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Title: Chapter%207%20Attitudes

Chapter 7Attitudes
By Michael R. Solomon
Consumer Behavior Buying, Having, and Being Sixth
The Power of Attitudes
  • Attitude
  • A lasting, general evaluation of people
    (including oneself), objects, advertisements, or
  • Anything toward which one has an attitude is
    called an object (Ao).
  • Attitudes are lasting because they tend to endure
    over time.

The Functions of Attitudes
  • Functional Theory of Attitudes
  • Attitudes exist because they serve some function
    for the person (i.e., they are determined by a
    persons motives) (expect to deal with situation
    again form att)
  • Katzs Attitude Functions
  • Utilitarian function (Pleasure /Pain -)
  • Value-expressive function (we form attgtprod what
    it says)
  • Ego-defensive function (1950 Housewives and
    instant coffee)
  • Knowledge function (need for order, structure,
    new product)
  • Marketers emphasize the function a product serves
    for consumers

Addressing Smoking Attitudes
  • This Norwegian ad addresses young peoples
    smoking attitudes by arousing strong negative
    feelings. The ad reads (left panel) Smokers are
    more sociable than others. (Right panel) While
    it lasts.

The ABC Model of Attitudes
  • Three interrelated attitude components
  • Affect
  • The way a consumer feels about an attitude object
  • Behavior
  • Involves the persons intentions to do something
    with regard to an attitude object
  • Cognition
  • The beliefs a consumer has about an attitude
  • Hierarchy of Effects
  • Relative impact/importance of attitude components
    depends on consumers motivation toward attitude
  • A fixed sequence of steps that occur en route to
    an attitude

Three Hierarchies of Effects
Figure 7.1
Attitude Hierarchies
  • The Standard Learning Hierarchy
  • Consumer approaches a product decision as a
    problem-solving process
  • The Low-Involvement Hierarchy
  • Consumer does not have strong initial preference
  • Consumer acts on limited knowledge
  • Consumer forms an evaluation only after product
  • Involvement paradox the less important products
    to consumers, the more important the marketing
    stimuli (package)
  • The Experiential Hierarchy
  • Consumers act on the basis of their emotional
    reactions (Consumers hedonic motivations and

Experiential Hierarchy
  • Emotional Contagion
  • Emotions expressed by the communicator of a
    marketing message affect the attitude toward the
  • Cognitive-Affective Model
  • Argues that an affective judgment is the last
    step in a series of cognitive processes
  • Independence Hypothesis
  • Takes the position that affect and cognition
    involve two separate, independent systems

Smith and Wollensky
  • This ad for New Yorks famous Smith Wollensky
    restaurant emphasizes that marketers and others
    associated with a product or service are often
    more involved with it than are their consumers.

  • Contrast the hierarchies of effects outlined in
    this chapter
  • How should marketers strategic decisions related
    to the marketing mix change depending upon which
    hierarchy is operative among target consumers?
  • Contextual Marketing

Product Attitudes Dont Tell the Whole Story
  • Attitude Toward the Advertisement (Aad)
  • A predisposition to respond in a favorable or
    unfavorable manner to a particular advertising
    stimulus during a particular exposure occasion
  • Aad attitude toward advertiser evaluations of
    ad execution ad evoked mood ad arousal
    effects on consumer viewing context
  • Ads Have Feelings Too
  • Three emotional dimensions
  • Pleasure, arousal, and intimidation
  • Specific types of feelings that can be generated
    by an ad
  • Upbeat feelings Amused, delighted, playful
  • Warm feelings Affectionate, contemplative/thought
    ful, hopeful
  • Negative feelings Critical, defiant/challenging,

Forming Attitudes
  • Classical conditioning
  • Instrumental conditioning
  • Cognitive learning/modeling

Forming Attitudes
  • Not All Attitudes are Created Equal
  • Levels of Commitment to an Attitude The degree
    of commitment is related to the level of
    involvement with an attitude object
  • Compliance (superficial)
  • Identification (social consequences)
  • Internalization (part of value system)

Levels of Attitudinal Commitment
  • By describing Cadillac as my company, the woman
    in this ad exhibits a high level of attitudinal
    commitment to her employer.

Forming Attitudes
  • The Consistency Principle
  • Principle of Cognitive Consistency Consumers
    value harmony among their thoughts, feelings or
    behaviors to be consistent with other experiences
  • We will change components to make them consistent

Forming Attitudes (cont.)
  • Conflict of attitudes and behavior motivates us
    to reduce dissonance
  • We make them fit by eliminating, adding, or
    changing elements
  • Explains why evaluations of products increase
    after purchase
  • Horse race experiment
  • Marketers post-purchase reinforcement

Self-Perception Theory
  • We use observations of our own behavior to
    determine what our attitudes are
  • We must have a positive attitude toward a product
    if we freely purchase it, right?
  • Low-involvement hierarchy
  • Foot-in-the-door technique
  • Low-ball technique
  • Door-in-the-face technique
  • Foot-in-the-door technique
  • Sales strategy based on the observation that
    consumers will comply with a request if they have
    first agreed to comply with a smaller request

Social Judgment Theory
  • Social Judgment Theory
  • People assimilate new information about Aos
    based on what they already know or feel.
  • Initial attitude frame of reference
  • Latitudes of acceptance and rejection People
    differ in the information they find acceptable or
  • Assimilation effect Messages that fall within
    the latitude of acceptance tend to be seen as
    more consistent with ones position than they
    actually are
  • Contrast effect Messages falling within the
    latitude of rejection tend to be seen as being
    farther from ones position than they actually
  • Choosy mothers choose Jif peanut butter

Balance Theory
  • Triad attitude structures
  • Person
  • Perception of attitude object
  • Perception of other person/object
  • Perception can be positive or negative
  • Balanced/harmonious triad elements
  • Unit relation
  • An element is seen as belonging to or being part
    of the other
  • Sentiment relation
  • Two elements are linked because one has expressed
    a preference for the other
  • Marketing Applications of Balance Theory
  • Celebrity endorsements

Alternative Routes to Restoring Balance in a
Discussion Question
  • Consumer researchers understand that consumers
    like to bask in the reflected glory of
    successful college athletic programs by wearing
    merchandise adorned with logos like the ones on
    the right.
  • How do the different attitude theories explain
    this consumer phenomenon?

Attitude Models
  • Attitude Models
  • Specify the different elements that might work
    together to influence peoples evaluations of
  • Multiattribute Models
  • Model that assumes a consumers Ao will depend on
    the beliefs he or she has about several
    attributes toward the object
  • Multiattribute Models Specify 3 Elements
  • Attributes (Scholarly reputation)
  • Beliefs (GJU is strong academically)
  • Importance Weights (Stressing research
    opportunities over athletics)

The Fishbein Model
  • Most influential multi-attribute model
  • Measures 3 components of attitude
  • (1) Salient Beliefs
  • (2) Object-attribute linkages
  • (3) Evaluation
  • Assumptions of the Fishbein Model
  • Ability to specify all relevant choice attributes
  • Identification, weight, and summing of attributes
  • Affect referral
  • A process by which a consumers overall attitude
    is formed by an overall affective response

The Fishbein Equation
  • The Basic Formula
  • Aijk SßijkIik
  • Where
  • i attribute
  • j brand
  • k consumer
  • I the importance weight given attribute I by
    consumer k
  • ß consumer ks belief regarding the extent to
    which brand j possesses attribute I
  • A a particular consumers (ks) attitude score
    for brand j
  • Overall Attitude Score (consumers rating of
    each attribute for all brands) x (importance
    rating for that attribute)

The Basic Multiattribute Model
Strategic Applications of the Multiattribute Model
  • Capitalize on Relative Advantage
  • Stress the importance of an attribute
  • Strengthen Perceived Product/Attribute Linkages
  • New and improved campaigns
  • Add a New Attribute
  • To distinguish oneself from competitors
  • Influence Competitors Ratings
  • comparative advertising,

Using Attitudes to Predict Behavior
  • In many cases, knowledge of a persons attitude
    is not a very good predictor of behavior
  • Questionable link between attitude and behavior
  • Consumers love a commercial, but dont buy the
  • The Extended Fishbein Model
  • Called the Theory of Reasoned Action
  • Contains several important additions to the
    original, which improve its ability to predict

The Theory of Reasoned Action
  • Intentions Versus Behavior
  • Social Pressure
  • Subjective Norm (SN)
  • Normative Belief (NB) Belief that others believe
    an action should or should not be taken
  • Motivation to Comply (MC) Degree to which
    consumers take into account anticipated reactions
  • Attitude Toward Buying
  • Attitude toward the act of buying (Aact)
  • How someone feels about buying due to the
    perceived consequences of a purchase

Obstacles to Predicting Behavior in the Theory of
Reasoned Action
  • Many researchers do not use Fishbein Model
  • A few of the many obstacles (full list on pages
  • Actual behavior vs. outcomes of behavior
  • Outcomes beyond consumers control
  • Voluntary vs. nonvoluntary acts across cultures
  • Relative impact of SNs vary across cultures

Cultural Roadblocks to the Theory of Reasoned
  • Roadblocks that diminish the universality of the
  • Model was designed to predict voluntary acts
  • The relative impact of subject norms varies
    across cultures
  • The model assumes that consumers are actively
    thinking ahead and planning behaviors
  • A consumer that forms an intention claims that he
    or she is in control of his or her actions

Trying to Consume
  • Theory of Trying to Consume
  • States that the criterion of behavior in the
    reasoned action model should be replaced with
    trying to reach a goal
  • Sample issues that might be addressed
  • Past frequency
  • Recency
  • Beliefs
  • Evaluations of consequences
  • The process
  • Expectations of success and failure
  • Subjective norms toward trying

Theory of Trying (TT)
Figure 7.3
Tracking Attitudes over Time
  • Attitude-tracking program
  • An single-attitude survey is a snapshot in time
  • A program allows researchers to analyze attitude
    trends during an extended period of time
  • Ongoing Tracking Studies
  • Attitude tracking involves administration of a
    survey at regular intervals (e.g. Gallup Poll,
    Yankelovich Monitor)
  • This activity is valuable for making strategic

Attitude Changes over Time
  • Changes to Look for over Time
  • Changes in different age groups
  • Attitudes change with age
  • Historical effects
  • Scenarios about the future
  • Consumers tracked in terms of future plans,
    confidence in economy, and so on
  • Identification of change agents
  • Social phenomena can alter peoples attitudes

Changing Attitudes
Percentage of 16- to 24-year-olds who agree We
must take radical action to cut down on how we
use our cars.
Figure 7.4
  • Construct a multi-attribute model for a set of
  • local restaurants
  • Universities
  • Banks
  • Based on your findings, suggest how managers can
    improve an establishments image via the
    strategies described in this chapter
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