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The Road to WWII

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The Road to WWII WWII Begins Hitler, seeking to build an empire, signs an agreement with Russia promising not to attack one another and to seize control of the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Road to WWII


1
The Road to WWII
2
Before we begin
  • Remember, WWI The WAR to END ALL WARS was
    just 20 years prior.
  • Europe was only very slowly recovering while we
    were enjoying the Roaring 20s
  • When our economy crashed, so did Europes WORSE
    than what happened in the US mostly because of
    the Treaty of Versailles.

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Remember Wilsons 14 Points
  • Woodrow Wilson brought with him a blueprint for
    World peace the 14 Points
  • League of Nations The US NEVER joined so it was
    weak and ineffective (even though it was our
    idea!)
  • Self Determination Only for white Europeans
    creates tensions that exist to this day.
  • No more alliances yeah right.

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Lets Begin
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The Interwar Years (1919-1939)
  • WWI turned the world upside down the map of
    Europe, the Middle East, and parts of Africa and
    Asia have changed.
  • Monarchies and Empires have been replaced with
    new governments operating in newly-formed
    countries. (Germany, former A-H)
  • The destruction of the massive war gutted
    infrastructure and the working-age demographic
    from many European communities
  • the stage is set for more conflict.

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USSR
  • Lenin dies soon after WWI leaving a power
    vacuum. A struggle for control of the new
    socialist government began among various top
    officials.

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Rise of Stalin
  • Joseph Stalin seizes control (by killing anyone
    who got in his way).
  • Stalin brutally oppresses anyone who stands in
    his way, shifting the government into a
    totalitarian regime.

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Stalins 5-Year Plan
  • USSR was still a back-woods, backwards place.
    Stalin was going to change that.
  • Comprehensive long-term economic plans were set
    in place to develop a soviet
  • Industrial complex (factories and mines)
  • Agricultural complex Collectivization
    (state-owned farms)
  • Military complex
  • Infrastructure (roads, rail, power, dams)
  • Brutally strict deadlines and demands were made
    to quickly modernize the result was as many as
    18-20 million dead Russians, worked to death to
    meet the goals. However, the results were
    impressive.

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Joseph Stalins push to Industrialize the USSR
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The BIG Purge
  • Those previously mentioned 18-20 million who were
    worked to death were sentenced to work to death
    Stalin was paranoid that there was a plot to
    overthrow him, so he had whole groups of people
    rounded up those who he believed were in
    opposition of the totalitarian regime he was
    creating.

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Italy
  • A devastated economy led to a revolution against
    the monarchy.
  • A virtual nobody named Benito Mussolini organizes
    thousands of war veterans (the Black Shirts) to
    oppose the crown and marches on Rome. The king is
    deposed! Mussolini sets up a new government with
    himself in complete control. The term fascism
    is coined.
  • (Fascism emphasis on nationalism, an ethnic
    group, and the supreme authority of the leader)
  • The power goes to his head Mussolini fancies
    himself to be a modern-day Caesar destined to
    rebuild the glory of the ancient Roman Empire

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The Rise of Fascism in Italy
  • Fascism is a totalitarian form of government
    which
  • Glorifies the state
  • Has one leader and one party and all power is in
    the hands of that leader. Cult of Personality
  • All aspects of society are controlled by the
    government
  • No opposition or protests are tolerated
  • Propaganda and censorship are widely practiced

Benito Mussolini came to power in 1922 and helped
found the political ideology of fascism. He sided
with the Axis powers in 1940.
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Benito Moussolinis Fascist Italy
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Remember What the Treaty of Versailles did to
Germany
  • Germany
  • Forced to take blame for the war
  • Loses territory (nearly half used to create
    Poland)
  • Loses military power
  • Loses monarchy Weimar Republic installed
  • Reparations forced on them

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Germany
  • The German people were furious and bitter after
    what happened to them in Versailles.
  • Despite that, the Weimar government got off the
    ground and was a functioning democracy
  • However, the same economic problems that were
    plaguing Italy and the rest of Europe were even
    worse for the Germans.
  • One of more than a dozen political parties to
    form was a pro-Germany nationalist movement led
    by thousands of young, angry war veterans the
    NAZI Party.

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In Germany, depression, unemployment and hard
times led to a dramatic increase in votes for
Hitler and the Nazi Party.
Election date Votes in millions Share
May 20, 1928 0.81 2.6
September 14, 1930 6.41 18.3
July 31, 1932 13.75 37.3
November 6, 1932 11.74 33.1
March 5, 1933 17.28 43.9
Voting for Hitlers party increased as
unemployment rates rose
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Hitler seizes power
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with nazi help
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Anti-Communism
  • Under communism, all means of production are
    controlled by the government, as are property,
    the media, and all other aspects of society.
  • The 1930s saw the rise of many totalitarian
    regimes but most people chose fascism over
    communism.
  • Hitler exploited peoples fear of a communist
    takeover in Germany to rise to power in 1933.

A Battle for Germany Nazi anti-communist book
from 1933
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Hitler/nazi power builds
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Burning of the Reichstag
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The 3rd Reich
  • Soon after legally coming to power, Hitler began
    testing the will of the new League of Nations by
    invading Austria the League barely twitched so
    he moved on to Czechoslovakia merely a slap on
    the wrist.
  • A meeting is called between British Prime
    Minister, Neville Chamberlain and Hitler.
    Chamberlain pursued an appeasement policy
    resulting in the Munich Agreement.

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Appeasement
  • Appeasement is the act of giving in to an enemys
    demands in hopes of avoiding further conflict.
  • In 1938, Hitler demanded that Czechoslovakia cede
    the Sudetenland to Germany. He claimed that the
    German population living there was being
    mistreated.
  • The British and French prime ministers agreed to
    Hitlers demands without consulting
    Czechoslovakian leaders, in the hopes that this
    would avoid a war in Europe.

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The Axis Powers form
  • Not just Germany was trying to build an empire.
    The leaders of Italy and Japan also desired great
    empires. These three powers each believed they
    stood a chance if they helped one another.

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The Nonaggression Pact
  • Hitler makes an agreement with Stalin the
    Non-Aggression Pact split Poland and promise to
    never attack each other.
  • Why would Stalin make this agreement?

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Invasion of Poland
  • Hitler (even after being warned by the Brits and
    French) attacks Poland The allied powers FINALLY
    do something about it and declare war WWII is
    under way.
  • By this time, Hitlers regime was HEAVILY
    militarized, organized, and on a mission the
    Allies have no idea what theyre really in for.

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Blitzkrieg
  • Lightning War think Schlieffen Plan from WWI
    only more effective due to new technologies.

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The Maginot Line
  • String of French fortifications facing Germany.
  • Built at great cost after WWI.

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  • Hitlers war machine then went on to capture much
    of Europe, then invade and capture France, then
    brutally bomb Britain into near submission

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Germany Attacks
  • Denmark
  • Norway
  • Netherlands
  • Luxembourg
  • BELGIUM

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Dunkirk
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Occupation of France
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The French Resistance
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Battle of Britain
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Britains Secret Weapon Radar
Radar capability gave the Brits just enough early
warning to get their fighter planes in the sky to
meet the German bombers it saved them from a
Nazi take-over!
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The Allied Powers organize
  • Soviet Union
  • United States
  • United Kingdom

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Militarism
  • The glorification of war, in which a nation
    strengthens its military and stockpiles weapons
    in preparation for war.
  • An important aspect of militarism is that the
    glorification of war is incorporated into all
    levels of society, including education of the
    nations youth.
  • Militaristic societies have existed throughout
    human history.

Hitler Youth group
Ancient Sparta is an example of a militaristic
society
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Nationalism
  • Nationalism is the belief in the superiority of
    ones own nation over all others.
  • In the extreme, it can lead to major conflicts
    between nations.
  • Hitler, Mussolini, and Japans Tojo each touted
    their nations ability to dominate all others in
    the years leading up to WWII.

Nazi flag, Italian fascist logo, Japanese flag
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American Isolationism
  • The failure of peace efforts such as the Kellogg
    Briand Treaty during the 1920s disillusioned many
    Americans about international involvement.
  • The U.S. was in a major depression throughout the
    1930s and was mostly concerned with its own
    problems.
  • Conflict in Europe seemed distant, and the U.S.
    tried to remain neutral. This policy weakened the
    European democracies.

The Nye Committee held congressional hearings in
the mid-1930s, concluding that the U.S. was
tricked into entering WWI by arms manufacturers
and Allied propaganda.
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