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Please discuss what you did this weekend with a partner


Title: Slide 1 Author: Sheldon Loman Last modified by: sloman Created Date: 11/15/2004 10:46:30 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Please discuss what you did this weekend with a partner

Please discuss what you did this weekend with a
partner.but only using the communication board
  • Welcome to Functional Assessment Week 7

  • Preference Assessment Due today
  • Task Analysis on Functional Skills due next week
    May 9th
  • Task Analysis on Communication Skills due May
  • Task Analysis on Academic Skills due May 23rd.
  • Article Review 2 due May 9th
  • Ecological Assessment Report due on June 6th.

If I could not express myself, I would become
like the tree in the forestthe one for which it
does not matter if it makes a sound when it comes
crashing down, because there is no one around to
hear it. Unfortunately, there are still many
silent fallen trees all around us if we stop and
  • Bob Williams, AAC user with complex communication
  • (Williams, 2000, p. 250)

Entry Activity 1
  • Get together with a partner and discuss the
    preference assessment you conducted.
  • You can use your communication board or your
    typical communication system

Entry Activity 2
  • Communication Bill of Rights

Communication Bill of RightsEach person has a
right to
  • Request desired objects, actions, events,
  • Refuse undesired objects, etc.
  • Express personal preferences feelings.
  • Be offered choices alternatives.
  • Reject offered choices alternatives.
  • Request receive another persons
  • Ask for receive info about changes in routine
  • Receive intervention to improve communication

Communication Bill of RightsEach person has a
right to
  • Receive a response to any communication, whether
    or not the responder can fill the request.
  • Have access to augmentative and alternative
    communication and other assistive technology
    services devices at all times.
  • Be in environments that promote ones
    communication as a full partner with other
    people, including peers.
  • Be spoken to with respect courtesy.
  • Be spoken to directly and not spoken for or
    talked about in 3rd person while present.
  • Have clear, meaningful, and culturally
    linguistically appropriate communication.

Entry Activity 2 Contd
  • How you can ensure these occur for students
    within your current and future teaching

Entry Activity 3
  • This activity is designed to be used throughout
    todays discussion.
  • Based on the chapter you read and what we are
    talking about today, explain how the assessment
    procedures weve been talking about all term
    apply to assessing communication.

K-W-L about Communication skills for students
with sig. disabilities
  • Define communication identify who needs
    communication intervention
  • Identify ecological and observational approaches
    to determining communication skills and needs.

Communication is
  • the complex process of information transfer that
    individuals use to influence the behavior of
  • (Orelove Sobsey, 1996)

  • Downing, J.E. (2005)Teaching Communication Skills
    to Students with Severe Disabilities
  • Snell, M.E., Brown, F. (2011). Instruction of
    Students with Severe Disabilities

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Pre-Requisites for Communication?
  • Competence in a symbolic and language system
    (e.g., spoken English, manual ASL)?
  • Formalized rules of word representation,
    production, use?
  • Breathing is the only real pre-requisite
    (Mirenda, 1993)

Communication is essential to quality of life
  • Necessary to define oneself
  • Share ideas, feelings
  • Demonstrate knowledge skills
  • Socialize
  • Perform job daily tasks

Communication Basic RightWhen communication
  • Wars are fought
  • (communication fails between countries)
  • Divorce
  • (communication fails between partners)
  • Fired from jobs
  • (communication fails between co-workers,

Communication in Daily Life
  • Allows control over physical social environment
  • Allows for acquiring new skills (strong
    correlation between literacy communication
    skill development for students with severe
    disabilities Beukelman Mirenda, 2005)
  • Allows for socially acceptable way to express
    feelings of frustration
  • Allows for development of friendships

Least Dangerous Assumption (Cardinal, 2002
Donnellan, 1984)
  • Better to err on the side of assuming competence
    even if it is not there, rather than err on the
    side of assuming incompetence when competence is
    the case.
  • All individuals need to communicate

Who Needs Communication Intervention?
  • Students who demonstrate minimal communication
    skills that they are not adequately expressing
  • Cognitive Referencing---Many professionals still
    believe that for children with severe
    intellectual challenges communication services
    are irrelevant (Downing, 2005)
  • Question should not be whether students will
    benefit from communication intervention,
  • but how best to provide support

Basic Conditions for Communication (Beukelman
Mirenda, 2005)
  • At least 2 people who understand each other
  • Form (i.e. a way to send the message)
  • Content (i.e., something to talk about)
  • Function Reason/Purpose to communicate
  • Educational team members must ensure these are

Social Issues in Communication
  • Students in special education classrooms tend to
    have interactions with adults but limited
    interaction with other students (Foreman et al.,
  • What affects does this have on learning
    communication, and making friends?
  • Foreman et al., found that students with
    disabilities in general education were involved
    in significantly higher levels of communication
    interactions than their matched pair in special
    education classrooms (2004).

Two key parts of language
  • Receptive Language
  • Understanding what people mean when they speak to
  • Expressive Language
  • Being able to speak/communicate so that others
    understand you.

Communication Forms (Behaviors)Multi-modal
nature of communication
  • No one form of communication will meet all needs
    or all social situations
  • Teaching a combination of different modes is
  • Examples Vocalization, body movements, pointing,
    facial expressions, nodding, gestures, use of
    object symbols, picture symbols, manual signs

Communicative Functions/ Intent
  • Request
  • Initiate/greeting
  • Terminate
  • Attention
  • Naming
  • Accept/Reject
  • Protesting situations
  • Affirming situations
  • Expressing choices or preferences

Contents of Communication
  • When there is nothing to say, there is no
    communication (i.e. the awkward pause when run
    out of things to say)
  • Individuals with severe disabilities need to have
    access to a variety of objects, pictures, and

Communication Skills
  • Speech
  • Articulation,Resonance, Voice, Fluency
  • Language
  • Phonology, Syntax, Semantics, Pragmatics
  • Conversation Skills
  • Turn taking, content, initiation, closure

Problems in the Classroom?
  • Receptive language deficits
  • Cannot recall sequences of ideas presented
  • Difficulty understanding humor, sarcasm,
    figurative language
  • May not understand questions
  • Trouble following directions
  • Cannot retain information presented orally
  • Difficulty understanding compound and complex

  • Expressive Deficits
  • Spoken language may include incorrect grammar or
  • Limited use of vocabulary
  • Frequent hesitations/cant find right words
  • Difficulty discussing abstract, temporal or
    spatial concepts
  • Jumps from topic to topic
  • Afraid to ask questions, does not know what
    questions to ask, does not no how to ask

Assessing Communication Skills
  • Standardized Tests will not provide the
    information you need
  • Assessment driven by questions that need to be
    answered to help benefit from communication
    interventionTeam Effort
  • Interviews with Significant Others
    Ecological-Functional Assessment Process

Considering assessment options?
  • Current communication
  • Environmental conditions
  • Motor capabilities
  • Cognitive/linguistic capacities
  • Language capacities
  • Literacy capacities
  • Sensory/perceptual capacities

Assessing Receptive Communication Skills
  • Receptive skills for a specific activity need to
    be identified
  • What does the student do to demonstrate that the
    message has been received and understood?
  • Document what forms of communication seem to be
    best understood

Assessing Expressive Communication Skills
  • Any attempt by the student to start, maintain, or
    end a communicative exchange should be noted.
  • How the students communicates (the form)Skill
  • Why the student is communicating
    (function/intent)different forms of
    communication for different purposes?
  • What the student talks about (content)information
    on breadth of skills and accessibility?

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Significant Other Interview(s)
  • See Communication Style Assessmenthandout
  • Interview questions for
  • professionals---handout

Questions for professionals
  • What modes is the student using to communicate
    throughout the day?
  • Does the student have a means to initiate an
    interaction? How?
  • Does the student have opportunities to initiate
    an interaction? When? With whom?

More professional questions
  • Do others in the environment understand and
    respond appropriately to the student?
  • Does the student have a means to engage
    different functions of communication, or does he
    or she primarily make requests or protests? (List
    the functions/purposes of communication how the
    student conveys them)

More Questions to ask
  • Does the student have different things to talk
    about? What are they?
  • Does the student have the means to respond to
    others and maintain conversation? How?
  • Does he/she have a way and know how to end a
    conversation? How?

Last Question
  • Does the student have a way to correct a
    communication breakdown? How?

Assessing current communication
  • Communication Matrix by Charity Rowland
  • (designs to learn website)
  • Organized by communication function
  • List of behaviors
  • Not used, emerging or mastered

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Ecological-functional Assessment Process
  • Uses observational techniques to analyze skill
    demands of the natural environment and determine
    how the student performs within the environment
  • Leads directly to intervention plan (Snell, 2002)

Communication Ecological Inventory Worksheet
(Figure 8-10, p.249, Best, Heller, Bigge, 2005)
  • 1. Ask Where does the student spend time?
    (environment, sub-environment, activities)
  • 2. Select Activity (e.g., ordering food)
  • 3. Observe (for vocabulary used in activity)
  • List Expressive Vocabulary used in the activity
  • List Receptive Vocabulary used in the activity
  • 4. Review listed words and determine which words
    skills need to be taught to the student.

Example of Communication Ecological Inventory
  • Where does the student spend time?
  • Environment Community McDonalds
  • Subenvironment McDonalds counter area
  • Activities Ordering food, waiting in line,
    socializing in line
  • Select activity Ordering Food

Example Contd
  • Observe vocabulary used in activity
  • Expressive I want, hamburger, fish sandwich,
    small, medium, large, coke, milkshake, yes/no,
    thats all, thank you, my order is wrong, I need,
    extra ketchup, for here, please repeat that, how
  • Receptive May I help you?, Is that all?, Here
    or to go?, Your order will be ready soon?, I
    dont understand, Your total is_____
  • Review listed words which are above, below, and
    at the students level. Which are within or
    outside students experience, which are
    necessary for the task

Ecological Inventory of Functional Skills
Steps in Activity Natural Cues Comm. Skills Needed Student Performance Discrepancy Analysis Interv. Plan
Receptive or Expressive or - Why student isnt doing the step suggestions

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Think of the student you are working with for
your task analysis.Use the examples presented
and outline how you will determinehis/her
communication needs
  • 10 minute partner activity

Augmentative Alternative Communication is
  • any means that helps a person communicate when
    conventional speaking, writing, and/or
    understanding others are not possible.
  • (McCormic, Loeb, Schieffelbusch, 2003)
  • any item, piece of equipment, or product system,
    whether acquired commercially off the self,
    modified, or customized, that is used to
    increase, maintain, or improve the functional
    capabilities of children with disabilities.
    (IDEA, 1990 Federal Register)

Two types of AAC techniques
  • Unaided- Do not require any external equipment
    (i.e. manual signs, facial expressions, gestures)
  • Aided- Incorporate external devices (i.e.,
    computers, microswitches, or speech-generating
    devices (SGDs)
  • Most people use both to communicate in different
    situations with different people

Communication System
  • Combination of all of the techniques used by an
    individual student

Unaided Communication
  • Teachers need to be attuned to how student
  • Understand what various gestures, vocalization,
    and other techniques mean

Gesture Dictionary
What John Does What it means How to Respond
Runs to the door I want a drink of water Let him go for a drink of water from the water fountain or set a timer for when he can go
Grabs another students arm I like you Explain the meaning to Johns classmate help them work together
When is unaided communication appropriate?
  • Used when students have no other way to get their
    messages across
  • Must be Socially acceptable Intelligible

Manual Signs Pros Cons
  • Some people who can hear use manual signs (e.g.
  • Advantage requires no equipment
  • Disadvantage Many people do not understand
    signs, therefore limited communication partners
  • What are other pros or cons?

When to teach signs
  • Poor prognosis for speech
  • Signing partners available
  • Physically able
  • Adequate cognitive skills
  • A portable communication system is desirable

Aided Communication
  • Low-Tech/Non-electronic symbols, and
    communication displays
  • Hi-Tech/Electronic Speech-generating devices
  • Advantages/ Disadvantages of both?

Symbols for Communication
  • Real Object Symbols
  • Photographs Pictures
  • Line Drawing Symbols
  • Textured Symbols
  • Letters Words

Selecting SymbolsWhat to look for?
  • Should make sense to the user communication
    partners (assess with range of choices)
  • Similarity between the symbols what represents
    should be obvious
  • Students sensory modalities should be considered
  • Symbols introduced gradually building on current
    communication skills

Communication Displays--examples
  • Velcro board with a few picture symbols that
    students point to
  • Plexiglas eye gaze display that a student uses
    eye to point (Figure 8-19, p.261)
  • Communication Book or Wallet

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Considerations for Designing Displays
  • Messages which are needed, in what contexts
  • Symbols depending on the individual messages
  • How symbols are displayed booklets, notebooks,
    wheelchair trays, scanners
  • Organizing symbols context specific, how many
    per page, etc.

Graphic arrays
  • Designing communication boards or communication
  • Choosing items
  • Size of each item
  • Positioning each item
  • Accessibility of each item
  • Perception of each item (both user and
    communication partner)
  • Item placement/ordering- groups? Effort in
  • Motor involvement in using array- vertical or

Using Symbols to Promote Participation/Conversatio
  • Calendar/Schedule Systems
  • Choice Displays
  • Remnant (e.g. Movie ticket, scraps from
    activities) Displays
  • Conversation Displays

Hi-Tech Speech Generating Devices
  • Devices talk when a student touches a symbol on
    the device
  • What are advantages/ disadvantages??

Types of Electronic Devices
  • Single-level Devices deliver a limited number
    of messages (about 20), simple to program
    operate (e.g. BIGmack)
  • Multi-level Devices Up to thousands of messages,
    more difficult to program, multiple symbol
    displays to program messages on two or more
  • Comprehensive Devices dynamic display

Supporting AAC learners is a collaborative effort
  • Family/caregivers friends
  • Present future employers
  • Teachers (SPED Gen Ed.)
  • Speech/language specialists
  • Physical occupational therapists
  • Student

Supporting AAC Learners (continued)
  • Access to AAC
  • Available
  • Accessible
  • Appropriate
  • Atmosphere of acceptance
  • Nonjudgmental - OK to make mistakes, model
    correct response, praise attempts, allow more
    time, minimize peer pressure, reinforce tolerance
    of individual differences.

Teaching Communication Skills
  • General Education Classroom Ideal environment-
    numerous opportunities to communicate with
    responsive communicative partners
  • However, students need specific systematic
    instruction to acquire desired skills
  • Educational Team must develop teaching strategies
    and implement them consistently

Things to Consider with AAC
  • Mode of communication Input how the student
    receives the message
  • Output means in which the student transmits the
    messages to others
  • Mechanism for communication Gestures,
    Vocalizations, Graphic
  • Type of selection - Direct selection, Scanning,
  • Physical display - Number of graphic symbols,
    Spacing and arrangement, Background, Orientation,
    Fixed or dynamic
  • Vocabulary selection
  • Output - Print copy, Speech, Scan display

What do we choose to teach?
  • Consider
  • What to communicate about
  • Activities/environments used in
  • People communicate with

Initial Instructional Strategies
  • Establishing Want/No
  • Response Prompt Strategies (Time Delay, System of
    Least/Maximum Prompts)
  • Milieu Teaching- modeling, manding, time delay,
    incidental teaching
  • Environmental Arrangement Interrupted-chain
  • Conversation skill training

Supporting AAC Learners (continued)
  • AAC Training
  • Training for student, parents/family/friends,
    teachers, employers, peers
  • Training in the use/maintenance of the system
  • Training in facilitative/instructional techniques
    that promote communication
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