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The world-wide rise of within inequality (because of globalization and technology)

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INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICS ADV. Massimo Tamberi The world-wide rise of within inequality (because of globalization and technology) The opposite is true for country B it ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The world-wide rise of within inequality (because of globalization and technology)


1
The world-wide rise of within inequality
(because of globalization and technology)
INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICS ADV. Massimo Tamberi
2
Outline of this presentation
  • 1 - Inequality trends 1.1 - general
    evidence1.2 - polarization1.3 - extreme
    inequality
  • 2 - Possible causes of inequality2.1 - social
    mobility2.2 - demography2.3 - technology2.4
    globalization (with notes)

3
Inequality trendsgeneral evidence
4
The Kuznets world (?). after WW II (1950-1970)
Source Cornia, Addison, Kiiski (2003), Income
distribution changes and their impact in the
post-war II period, UNU WIDER discussion paper
2003/28
5
but what really happened was ..
Source Cornia, Addison, Kiiski (2003), Income
distribution changes and their impact in the
post-war II period, UNU WIDER discussion paper
2003/28
6
Source IMF World Economic Outlook, Oct. 2007
7
Source IMF World Economic Outlook, Oct. 2007
8
Source IMF World Economic Outlook, Oct. 2007
9
OECD countries ..
10
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11
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12
\
\
Source Oecd (2008), Growing unequal?
13
What in the so-called Transition countries ?
Source Cornia, Addison, Kiiski (2003), Income
distribution changes and their impact in the
post-war II period, UNU WIDER discussion paper
2003/28
14
Source Cornia, Addison, Kiiski (2003), Income
distribution changes and their impact in the
post-war II period, UNU WIDER discussion paper
2003/28
15
Source Cornia, Addison, Kiiski (2003), Income
distribution changes and their impact in the
post-war II period,, UNU WIDER discussion paper
2003/28
16
Source Cornia, Addison, Kiiski (2003), Income
distribution changes and their impact in the
post-war II period, UNU WIDER discussion paper
2003/28
17
and the impact of the state, in general
Source Oecd (2008), Growing unequal
18
and the impact of the state, in specific
countries
Source Oecd (2008), Growing unequal
19
Inequality trendPolarization
20
Source Van Reenen (2011), Wage Inequality,
Technology and Trade 21st Century Evidence,
Occasional paper,Center for Economic Performance
21
zero relative variation!
Source Autor (2011) The Polarization of Job
Opportunities in the U.S. Labor Market
Implications for Employment and Earnings,
Community Investments, Fall 2011 Volume 23,
Issue 2
22
Source Van Reenen (2011), Wage Inequality,
Technology and Trade 21st Century Evidence,
Occasional paper,Center for Economic Performance
23
Source Van Reenen (2011), Wage Inequality,
Technology and Trade 21st Century Evidence,
Occasional paper,Center for Economic Performance
24
Inequality trendextreme inequality
25
US economy
Source Piketty, Saez (2003), Income inequality
in the United States, 19131998, Quarterly
Journal of Economics, February, issue 1
26
US economy
Source Piketty, Saez (2003), Income inequality
in the United States, 19131998, Quarterly
Journal of Economics, February, issue 1
27
US economy
Source Piketty, Saez (2003), Income inequality
in the United States, 19131998, Quarterly
Journal of Economics, February, issue 1
28
Source Piketty, Saez (2003), Income inequality
in the United States, 19131998, Quarterly
Journal of Economics, February, issue 1
29
Source Oecd (2008), Growing unequal?
30
Source Acemoglu, Autor(2010 ), Skills, Tasks and
Technologies Implications for Employment and
Earnings, MIT
31
Source Acemoglu, Autor(2010 ), Skills, Tasks and
Technologies Implications for Employment and
Earnings, MIT
32
US economy
income of the poor wage income
income of the rich capital income
Population quantiles
Source Piketty, Saez (2003), Income inequality
in the United States, 19131998, Quarterly
Journal of Economics, February, issue 1
33
US economy
Income of the rich mainly wage income
Population quantiles
Source Piketty, Saez (2003), Income inequality
in the United States, 19131998, Quarterly
Journal of Economics, February, issue 1
34
A different story France (1)
Piketty (2005), Top income shares in the long
run an overview, Journal of the European
Economic Association, AprilMay, 3(23)111
35
A different story France (2)
Piketty (2005), Top income shares in the long
run an overview, Journal of the European
Economic Association, AprilMay, 3(23)111
36
Possible causes of inequality- social
mobility - demography - technology - globalization
37
social mobility
38
EXAMPLE if intergenerational earnings elasticity
of 0.20, this means that if an individual in that
country earns 10,000 less income than the
average, 20 per cent of that difference (or,
2,000) will be passed on to the individuals
children. In other words, the children will earn
2,000 less than the average.
SOURCE http//www.conferenceboard.ca/hcp/details/
society/intergenerational-income-mobility.aspx
39
THE GREAT GATSBY CURVE
Intergenerational earnings elasticity
Source Miles Corak, (2012) Inequality from
generation to generation the United States in
Comparison
40
demography
41
Relative Income by age of individuals selected
OECD countries Equivalised household disposable
income, mid-2000s
OECD (2008), Growing unequal?
42
Relative Income of individuals by age
Average household disposable income of two age
groups (examples) relative to that of people
aged 41 to 50, mid-1980s and mid-2000s
OECD (2008), Growing unequal?
43
Changes in income inequality assuming a constant
age structure
Country period gini gini (const.
age struct.)
Australia 1995-2004 0.008 0.011 Belgium
1985-2000 0.053 0.049Italy 1984-2004
0.063 gt 0.069 Finland 1986-2004 0.062
lt 0.058 Germany 1985-2005 0.044
0.045 United Kingdom 1985-2005 0.051
0.049
Source OECD (2008), Growing unequal?
44
TechnologyInequality and the labor market
45
Source IMF WEO Oct. 2007
46
Source Autor (2011) The Polarization of Job
Opportunities in the U.S. Labor Market
Implications for Employment and Earnings,
Community Investments, Fall 2011 Volume 23,
Issue 2
47
Source Feenstra, Hanson, (2001), Global
production sharing and rising inequality a
survey of trade and wages, Davis University
48
Source Feenstra, Hanson, (2001), Global
production sharing and rising inequality a
survey of trade and wages, Davis University
49
Shares of Employment by Education Level, USA -
1963-1995
Source Deardorff (1998), Technology, trade, and
increasing inequality does the cause matter for
the cure Michigan University
50
Source Deardorff (1998), Technology, trade, and
increasing inequality does the cause matter for
the cure? Michigan University
51
Source Deardorff (1998), Technology, trade, and
increasing inequality does the cause matter for
the cure Michigan University
52
Source Deardorff (1998), Technology, trade, and
increasing inequality does the cause matter for
the cure? Michigan University
53
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54
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55
(here Van Reenen model )
from the CES production function
to relative wages
56
globalization
57
Source IMF WEO Oct. 2007
58
Source IMF WEO Oct. 2007
59
Source IMF WEO Oct. 2007
60
the trade explanationfree trade has a
surprising feature (discovered by
Samuelson) factor prices (i.e. the wage in a
country) do not depend directly on national
factor endowments. Instead, factor prices
depend on good prices, and these are in turn
determined in the world market.
61
1 the available quantities (endowments) of
primary factors of production, such as labor (or
types of labor), capital, and land, whose
abundance or scarcity would, in the absence of
trade, determine their factor prices, including
the wage of labor
62
2 with trade, these factor endowments determine
instead the comparative advantages of different
countries, and thus their trade patterns
(H-O) (Canada exports timber to USA because of
its endowments of big woods)
63
2 (cont.) Trade has a first direct
consequence Traded goods will have the same
price (convergence in good prices)
64
3 Factor price equalization theorem under
free trade, if countries share the same
technologies and face the same international
prices of traded goods, then they will also have
the same prices of factors
65
When countries exchange goods, in reality they
are (indirectly) exchanging factors of
production If a country A exports goods whose
production is intensive of factor Ls, and it
imports goods that are intensive of factor Lu, it
means that its exports contain more Ls (less Lu)
than the imported goods.As a consequence
country A is indirectly exporting Ls
66
The opposite is true for country B it exports
goods whose production is intensive of factor Lu,
and imports goods that are intensive of factor
Ls its exports contain more Lu (less Ls) than
the imported goods.As a consequence country B
is indirectly exporting Lu
67
From this point of view Trade in goods is trade
in factors Trade leads to factor price
equalization
68
The importance of this for the discussion here is
that it means that the demand curve for a
countrys labor, when we draw it as a function of
wages, is not downward sloping after all, but is
instead horizontal at a level that depend on
prices of goods
69
A possible consequence of the FPE Since the 70s
poor countries began to export manufactured
goods, especially goods intensive of unskilled
labor They also imported, from advanced
countries, goods intensive of skilled
labour Many concluded that the rising inequality
was a consequence of the FPE process increase
in wages of skill workers and decrease in wages
of unskilled workers in rich countries
70
Does this interpretation hold?
71
FPE depends on some hypothesis 1) All countries
produce all goods 2) All countries share the
same technologies 3) Traded goods prices should
completely converge
72
1 FPE should imply a rise in prices of goods
with intensive of skill labor (relative to
prices of goods intensive of unskilled labor).
Not true?
73
Weighted changes in domestic prices
This suggests that some of the industries that
use most production (less skilled) workers are
those with the highest price increases
Source Feenstra, Hanson, (2001), Global
production sharing and rising inequality a
survey of trade and wages, Davis University
74
2 Factor prices should CONVERGE increase
(decrease) of skill (unskill) workers wage in
advanced countries and the opposite in
developing countries (especially increase in
unskill workers wage). Not true (example
Mexico after NAFTA)
75
3 Trade between advanced and emerging countries
is growing but still is a small percentage of
total trade flows of advanced countries (at
least untill very recent times).
76
In conclusion .
77
Source Krugman (2008), Trade and wages,
reconsidered, Princeton University
78
Decomposition of the Change in the Share of
Employment and Wages of Non-Production Workers
USA - 1973-79 and 1979-87
NB trade explanation mainly between sectors
changestech explanation mainly within sector
changes
Source Feenstra, Hanson, (2001), Global
production sharing and rising inequality a
survey of trade and wages, Davis University
79
Decomposition of the change in the share of
employment and wages of non-production workers,
1973-79 and 1979-87
80
However ..
81
USA import penetration 1989-2006
Source Krugman (2008), Trade and wages,
reconsidered, Princeton University
82
1 geographical composition of US trade changed
more weight of emerging countries means .
Source Krugman (2008), Trade and wages,
reconsidered, Princeton University
83
Anther possibility is that trade and technology,
as reasons for the change in skill demand,
interrelate TRADE INDUCED TECHNOLOGICAL
PROGRESSi.e. tech. progress as a response to
trade pressure
84
TECH AND TRADE DEBATE A PRACTICAL SOLUTION An
empirical estimation of relative contributions
(tech. and glob.)
85
IMF empirical analysis based on this equation to
be estimated
They also added per capita income (kuznets curve)
86
IMF empirical results (log GINI as dependent
variable)
87
Source Jaumotte, Lall, Papageorgiou (2009),
Rising Income Inequality Technology, or Trade
and Financial Globalization?, IMF WP/08/185
88
Source Jaumotte, Lall, Papageorgiou (2009),
Rising Income Inequality Technology, or Trade
and Financial Globalization?, IMF WP/08/185
89
Source Jaumotte, Lall, Papageorgiou (2009),
Rising Income Inequality Technology, or Trade
and Financial Globalization?, IMF WP/08/185
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