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Title: While you are waiting, please do the following:

Welcome to the RTI for ELLs in Georgia Research
to Practice A professional learning
webinar series Spring 2011
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RTI for ELLs in Georgia Research to Practice
A professional learning webinar series
Session 4 March 31, 2011, 3-430pm
  • RTI for ELLs
  • Culturally Linguistically Responsive

Welcome and Introductions
  • Dr. Kimberly Anderson, REL-SE at SERVE Center at
  • Cori Alston, GaDOE
  • LaShaun Odom, GaDOE
  • Dr. Janette Klingner, U of Colorado
  • Participants

Counting ALL Participants
  • To officially sign in to this webinar
  • Go to the Chat Window
  • Type your district name and school name or
    organization name
  • Type your name and the names of every person in
    attendance with you
  • Send it to This Room

Who are our participants?
  • Teachers Pk-5
  • Teachers 6-8 or 9-12
  • ESOL/Title III coordinators, RTI/SST
    coordinators, or counselors
  • Building administrators
  • LEA Office, RESAs, or GaDOE
  • Post-secondary IHE
  • Other?

Operated by SERVE Center at UNCG
  • Serving AL, GA, FL, MS, NC, SC, 2006 2011
  • Executive Director, Dr. Ludwig van Broekhuizen
  • Toll Free 800-755-3277 www.serve.org
  • Georgia liaison Dr. Kim Anderson

The Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) System
  • To serve the educational needs of the Southeast,
    using applied research, development,
    dissemination, and training and technical
    assistance to bring the best available evidence
    and proven practices into local, district, state,
    and regional school improvement efforts

REL-SE Services
  • Outreach and Dissemination of Research,
    Evaluation, and Policy Info.
  • todays event
  • Technical Assistance to SEAs and LEAs
  • Issues Answers publications
  • Experimental Studies on interventions of
    relevance to our region
  • Quick Turnaround Data Analysis

Overview of the Series
  • Goal is to provide GA educators with increased
    knowledge of research and practice that can
    improve RTI for ELLs
  • Co-hosted by REL-SE and GaDOE, with support from
    USED Institute of Education Sciences (IES)
  • The 7 sessions build on trainings that GaDOE and
    REL-SE have been offering since 2008
  • Addresses the GA RTI Guidance Manual and
    research-based practices for ELL instruction,
    intervention, assessment, and RTI
  • Sessions archived at GaDOE website

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Date Topics All Sessions 3-430 pm Wed. 2/16/11 Introduction Intro to series RTI in GA, and where ELL services fit in the GA POI Challenges, successes so far Wed. 2/23/11 Instruction What the research says about effective instruction for ELLs in standards-based classrooms (Tier 1), across grade levels and content areas Tues. 3/15/11 Intervention Effective strategies for RTI in reading, literacy and English language instruction for ELLs Thurs. 3/31/11 Intervention A culturally and linguistically responsive RTI framework Wed. 4/13/11 Assessment-- Summative Content area and ELP summative assessment data How can these two types of data inform RTI? Thurs. 4/28/11 Assessment-- Formative Key formative assessment practices for ELLs and application to RTI Wed. 5/11/11 Application Implications Processing the series Next steps for professional learning
Presenters GaDOE Title III staff REL-SE staff Dr. Claude Goldenberg, Stanford U Dr. Sylvia Linan-Thompson, UT Austin Dr. Janette Klingner, U of Colorado at Boulder Dr. Carrie Parker, REL-NE I Adrienne Walker, GaDOE Dr. Rebecca Kopriva, WCER GaDOE Title III staff REL-SE staff
series overview session 1 session 2
session 3 session 4

Where the series fitS in the EBDM Cycle
(Evidence-Based Decision Making)
Session Goals
  1. Gain an understanding of key components of a RTI
    framework that is responsive to the cultural and
    linguistic needs and strengths of ELLs
  2.  Engage in conversation with the expert and each
    other about how we can implement the key
    components of the framework as part of RTI for
    ELLs at our sites

  • Welcome and introductions
  • Overview and agenda
  • Research presentation
  • Reflection and QA
  • Concluding thoughts
  • Looking ahead to Session 5
  • Evaluation survey

Welcome Dr. Klingner,University of
A Culturally and Linguistically Responsive RTI
  • Janette Klingner
  • University of Colorado at Boulder

(No Transcript)
RTI is Fundamentally Different
  • High above the hushed
  • crowd, Rex tried to remain
  • focused. Still, he couldnt
  • shake one nagging
  • thought He was an old
  • dog and this was a new
  • trick.
  • The Far Side

Question and Reflection
  • What is your primary role?
  • Classroom teacher
  • Special education teacher
  • ESL/ESOL teacher
  • Reading specialist or interventionist
  • Other support personnel (e.g., psychologist,
    counselor, social worker, speech language
  • School or district level administrator
  • State level administrator
  • Professional development provider
  • University faculty
  • Parent
  • How has your role changed with RTI?

Question and Reflection
  • What are the greatest challenges you are facing
    as you implement RTI in diverse schools?
  • Lack of expertise re teaching English language
  • Difficulty distinguishing between language
    acquisition and learning disabilities
  • Lack of time (for planning, collaboration,
  • Insufficient or inappropriate materials
    (instructional and assessment)
  • Confusion about how RTI is similar to and
    different from the pre-referral process used in
    prior to RTI
  • Lack of buy in
  • Other

Challenge 1 According to progress-monitoring
data, more than half of the English language
learners are not reaching benchmarks.
  • When many students are not progressing, change
  • Has the instructional program been validated with
    students like those in the class?
  • Is instruction at an appropriate level for
    students language and learning needs?
  • Is the program well-implemented?
  • Are teachers sufficiently differentiating
    instruction to meet diverse student needs?
  • Is the environment conducive to learning?
  • This will require
  • observing in classrooms and supporting
  • developing and capitalizing on local expertise.

  • The 15-20 of students receiving Tier 2
    interventions should NOT be mostly just the
    English language learners in a diverse schoolif
    most English language learners are not
    progressing, the instruction is not sufficient.
  • Does any over-representation of particular
    student sub-groups exist in those students
    identified at-risk? Is Tier 1 equally effective
    for different student subgroups?
  • If evidence of lack of effectiveness or
    disproportionality exists, then modifications
    must be made to the core instructional programs.

  • Challenge 2 In many cases, our screening and
    progress monitoring assessment batteries do not
    provide a comprehensive view of literacy skills
    or identify our ELLs who are at-risk for later
    reading difficulties.

The Comprehensive Assessment System
  • No one literacy assessment is sufficient to
    screen for early difficulties or monitor progress
  • Many skills go into what we call literacy, and
    we need measurements across different areas to
    fully gauge student progress
  • Schools may have some data that indicate student
    progress, but likely lack a complete picture of
    student progress and achievement.
  • Oral reading fluency does not predict
    comprehension for ELLs like it does for fluent
    English speakers (Crosson Lesaux, 2009).
  • Lesaux

A Common Scenario Early Literacy Measures
Phonological Awareness
Word Reading
Letter Names Letter Sounds
  • Background Knowledge
  • Oral Language
  • Interest

  • Motivation

Metalinguistic Skills
Word Learning Strategies
Knowledge of word function or type
  • Understanding of Purpose
  • Text Characteristics

Organizational structure
Sentence structure
Gaps during Early Childhood
Percentile Rank
The Gap between Reading Words Comprehending
Text (Lesaux)
George Batsche David Tilly
  • Use multiple assessment methods to provide a
    comprehensive view of learning.
  • No single best test or assessment strategy.
  • Different assessments tap into different skills
    and knowledge.
  • Use RTI assessment strategies that reflect the
    multi-dimensional nature of language and
  • Use progress monitoring to ensure that
    instruction is adjusted to meet the needs of
    individual students and classrooms of learners.

  • Challenge 3 School personnel are confused by
    what it means for practices to be
    evidence-based for culturally and
    linguistically diverse students.

What Do We Mean by Evidence-based?
  • The RTI model is based on the principle that
    instructional practices or interventions at each
    level should be based on scientific research
    evidence about what works.
  • However, it is essential to find out what works
    with whom, by whom, for what purposes, and in
    what contexts

One size does not fit all.
  • Experimental research studies tell us what works
    best with the majority of students in a research
    sample, not all students.
  • Some practices that may be effective have not yet
    been researched.
  • Qualitative research helps us understand why a
    practice works or not and factors that can affect
  • Observation studies in the classrooms of
    effective teachers tell us a lot about the
    attributes of successful teachers and the
    characteristics of effective instruction.

With Whom?
  • When deciding if a practice is appropriate for
    implementation as part of an RTI model, it should
    have been validated with students like those with
    whom it will be applied.
  • The National Reading Panel report did not
    address issues relevant to second language
    learning (2000, p. 3).

With Whom?
  • English language learners are often omitted from
    participant samples because of their limited
    English proficiency.
  • Yet language dominance and proficiency are
    important research variables and can affect
    treatment outcomes.
  • Leaving students out of studies limits the
    external validity and applicability of such
    studies, especially for those who teach
    culturally and linguistically diverse students.

For What Purposes?
  • What is the goal of instruction?
  • Some widely touted instructional approaches help
    improve word identification skills, but not
    necessarily reading comprehension.
  • According to the Reading First Impact Study
    Reading First did not have statistically
    significant impacts on student reading
    comprehension test scores in grades 1-3.

In What Contexts?
  • Variations in program implementation and
    effectiveness across schools and classrooms are
    common (see the First Grade Studies for a classic
    example, Bond Dykstra, 1967).
  • When students struggle, is it the program, the
    teachers implementation, or the school context?
  • What is it about the system that facilitates or
    impedes learning?
  • Schools are dependent on larger societal
    influences that should not be ignored.

In What Contexts?
  • It is essential to observe in classrooms.
  • Is the instruction appropriate for students
    language and learning needs?
  • What is the relationship between a teacher and
  • How does the teacher promote interest and
  • We draw different conclusions when several
    students are struggling rather than just a few

Opportunity to Learn?
  • All examples are from real classrooms with
    English language learners, most at beginning
    levels of English proficiency.

Tier 1 Example First Grade
  • The whole Class is sitting in a circle. Teacher
    Yesterday, how many of you knew your sight
    words? One student speaks out, One? Another,
    Three? Teacher (with increasing frustration in
    her voice) You are right. Three students were
    able to tell me their sight words. We need to
    practice these words we are really behind. Every
    one of you should know these sight words by now.
    You need to practice these at home. Dont you
    practice these at home? Teacher Only those 3
    students will be able to pull from the treasure
    chest. Teacher begins sight words practice
    and holds up index cards with Big, My, See,
    Like, I, At, This, And, Up, Have, Too. Students
    repeat sight words as Teacher holds up cards and
    reads them. She then holds up the word Big
    without saying anything. One student says the
    word She continues to go through this process
    with all the words, and says, Okay guys, you
    need to practice these at home, you are not
    paying attention, you should have known these
    words by now. (Orosco, 2007)

Tier 2 Example
  • Teacher (reading specialist) Lets work on our
    sight words. She writes have, many, some on
    her dry erase board. She reads the words and has
    students repeat them. T Okay, now can you guys
    use these words in a sentence? Who would like to
    try? No takers. Teacher looks at a student
    across from her and says, Pick a word and try.
    The student is hesitant. T How about if I help
    you? Can you say this, I have some snow. Repeata
    (Spanglish). Student I hab so...mo...
    s...no. T., Good. How about someone else? How
    about the word many? Students hesitate. T
    Okay. Here is an example. I have many friends.
    Can you say this? Student Ihabma...ni
    friendz. T., Good. Next word. Some. Teacher
    makes up another sentence, I have some toys.
    Student repeats The teacher takes them back to
    class. (Orosco, 2007)

Tier 3 Example
  • The teacher has a masters degree in special
    education and has been teaching for about 20
    years. She noted, I teach LD by the book.
  • 4 second-grade culturally and linguistically
    diverse students, all determined to have learning

  • Teacher Boys and girls, we need to read our
    story, Polar Bears. We need to listen to see
    what color they are, where they live or what they
    eat. Teacher directs students to look at the
    title page, asks what they think the book is
    about. No response. Teacher asks, Are polar
    bears nice? No response. Teacher begins to read
    Polar Bears live in the Arctic at the North
    Pole. The polar bear is a marine mammal Polar
    bears are carnivores OC I wonder how many
    students know what a marine mammal is, or a
    carnivore. As she is reading students are
    beginning to check out one student is playing
    with the drawstring in his hooded sweater.
    Another two are whispering to each other. The
    teacher continues The white fur is important
    camouflage for the bears as they hunt their prey
    on the ice

  • OC What is camouflage? This story uses tough
    words for ESL students at this level. I wonder if
    the teacher knows whether these kids really
    understand this. Teacher Okay lets talk about
    the story now. So what do they smell? No reply.
    Teacher, Anyone? One student, People.
    Teacher, Good. This was not in the story.
    Teacher, Do polar bears live here in Colorado?
    Students, Yes. Teacher, Good. They could if
    they lived at the zoo. Colorado was not in the
    story. Only one student is responding, with
    one word answers. OC I wonder if this book is
    too difficult for them. However, it would work
    for these kids if the language was modeled and
    sheltered for them... (Orosco, 2007)

  • Challenge 4 Many school personnel are unsure how
    to distinguish between language acquisition and
    learning disabilities or how to think about the
    role of the first language.

  • James was at ESOL Level 1.
  • Teacher My real concern is that when I give a
    direction (in English) he gives me a blank look,
    like he doesnt understand. Hes lost. She also
    noted that he had difficulty paying attention.
  • Assistant principal A lot of children in ESOL
    have these difficulties.
  • Teacher But I think its more than that. Its
    more a matter of higher level thinking.
  • This was accepted by the team and they proceeded
    to refer the student for an evaluation. They did
    not discuss his native language skills, and
    whether he exhibited these same problems in
    Haitian Creole.

Its important to
Sequential Bilinguals and Simultaneous Bilinguals
(Some) Similarities b/w LD and Language
Behaviors Associated w/ LD Behaviors when Acquiring an L2
Difficulty with phonological awareness Difficulty distinguishing b/w sounds not in L1
Slow to learn sound-symbol correspondence Confusion w/ sound-symbol correspondence when different than in L1
Difficulty remembering sight words Difficulty remembering sight words when word meanings not understood
Difficulty retelling a story in sequence May understand more than can convey in L2
Confused by figurative language Confused by figurative language, anaphora, words with multiple meanings
Slow to process challenging language Slow to process challenging language
Difficulty following directions Difficulty following directions
May have poor auditory memory May have poor auditory memory
May seem easily frustrated May seem easily frustrated
What do schools that successfully meet the needs
of culturally and linguistically diverse students
look like?
4 Elements
  • A systematic process for examining the specific
    background variables or ecologies of ELLs (i.e.,
    first and second language proficiency,
    educational history including bilingual models,
    immigration pattern, socioeconomic status, and
  • Examination of the appropriateness of classroom
    instruction and the classroom context based on
    knowledge of individual student factors
  • Information gathered through informal and formal
    assessments and
  • Nondiscriminatory interpretation of all
    assessment data.

A Culturally Linguistically Responsive RTI Model
  • More
  • intensive support
  • (may be special
  • education)
  • Intensive assistance
  • as part of
  • general education
  • support system,
  • ongoing monitoring

Ongoing problem-solving by a collaborative team
with relevant expertise, with family
Culturally and linguistically appropriate,
differentiated instruction in GE, with progress
Wisconsins Vision for RTI
An RTI Framework for Culturally and
Linguistically Diverse Students
  • The foundation of RTI should be culturally and
    linguistically responsive, appropriate, quality
    instruction with on-going progress monitoring and
    authentic assessments.
  • a supportive, motivating learning environment
  • culturally responsive, research-based,
    appropriate core instruction (validated with
    similar students, in similar contexts)
  • knowledgeable, skilled, caring, culturally
    responsive teachers and
  • differentiation to meet students needs.

Culturally and Linguistically Responsive Literacy
Includes explicit instruction in phonological
awareness, the alphabetic code, fluency,
vocabulary development, comprehension strategies,
and oracy.
Includes frequent opportunities to practice
reading with a variety of rich materials in
meaningful contexts (mirrors windows).
Emphasizes cultural relevance and builds on
students prior knowledge, interests, motivation,
and home language.
Culturally Responsive Teachers
  • Build positive, supportive relationships with
  • Have high expectations and provide the support to
    meet expectations
  • Help students make connections
  • Work well with students families and the
  • Help most culturally diverse students succeed to
    high levels

Another example of literacy instruction, from the
same school
  • This lesson was in Spanish in a first-grade
    classroom, taught by a bilingual teacher.

Haager, D., Klingner, J. K., Aceves, T. (2009).
How to teach English language learners Effective
strategies from outstanding educators. San
Francisco, CA Jossey Bass.
Orosco, M., Klingner, J. K. (2010). One
schools implementation of RTI with English
language learners Referring into RTI. Journal
of Learning Disabilities.
  • Teacher Today we are going to preview this book
    and look for the pictures that describe the word
    art or artist. Preview means to go over the book
    (beginning to flip through the pages, modeling
    this concept)it means to look at the pictures
    and think and talk about what the book may be
    about. She points to a picture of Juan holding a
    pot overlooking the desert plains with adobe
    houses and asks, Has anyone seen these types of
    houses? Students respond, Mexico. She goes on
    to preview every page. The pictures are
    eye-catching the students excitedly point to the
  • Teacher motioning to the board Okay, lets
    stop there for today and work on a writing
    activity using this book. We are going to write
    about some artists you know in your family or
    community. She is explicitly modeling by writing
    on the board, I have a brother who is a chef. A
    chef is an artist. A chef makes delicious food. A
    chef experiments with food. She has brought in
    pictures of chefs making food and posts them next
    to her phrase. She explains that they need to
    come up with an example like hers. Okay. I am
    going to hand-out some writing paper and I want
    you to write about an artist in your family and
    then draw me a picture.

Instructional Activities for the Domains of
Literacy (Klingner, Soltero-Gonzalez, Lesaux,
Oral Language (listening and speaking) Build background knowledge (preview-review) Frontloading of vocabulary using visual cues, Total Physical Response (TPR), realia (i.e., real objects) Modeling and practicing book-based sentence structures Sentence transformations through guided dialogue Reading aloud Storytelling using wordless picture books Traditional songs, chants, rhymes in the students home language and in English Phonemic awareness (segmenting, blending, syllabication, onset-rime, initial/final sound) in meaningful ways
Reading Fluency Modeled reading Shared reading with patterned language books Repeated reading Readers Theater Partner reading Independent reading (silent reading, audiobooks)
Reading Comprehension Reading aloud, modeled and shared reading Modified guided reading (select books according to stage of development) Reciprocal Teaching Collaborative Strategic Reading Scaffolded retelling (modeling and explicit teaching of text structure, connectors) Literature circles with quality literature (windows and mirrors) Text sets (set of books around a theme or topic can include different genres) Reading responses incorporating art, music, drama, poetry
Word Work Phonics activities (e.g., onset-rime, multi-syllabic words, vowel patterns) Reading decodable books Sight words from books read Dictation by the teacher or peer Language experience approach
Cross-language connections Word wall with cognates Teach similarities and differences between L1 and L2 (syntax, spelling, text structure, punctuation) Preview/review using students L1 Bilingual books (point out similarities and differences between the two languages)
Writing Modeled writing (activities using the language experience approach) Guided writing Interactive writing (dialogue journals, peer editing) Collaborative writing (story retellings, modified patterned language books, recipe book, script for readers theater) Independent writing (literature logs, pen-pals, self-correction) Authors chair
Connections to home and community Storytelling (family and neighborhood stories) Autobiographies and personal narratives Books created in the home language (written, audio-taped) Write letters to family members who live far away Research projects in students communities/neighborhoods Units that tap into households funds of knowledge
  • When students have not made adequate progress
    when taught using appropriate methods,
    intervention is warranted.
  • Interventions supplement the core curriculum and
    are based on student needs as identified through
    progress monitoring and other means.
  • Interventions are instructionally, culturally,
    and linguistically responsive and appropriate.

Research on Literacy Interventions for ELLs
  • Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) (Saenz,
    Fuchs, Fuchs, 2005)
  • Small group instruction in oral language,
    listening comprehension, phonological awareness,
    fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, shared
    storybook reading, in Spanish or English (Vaughn,
    Linan-Thompson, colleagues, multiple studies)
  • Small group instruction in phonological
    awareness, oral language, and English as a second
    language (Haager Windmueller, 2001)
  • Modified guided reading (Avalos, Plasencia,
    Chavez, Rascón, 2007)

In conclusion
  • RTI must be a comprehensive,
  • school-wide approach, requiring
  • coordinating curriculum and assessment
  • addressing teachers professional development
  • attending to school climate issues,
  • and enhancing leaders capacities to orchestrate
    and respond to multiple (often contradictory)
    reforms (Adelman Taylor).
  • Sustained implementation of RTI will require
    strong leadership, collaboration among special
    educators, general educators, and families, and a
    well-established infrastructure (Burdette, 2007).

  • Stop asking me if were almost there were
    Nomads, for crying out loud.

Question Reflection
  • Where is there (i.e., what are our goals)?
  • How will we know when we are there (i.e., we
    have succeeded)?
  • What should our next steps be (i.e., tomorrow,
    next week)?

E-mail Janette.Klingner_at_Colorado.EDU www.nccrest
  • Haager, D., Klingner, J. K., Aceves, T. (2009).
    How to teach English language learners Effective
    strategies from outstanding educators. San
    Francisco, CA Jossey Bass.
  • Harry, B., Klingner, J. K. (2006). Why are so
    many minority students in special education?
    Understanding race and disability in schools. New
    York Teachers College Press.
  • Klingner, J. K., Edwards, P. (2006). Cultural
    considerations with response to intervention
    models. Reading Research Quarterly, 41, 108-117.
  • Klingner, J. K., Hoover, J., Baca, L. (2008).
    Why do English Language Learners struggle with
    reading? Distinguishing language acquisition from
    learning disabilities. Thousand Oaks, CA Corwin
  • Klingner, J. K., Soltero-Gonzalez, L., Lesaux,
    N. (2010). Response to intervention for English
    language learners. In M. Lipson K. Wixson
    (Eds.), Successful approaches to response to
    intervention (RTI) Collaborative practices for
    improving K-12 literacy (pp. 134-162). Newark,
    DE International Reading Association.
  • Orosco, M., Klingner, J. K. (2010). One
    schools implementation of RTI with English
    language learners Referring into RTI. Journal
    of Learning Disabilities, 43, 269-288.

Concluding thoughts and evaluation
  • Cori Implications of today for
  • practice in GA
  • future professional learning topics
  • LaShaun Evaluation survey takes approx. 5 min.
  • https//uncg.qualtrics.com/SE/?SIDSV_2lfnMYxP2dzV

Looking Ahead to Session 5Thurs. 4/13/11
  • Focus Summative assessment data (content areas
    and ELP data) and RTI decision-making
  • Presenter Dr. Carrie Parker, REL-NEI, Adrienne
    Walker, GaDOe
  • Accessing the webinar same URL as today

Questions? Contact Info
  • Cori Alston, GaDOE
  • calston_at_doe.k12.ga.us 404-656-2067
  • LaShaun Odom, GaDOE
  • lodom_at_doe.k12.ga.us 404-463-0505
  • Dr. Kim Anderson, SERVE Center
  • kanderson_at_serve.org 404-657-6174
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