Jew killed German diplomat in Paris
  • Nov 9-10, 1938- Nazis set fire to synagogues in
    Germany, Austria, Sudetenland
  • Jewish home and stores looted
  • Many Jews killed or wounded, 1000s arrested
  • Result- 1000s of Jews flee

73
Nazis Rebuild Economy
  • Businesses aided
  • Public works programs
  • Arms industry secretly revived
  • Unemployment rate of 6 million reduced to 0
  • Propaganda used to increase support

74
Eastern Europe
  • Democracies give way to authoritarianism
  • Authoritarianism- political system stressing
    obedience to authority
  • No tradition of democracy
  • Countries lacked business and professional people
    (backbone of democracy)
  • Post-war problems blamed on democracy

75
59 Days
  • Checks
  • Sprite Timelines Thursday
  • Picture Essay
  • Compare Social Darwinism to Marx
  • Nature of French and German Youth
  • Economic comparison of France and the Netherlands

76
Italy and Germanys March to War
77
Fascist Aggression
  • Italian Expansion
  • Mussolini builds army
  • 1935 Ethiopia invaded
  • League of Nations denounces action and urges
    boycott of arms to Italy

78
Spanish Civil War
  • Republican govt. replaced monarch
  • 2 sides (war between ideologies)
  • Falangists (Fascists) under Franco
  • Republicans (anti-Fascists)
  • Hitler and Mussolini aid Fascists
  • Stalin and volunteers from US, France, England
    aid Republicans
  • 1939- Franco becomes dictator

79
Spanish Civil War
80
Fascist Aggression
  • German rearmament and expansion (Turning Point)
  • Weimar Govt. tried to change treaty through
    diplomacy
  • Hitler vows to destroy treaty- rebuilds military
  • 1936 Rhineland remilitarized
  • Hitler believed no action would be taken
  • GB and France condemn, but take no action

81
1936 Rome-Berlin Axis
  • Hitlers strength leads to agreement w/ Mussolini
  • Europe come to rotate around them

82
Appeasement
  • Giving into others demands in order to avoid
    conflict
  • Followed by GB and France towards Germany
  • After WWI people wanted peace at any price
    (ignored Hitlers advances)
  • GB cut military spending- focus on economy

83
Why Appeasement?
  • France needed help of GB to take on Hitler
  • Many in GB believed Treaty of Versailles was too
    harsh
  • Many in GB believed Stalin and Communism was more
    of a threat than Hitler

84
German Advances
  • Result of appeasement- Hitler continues to
    enlarge German territory
  • Self-determination- Bring German speaking
    together in Third Reich
  • 1938 Anschluss- Union of Germany and Austria
    (Austria threatened with use of force)
  • Czechoslovakia- Hitler wanted the Sudetenland

85
Munich Peace Agreement
  • Issue Sudetenland (3 million Germans live here)
  • Mussolini, Chamberlain, Daladier meet with Hitler
  • Give Hitler Sudetenland if he would stop
    expansion
  • Student becomes teacher
  • Result- Hitler not satisfied and takes all of
    Czechoslovakia
  • Chamberlain Peace in our time

86
Beginning of War for Germany
87
The Coming War
  • March 1939- Germany turn to Poland to recover
    Polish Corridor
  • Hitler demands port of Danzig, RRs and highways
    through the corridor to East Prussia
  • Poland refuses demands
  • France and GB give support

88
The Coming War
  • August 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact-
  • Distrust between France, GB, Russia prevented
    alliance
  • Soviet Union agreed to let Germany invade Poland
    in return for land in Eastern Europe

89
Stalin
90
The War Begins
  • Sept. 1, 1939- Germany invades Poland
  • Sept. 4, 1939- GB and France declare war on
    Germany
  • WWII BEGINS

91
The Sides
  • Axis
  • Germany
  • Austria
  • Italy
  • USSR
  • Japan
  • Allies
  • England
  • France
  • Poland
  • Later USA
  • Later USSR

92
(No Transcript)
93
Rosie the Riviter
94
Blitzkrieg in Eastern Europe
  • Blitzkrieg- German style of warfare consisting of
    quick, concentrated attacks on land and sea
    (reaction against WWI)
  • Sept. 27, 1939- Poland surrenders
  • Hitler and Stalin divide Poland
  • USSR sets up bases in Baltic States for invasion
    of Finland

95
Blitzkrieg in Western Europe
  • Phony War- No real fighting in winter of
    1939-1940
  • 1940 Germans begin advances in Denmark, Norway,
    Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg
  • France establishes the Maginot Line- heavily
    defended forts along German, French border

96
Messerschmidt
97
Subs
98
State Social Science Standard
  • Yesterday
  • 10.8.2 
  • Understand the role of appeasement,
    nonintervention (isolationism), and the domestic
    distractions in Europe and the United States
    prior to the outbreak of World War II.

99
Today
  • 10.8.3 
  • Identify and locate the Allied and Axis powers on
    a map and discuss the major turning points of the
    war, the principal theaters of conflict, key
    strategic decisions, and the resulting war
    conferences and political resolutions.

100
ESLRS
  • Aztecs Are ABLE
  • A Informed Choices
  • B Societal Norms
  • L Resolve Problems
  • E Listening Speaking
  • Analyze

101
Character Traits
  • Respect
  • Compassion
  • Justice

102
Invasion of France
  • Maginot Line
  • Germany attacks through Belgium
  • Divides the Allies (Paris and coast)
  • Dunkirk- 300,000 Allies retreat, all available
    vessels sent to rescue troops Mistake 1
  • GB united and inspired against Hitler
  • Germans continue through France

103
France is Conquered
  • June 10, 1940- Mussolini declares war on France
  • June 14- Germans march on Paris
  • France surrenders to save Paris from destruction
  • French sign armistice where Germany surrendered
    WWI
  • Germany occupied N. France
  • Puppet Govt. est in S. France Vichy Govt.
    (Petains govt.)

104
French Resistance
  • Free French
  • Led by C. de Gaulle
  • Secret, underground resistance

105
Battle of Britain
106
Britain Holds Out
  • Winston Churchill (PM)- refuses to give in to
    Hitler
  • Aug 8, 1940- Battle of Britain
  • Operation Sea Lion
  • Destroy RAF
  • Control Air/Cross Channel
  • British Bomb Berlin
  • Hitler Turns to Cities

107
Battle of Britain
  • Blitz- Britain bombed day and night
  • RAF aided by radar- used to spot enemy aircraft
  • Allies broke German secret code
  • RAF Rebuilds

108
Battle of Britain
  • Hitler Gives Up
  • Mistake 2
  • Never Have so Few done so much for so many
  • Napoleon
  • Phillip II

109
London, 1941
110
Eastern Front
111
Invasion of USSR
  • June 22 1941 Hitler invades
  • Why USSR?
  • Hates Communism
  • Land for German settlers
  • Grain for Germans
  • Oil, coal, iron ore for war effort
  • No Longer 2 Front
  • Napoleon

112
Seize of Leningrad
  • Russia initially devastated
  • 2 year siege, 3 million trapped
  • 1 million die of disease and starvation
  • First year 2.5 million soldiers lost
  • Scorched-earth- withdraw from Germans
    destroying fields and equipment
  • Winter helps Russians win- troops from Siberia
    arrive

113
Battle of Stalin grad
  • Spring/Summer 1942
  • Strategic city in terms of north-south
    transportation
  • August 600 planes bomb city
  • 40,000 Russians killed
  • Russians refuse to surrender
  • But Do leave a dead city

114
The Tide Turns
  • Marshal Zhukov plans counter-attack
  • Encircle German army-Stalin grad
  • Hitler refuses to let Germans surrender
  • Mistake 3
  • Turning point in Eastern Europe
  • Soviets begin push toward Berlin

115
WWII Destruction
116
North African Campaign
  • First year of war- Mussolini works to est.
    control of Mediterranean
  • Libya (Italian colony) unsuccessfully invades
    Egypt trying to take control of Suez Canal (from
    GB)
  • Germany sends Afrika Corps led by Field Marshal
    Erwin Rommel to protect Libya

117
The Desert Fox
118
Africa cont
  • Rommel battles GB for more than a year
  • 1942 GB sends Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery to
    block Rommels advance to the Suez
  • El Alamein- retreating GB begins counterattack
  • Rommel driven from Africa
  • First major British victory

119
Montgomery
120
Results in Africa
  • May 1943- Allies held all N. Africa
  • Allies control Suez Canal
  • Africa would serve as a base to launch attacks
    into Southern Europe

121
Europe Under Hitler
  • Size of Hitlers Empire
  • Atlantic to USSR
  • Norway to North Africa

122
Victories for the Allies
  • End of 1942- Allies on offensive in Asia and
    Europe
  • North Africa
  • Italy attacked from North Africa
  • July 1943- GB, US land in Sicily, later in month
    Mussolini overthrown
  • Germany remains in Italy

123
Bomber Assembly
124
Invasion of France
  • Gen. Eisenhower leads Allies across English
    Channel
  • Second Front to Help Russia
  • Operation Overlord
  • June 6, 1944 D-Day- Allies land in Normandy

125
Invasion of France
  • 150,000 landed at 5 beaches
  • Omaha, Juno, Sword- major
  • Germans caught off guard
  • 1 million Allied troops in France within month
  • End of August- Paris freed
  • Free French join Allies

126
Omaha Beach
127
Normandy
128
Defeat of Germany
  • Fall 1944 Germans hopeless
  • Soviets on East
  • US, GB on West

129
57 Days
  • Checks
  • Questions on Fridays Essays?

130
Battle of the Bulge
  • Mid Dec. 1944
  • Germans attack US soldiers at German border near
    Belgium, Luxembourg
  • Germans break through lines
  • US holds key towns and roads
  • Germans halt offensive- ran out of gas, unable to
    crush US

131
The End
  • Jan. 1945- Allies take German gains
  • April 1945- US and Soviet troops meet in Eastern
    Europe
  • April 30,1945- Hitler commits suicide in
    underground quarters in Berlin
  • May 8, 1945 VE Day- Germany surrenders
    unconditionally

132
WWIIs Aftermath
  • Most costly war in human history
  • 50 million dead
  • 10 million die in concentration camps
  • Homeless refugees
  • Vast areas of destruction

133
Troops return
134
US Cemetary, Normandy
135
Germans and their Conquered
  • Germans took food, weapons, and art from
    conquered
  • Labor demanded from conquered
  • 7 million sent to labor camps in Germany
  • Died of disease, hunger, exhaustion
  • 5 million Russians taken
  • 3.5 million died

136
The Holocaust
  • Reinhard Heydrich- Himmlers deputy and chief
    planner of Nazi program to rid Europe of Jews
  • The Final Solution to the Jewish problem-
    genocide
  • Holocaust- systematic murder of European Jews
  • Jews rounded up, put in cattle cars and sent to
    death camps

137
Life in Death Camps
  • Methods of killing
  • Gas chambers, torture, starvation, beatings
  • Medical experiments
  • 6 million Jews killed
  • Auschwitz (Poland)- 2 million died here

138
Auschwitz
139
Auschwitz Gas Chamber
140
RR to Auschwitz
141
Belzec 600,000 died
142
Majdanek 1.5 mil die
143
Mauthausen 100,000 die
144
Mauthausen
145
Resistance Movements
  • Nazis did meet opposition
  • Hit and run attacks on German forces
  • Strikes, blowing up factories, underground
    newspapers, relaying info to Allies, rescuing
    prisoners
  • Govts. in exile- govts. fled occupied countries
  • Citizens escaped and joined GB

146
War Crime Trials
  • Nazi leaders arrested and charged with crimes
    against humanity
  • Nuremberg Trials- Nov. 1945
  • World learned of Nazi horrors
  • ½ of officers tried were sentenced to death
  • Japanese officers also tried

147
Postwar Europe
  • Allies held 3 summits (meetings between top govt.
    officials) during the war
  • Tehran, Iran
  • Yalta, USSR
  • Potsdam, Germany

148
Tehran Conference
  • Nov. 1943
  • Present- Churchill, Stalin, FDR
  • Big Three
  • Plan- discuss war strategy for Europe
  • Normandy invasion planned

149
"Big Three," Yalta
150
Yalta
  • Feb 1945 the Big Three meet
  • Stalin agrees to free elections in Soviet
    occupied Eastern Europe
  • Puppet govts. had already been est.
  • Stalin agrees to declare war on Japan when
    Germany defeated (for land in Asia)
  • United Nations developed
  • Division of Germany into temporary occupation
    zones

151
FDR and Churchill
152
Potsdam
  • July 1945
  • Present- Stalin, Churchill, and Truman
  • Stalin refuses to hold free elections
  • It would be anti-Soviet
  • Disagreements over Eastern Europe would split
    Allies
  • Raise fears of another world war
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