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Introduction to Development Studies 2ECTS, 1ov

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Title: Introduction to Development Studies 2ECTS, 1ov


1
Introduction to Development Studies 2ECTS, 1ov
  • Jaro Julkunen
  • Mondays Lecture Hall XV at 12-14
  • Wednesdays Lecture Hall XIV (13.10 at 16-18
    20.10. at 8.30-10, the rest at 10-12)

2
Development Studies
  • research interest of post-WWII world
  • comparative focus on international development
  • primary normative object on social, political and
    economic issues
  • examples of central objectives poverty,
    inequality, social change, education,
    globalization, capital flows, resources,
    governance, environment, participation, health,
    gender
  • in Finland
  • University of Turku minor studies
  • University of Helsinki PhD

3
Course Description
  • Basic information is provided on the situation
    of the developing countries in an international
    context, from the perspectives of social and
    political development. Central theories and
    explanatory models referring to the international
    development problem are also presented.
  • No prerequisite studies are presumed.

4
Conceptual Surroundings of Development
  • Synonym/hyponym for change
  • - usually development is considered as a
    positive change, beneficial alteration,
    achievement of a better life (but also illness
    can develop)
  • Development derives from the word of uncovering
    or unfolding (old French des-envolupper)
  • Kehitys/utveckling/entwicklung/evolution derive
    from the image of the opening circle

5
Other parallel concepts
  • development, progress, advancement, growth
  • Progress derives from the idea of moving on,
    advancing (Lat. pro gredi)
  • Progress has a connotation of structural changes
    which are based on superindividual factors
  • Metaphor of organic growth is a prototype of
    cyclic development (linear development omits the
    decline)
  • Development is more consciously accomplished
    change

6
Counterconcepts
  • Opposite of change
  • unchangeability, undevelopment and stagnation
  • Change, but opposite direction
  • decay, degeneration, atrophy, decline,
    regression, retrogradiation and recession
  • Insufficient degree of change
  • underdevelopment
  • Diachronic distance from significant center
  • primitiveness
  • Synchronic distance from significant center
  • backwardness

7
Structure of the Concept
  • a) Cause
  • - progress transhistorical, consciously exogene
    (unintentional), natural
  • - development human, consciously endogene
    (intentional), cultural
  • b) Process
  • - directionality linear/cyclic,
    progression/regression
  • - cumulativity knowledge of previous
    generations as a basis of development/ alienation
    as a basis of decline
  • - irreversebility
  • c) Aim
  • - certain social system (homogenisation/pluralisa
    tion)
  • - growth of virtues (happiness, freedom,
    equality, responsibility)
  • - perfection

8
Narratives of Development -Descriptions of
historical processes
9
Basis on Comparison
10
Dimensions of Development Theories
  • historical context
  • causal relationships, rules and methods
    constituting knowledge
  • indicators and symbols of development
  • political agenda-setting

11
Development and Historical Context
  • Development
  • makes sense only in the realisation of history
  • is not, however, reduced to history
  • is more abstract and theoretical than history
    (past, history, development)
  • is manifested in histories (plural)
  • is considered as a reaction to problems

12
Epistemology of Development
  • Construction of a general theory/ Study of a
    particular case
  • Understanding the integration of facts and values
  • Methodological realism/ relativism
  • Moral realism/ relativism

13
Components and Indicators (examples)
  • Health
  • Economic resources
  • Education
  • Social integration
  • Housing
  • Security
  • Recreation
  • Political resources
  • - physical abilites, illnesses,doctor
  • income, wealth, property
  • years of education
  • attachments and contacts
  • space, nr of persons/room
  • exposure of violence/theft
  • leisure pursuits, theatres
  • voting, memberships

14
Political Agenda-Setting
  • different definitions and focuses highlight
    different evaluations, which
  • privilege particular political interests or
    cultural preferences and
  • set particular policy implications and future
    projects

15
Developing Countries? results
  • A Argentina 161
  • B Bosnia-Herzegovina 144
  • C China 21
  • D Cyprus 41
  • E Egypt 15
  • F Finland 0
  • G Georgia 202
  • H Hungary 21
  • I Israel 5
  • J Jamaica 19
  • K Kazakhstan 252
  • L Libya 192
  • M Mexico 182
  • N Taiwan 5
  • O Oman 142
  • P Portugal 0
  • Q Qatar 112
  • R Romania 103
  • S South Africa 111
  • U Ukraine 72
  • V Syria 171
  • W Albania 163
  • X Brazil 202
  • Y Turkey 62

16
Paradigms of World Politics
  • One World
  • one global system
  • harmonious end of ideology/history
  • under tension WST
  • Two Worlds
  • global system as bivaricate
  • center/periphery, North/South, developed/developin
    g, East/West, episteme/techne, modern/traditional,
    rich/poor, Orient/Occident, Jihad/McWorld
  • geographically locatable or structurally divising
  • Three Worlds
  • Cold War political division with two superpowers
    and the non-aligned
  • center/semiperiphery/periphery
  • Civilizations (over 5, under 10)
  • culturally segmented world system
  • About 180 States
  • states the only important actors in world affairs

17
Development and Modernity
  • development theories arise to explain the
    changing Western societies of 19th and 20th
    centuries
  • unchanging non-Western societies were used as a
    comparative resources in explaining modernity
  • ideas
  • 1) development is inherent in society
  • - from the dichotomy order/change to
    order-in-change
  • 2) development is dimensional
  • 3) development appears as growth and often
    proceeds as necessary stages

18
Developmentalism
  • Premises for Western developmental thought
  • - technology
  • - socio-economic changes
  • - religious disruptions
  • - rise of individualism
  • - breaking-up of the idea of future
  • Religion of modernity (Rist)
  • - secularisation
  • - social beliefs (human rights, development,
    knowledge)

19
Developmentalist Ideas
  • The Enlightenment
  • rationalisation, civilisation, liberation,
    freedom, truth
  • Positivism
  • universalism, division of ethics out of knowledge
  • Economic Thought
  • capitalism, industrialism
  • Cultural and Social Evolutionism
  • comparison of one society (internal natural laws)
  • polymorphism, survival of the fittest, general
    history
  • Diffusionism
  • influence analysis (natural laws in the spread of
    winning phenomena)
  • cultural contacts
  • Imperialism

20
Motives for Imperialism
  • commercial, economic interests
  • - natural resources, markets, dead end of
    capitalist national space
  • interests of social policy
  • - the poor, the outcasts
  • interests of power politics
  • - European hegemonic struggle, formation of a
    social order
  • sociopsychological interests
  • - preservation of social structure by warrior
    aristocracy (devil and elite theories)
  • ideological interests
  • - evangelisation, civilisation philantrophy,
    solidarity, matter of duty

21
Critiques of Imperialism
  • Liberalist critique
  • bias and malfunction in a capitalist system,
  • protectionist operation against free trade,
  • cause of huge warfare and administrative costs,
  • cause of monopolisation
  • Marxist critique
  • interest of capitalists (allow extra time for
    capitalist phase)
  • Nationalist critique
  • political focus on wrong direction
  • Cultural critique
  • change of justified social conditions, cultural
    and political integrity

22
The Idea of Imperial/International Control
  • trusteeship property to be placed in the hands
    of trustees who would be chosen on the basis of
    their capacity to decide where and how societys
    resources should be invested
  • education civilisation
  • social system primary health care

23
International Economic Development
  • starting-point global economic imbalance
  • moral interest responsibilities and rights
    of both the rich and the poor
  • focus problem-solving quarters and
    mechanisms, availability of growth
    factors and access to them

24
Western Liberal Democracy Doctrine
  • reconstruction of distroyed economies and
    formation of new ones (Marshall Plan, UN, Bretton
    Woods)
  • abstaining of totalitarism (communism, national
    socialism)
  • building of better life standards to
    underdeveloped countries with technical and
    economic knowledge
  • adapting social development assistance from
    closed colonial system to open international
    context
  • New active US foreign policy (Truman doctrine)
  • End of Ideology

25
Other Cold War Doctrines
  • Socialist Revolutionary Doctrine
  • Soviet Union
  • Latin America
  • Non-align Movement
  • Concept of the Third World
  • Bandung Conference 1955

26
Modernisation Theories
  • base on theories of development economics
  • ideal of studying societal phenomena according to
    methodologies similar to natural sciences
  • Comparative historical modernisation theories
  • Functionalist and macrobehaviorist modernisation
    theories

27
Comparative historical modernisation theories
  • identification of universal developmental phases
  • generality in particular processes of change
  • aim at combining versatile factors of explanation
    (economic, psychological, political etc.)
  • criticised of the speculativity theoretical
    basis not convincing empiricists
  • Cyril E. Black, S.N. Eisenstadt, Seymor Martin
    Lipset, Barrington Moore jr.
  • Example Walter W. Rostow Stages of Economic
    Growth (1960)

28
Walter W. Rostow Stages of Economic Growth (1960)
  • First Stage Traditional society
  • static society
  • fatalist worldview (life, environment)
  • person-depended power structures (kinship
    relations)
  • societal resources in agriculture
  • undeveloped sciences and technologies (Newton as
    a symbol)
  • no directional changes in life standards

29
Walter W. Rostow Stages of Economic Growth (1960)
  • Second Stage Preconditions for take-off
  • a) freeborn model
  • - internal stimuli (cultural heterogeneity, no
    restricting feudal/imperial system)
  • b) basic model
  • - threat of expansion of more developed
    countries
  • - traditional order under challenging pressure
  • social understanding for the need of continuous
    growth and actualisation of scientific
    innovations
  • rise of new virtues and aims
  • national prestige
  • higher economic gains
  • general welfare
  • better life standards for new generations
  • rise of capable entrepreneurship
  • rise of investments, especially on transport and
    means of conveyance

30
Walter W. Rostow Stages of Economic Growth (1960)
  • social framework still limited
  • importance of the state sector (nation-state
    cooperatives contra traditional rule)
  • continuous economic growth not a normal state yet
    (promoters still a minority)
  • industry not wide enough to satisfy the needs of
    balanced foreign trade
  • demonstrational effect promotion of
    modernisation with professional and political
    coalitions

31
Walter W. Rostow Stages of Economic Growth (1960)
  • Third Stage Take-Off
  • dividing line (decade or two) forming a modern
    society
  • usually a clear stimulus in which the society
    responds by turning into ideas of modernisation
  • political power to forces that promote continuous
    economic growth
  • economic growth becomes a normal state and there
    are no obstacles for it even though the
    industrial base still narrow
  • industry based on natural resources takes the
    lead (harpoon)
  • new branches of industry are expanding rapidly
  • profits are used to establish new production
    plants
  • demand for industrial working power gt
    urbanisation and commercialisation of agriculture
  • birth rates begin to decline

32
Walter W. Rostow Stages of Economic Growth (1960)
  • Fourth Stage Maturing
  • 40-60 years period of growth expanding to every
    economic sector
  • profits rise faster than population grows
  • 10-20 of national product can be invested
  • mechanism of production developes with new
    branches of industry that overtakes the old ones
    which are losing their importance
  • production of commodities that were imported
    earlier, new import needs and export products
  • technical processes more sophisticated (rise of
    degree of processing)
  • national economy capable of capitalising modern
    technology in most of its investments
  • dependence on foreign trade links is dictated by
    economic calculations and political priorities,
    not by technical and institutional necessities

33
Walter W. Rostow Stages of Economic Growth (1960)
  • Fifth Stage Mass Consumption Society
  • sectors of consumer durables and service take the
    lead
  • real income rises so that most of the people are
    able to consume also other products than the
    necessary
  • official employees to a central part in the
    structure of working power
  • technical development starts to lose the prima
    facie value
  • continuous growth of state institutions
    investments on social welfare and security
    purposes
  • crystallising in a welfare society

34
Structural Modernisation
  • Structural Functionalism
  • reseach focus functions of (parts of ) social
    structures from the viewpoint of compound system
    functionality meaningful and non-meaningful
    structures
  • naturally and unobstructed functioning society is
    a stabile totality where different sectors
    dependend from each other
  • counterpoint for evolutionism (not focusing on
    historical change but on the overall situation of
    each time)
  • both primitive and developed social systems were
    seen as functional (organisations)
  • change is an effort to eliminate social
    dysfunctions
  • Talcott Parsons, Marion Levy, Gabriel Almond,
    David Apter, Fred Riggs

35
Structural Modernisation
  • Macro-behaviorism
  • research focus dynamic state (variable
    relations), social and political processes
  • correlations and causal explanations
  • universality of modernisation
  • Karl Deutsch, Daniel Lerner (1958) The Passing
    of Traditional Society

36
Daniel Lerner (1958) The Passing of Traditional
Society
  • objective 1 developing of methodologies for
    studies on phenomena of social psychology in
    modernisation process
  • objective 2 presenting of primary
    characteristics of modern state and the
    processual nature of modernisation

37
Daniel Lerner (1958) The Passing of Traditional
Society
  • Characteristics of a modern state
  • urbanisation (population living in gt50000 towns
    percentage of total population)
  • literacy (percentage of literates of total
    population)
  • voting (voter percentage of total population in
    national elections)
  • media participation (percentage of tot.pop. of
    those buying newspapers, owning radios, going to
    movies)
  • Correlations for example literacy/media
    participation
  • Causal explanation the literacy rate rocketed
    after urbanisation rate exceeded 10 ? media
    participation ? other participatory institutions
    (especially voting)

38
Daniel Lerner (1958) The Passing of Traditional
Society
  • Modernisation process
  • modern society is dynamic and participatory
  • the process towards modernisation is unilinear,
    stages follow each other with autonomic
    historical logic of same mechanisms
  • the moving forces of modernisation process are
    urbanisation and new information (orbit of desire
    and horizons of expectations)
  • modernising individuals and institutions are in a
    strong system relationship of dependency
  • life style non-participation ? participatory
  • personality static ? mobile
  • emotional identification unability ? empathy
  • identity structure static ? dynamic

39
Karl W. Deutsch (1961) Social Mobilization and
Political Development
  • Modern nationality is constructed from a double
    process of social mobilisation and cultural
    assimilation
  • Social mobilisation social, economic and
    technological development makes people leave
    their traditional agrarian environments to be
    mobilised for more intensive communication
  • Cultural assimilation information given in the
    modernisation process is accepted and thus
    orientation towards change prevails over
    traditional group affliations
  • Nation building is a balancing of these processes

40
Reasons for failings of modernisation
  • Lerner (1958)
  • when an occational sector (for example
    urbanisation) grows without mutual growth of
    other sectors, the result is unfavourable
    imbalance of modernisation
  • modernisation is both technical process but
    especially a change of ideology and a way of life
    (the mental change spreads over a long period)
  • Deutsch (1961)
  • imbalance of the double process (lack of cultural
    assimilation ? reactive ethnic nationalism)

41
Samuel P. Huntington (1968) Political Order in
Changing Societies
  • research questions
  • what makes the downfall of social/political
    development?
  • why changes tend not to go like modernisation
    theories predict?
  • where revolutions come from and why?
  • Comparative study of revolutions
  • the poorest countries were relatively stable, but
    the a bit of affluent countries were explosive
  • ? the reason for revolutions was not on poverty
    but on the imbalanced modernisation process
  • - social mobilisation brings on activity and
    horizons of expectations
  • - incapable government can not take advantage of
    the increased activity
  • - activity and expectations turn into a
    radicalising opposition
  • - the relatively strong inequality of economic
    growth that is connected the first stages of
    modernisation amplifies the reactions (atmosphere
    of instability)

42
Samuel P. Huntington (1968) Political Order in
Changing Societies
  • Political circumstances after social mobilisation
    depends on the rate of institutionalisation
    closely institutionalised politics connects the
    new citizens to existing sectors of activity ?
    strong civil society
  • Civil society can be democratic or totalitarian
  • Revolutions rise from frustrated alienation of
    middle-class (most expectations, knowledge-based
    opposition towards status quo)

43
Samuel P. Huntington (1968) Political Order in
Changing Societies
  • social mobilisation
  • 1. social frustration
  • economic development
  • social frustration
  • 2. political participation
  • mobility possibitilies
  • political participation
  • 3. political instability
  • political institutionalisation

44
Backwash Analysis
  • A new dynamic branch of industry absorbs
    resources from other sectors of production and
    geographic peripheries (cf. Rostows harpoon
    effect)
  • This dynamic branch makes money, but the wealth
    spills abroad (to industrialised countries)
  • Backwash effect movement of the capital is
    negative and the country becomes poorer (backwash
    effect is stronger than trickle down effect)
  • Universal direction of capital stream
    (inferior?dominant, periphery?centre,
    underprivileged?privileged, poor?rich)
  • The trading instruments of a poor country become
    all along more unfavourable

45
The Vicious Circle of Poverty
46
Dependency
  • UN Economic Commission for Latin America
    (ECLA/CEPAL)
  • promoting economic growth
  • ECLA manifesto 1950 explanation for
    underdevelopment
  • a) laissez faire economic policies
  • biased export orientation
  • underdeveloped internal market network
  • weak governmental control of economy
  • b) structure of the world trade system
  • factors of economic problems beyond the reach of
    local governments
  • no local instruments for preventing economic
    threats (depression)
  • preconditions for economic growth are not
    universal
  • realisation of the separate economic regularities
    of the industrialized countries and the
    underdeveloped countries
  • realisation of the geography of poverty

47
Constructed Underdevelopment
  • Underdevelopment
  • was not an original condition, but a product of
    expanding capitalism and economic imperialism
  • was brought about by external reasons
  • is another side of the coin development of the
    industrialised countries is made of the
    underdevelopment of the rest
  • Andre Gunder Frank
  • Europe did not discover the underdeveloped
    countries, it created them
  • the more natural resources for exploitation a
    region had when the capitalist system unrolled,
    the poorer and more underdeveloped it is today

48
Centre and Periphery
  • Capitalism produces inevitably a divided class
    society, which expands to global scale
  • Vulgar dependecia global geographic centre and
    periphery
  • Structural dependecia centre has its foothold on
    regionally peripheric areas
  • Common characters of the periphery (Samir Amin)
  • domination of agrarian capitalism
  • local merchant bourgoisie controlling foreign
    capital
  • bureucratic social system controlled by urban
    bourgoisie
  • a vast proletarian class of poor peasants,
    marginally empowered workers, and unemployed
    urban dwellers

49
Dependencia Actions and Objectives
  • Keynesian Reforms
  • state control to economy
  • allowing of protectionist instruments for
    periphery and demolition of those of
    industrialised countries
  • creating needs for Latin American, African and
    Asian internal markets for gaining self-reliancy
  • emphasis on broadly-based industrialisation,
    regulation and dismantling of traditional
    landowning conditions
  • ending of imitation of Western models (economy,
    sciences, arts)
  • Raúl Prebish (ECLA), Gunnar Myrdal
  • Radical Dependencia
  • revolution of the world trade structure
  • Marxism

50
Application of the dependency argument Case of
Tanzania
  • independency and establishing of a federal sate
    of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, Tanzania (early
    1960s)
  • Arusha Declaration 1967 self-reliance and
    African socialism
  • cutting off of the economic dependency by
    accession to the Third World (especially China)
  • socialization of banks and important companies
  • cultural revolution 1969 outlawing imitations of
    the European culture
  • shrinking confidence on economic and political
    collaboration (growing apart from Pan-African,
    East African and finally Third World linkages) ?
    isolation
  • change of politics 1985 acceptance of the WB/IMF
    structural adjustment demands, abandonment of the
    orthodox African socialism

51
World-System Theory (WST)
  • a macrosociological theory of international
    dependence (Marxist theories, Annales school of
    historical research, emphasis on economy)
  • developing unit world as an organism
  • research interest origins and dynamics of the
    capitalist world economy as a total social
    system, ongoing transition to socialism
  • model of explanation historical stages of
    development, but different than those of
    modernisation theory
  • criticism to modernisation theory nation-state
    level, single path evolution, ahistorical
    research,
  • Immanuel Wallerstein

52
World Systems
  • Mini Systems
  • in hunter and gathering or extremely simple
    agricultural societies
  • complete division of labor
  • single, uniform cultural framework
  • kinship as a structuring factor
  • exchange economy (barter)
  • World Empires
  • universal homogenization of division of labor
  • payment of tribute as protection cost (mini
    system ? part of world empire)
  • politically united systems
  • examples Rome, Egypt, China
  • World Economies
  • the present capitalist system is the first world
    economy
  • plurality of political systems support the world
    economy
  • production mainly for markets

53
Core/ Semiperiphery /Periphery
  • World economy develops a flourishing core
  • For its economic expansion the core needs surplus
    from the peripheries
  • Semiperiphery
  • a buffer zone that deflects the revolutionary
    activity of peripheries
  • although world class struggle do not operate
    within state boundaries, semiperipheries are
    states
  • Class interests are clearer in the peripheries ?
    revolution has to come from the peripheries
  • Semiperipheral state is the area where a
    conscious state activity can produce world
    revolutionary elements

54
Indicators of Development/Exploitation
  • Division of labor
  • transition from intrasocietal and intra-empire to
    international
  • classes indicating transition to capitalist world
    economy
  • Technology
  • as hegemony factor (c.f. Habermas Technik als
    Ideologie)
  • Expansion of production
  • expansion, overproduction, redistribution of
    surplus, recovery (40-60 years)
  • crisis of overproduction

55
World Hegemony Cycles
  • Hegemony a period in which one core power can
    simultaneuosly manifest productive, commercial,
    financial, and military superiority over all
    other core powers
  • Period of hegemonic decline hegemonic power has
    lost its superiority in one realm while retaining
    it in others

56
World System Hegemony Cycles
  • European expansion
  • Portugal late 15th c. 1600
  • - pugnacity, military technology (naval
    matters), population hardened to variety of
    diseases
  • 2. Holland c. 1600 late 17th
  • - Protestantism, capable fluyt focused on trade,
    stock exchange
  • Commercial England late 17th late 18th
  • - internal social stability, mobile labor power
  • Industrial Britain late 18th early 20th
  • - industrialization, coal
  • 5. United States early 20th
  • - adoption of new technologies (electricity,
    petroleum)

57
Present World System
  • USA hegemon after the WW II, now (1980s)
    declining
  • Resemblances with two previous (capitalist)
    hegemons
  • from agro-industry to commerce then finance
  • liberal trade policy
  • hegemony based on sea or sea/air power
  • extended wars for securing hegemony
  • assumptions of world responsibilities of
    protecting and preserving the liberal order
  • liberal trade arrangements allows technology to
    spread ? new technology to non-hegemon states
  • rise of income for the hegemon state working
    class ? competitive advantage to non-hegemon
    states

58
Present Hegemonic Rivalry Period
  • USA loss of competitive edge of productivity,
    maintaining and presenting competitive edge on
    military power
  • Emergence of new loci of power on the margins of
    the declining hegemons radius of action (East
    Asia, Europe?)
  • the possible rise of a new region causes a
    relative decline of another (not only the present
    hegemon)

59
Critique of WST
  • Eurocentrism
  • A.G.Frank capitalist system 5000 years old few
    centuries ago Europe a periphery of world trade,
    hegemony in South and East Asia
  • Reversed causality
  • no proof on process of economic underdevelopment
    (case of Poland)
  • No sensibility for cultural factors
  • materialist approach limits the explanative force
  • Methodological problems of macrosociology
  • no systematic line in choosing of data, base on
    disconnected secondary sources

60
Alternative Development
  • Inadequacy of developmentalist thought
  • modernisation and dependency based on economism
  • grand narratives of world-system theories
  • failures of modernisationist practices (Green
    revolution)
  • Stagnation of the international structure
  • distrust on linear democratisation and economic
    growth
  • vanishing global control
  • Awakening to ecological limits
  • environmental tolerance is incompatible with
    limitless economic growth
  • Club of Rome (1972)

61
Demodernisation
  • Renunciation of blinkered growth and
    dismantlement of ecologically destructing
    industry
  • Relocation of power
  • distrust towards the state
  • Protectionism revisited
  • away with CocaColonialism, McDonaldization and
    Disneyfication
  • emphasis on plurality and diversity
  • Subsidiarity
  • development decision-making as close to
    recipients as possible
  • state-level too remote

62
New Indicators for Development
  • Gross Domestic Product (GDP) numb for human
    development
  • nature and distribution of income ignored
  • Human centered indicators
  • from standards of living to quality of life
  • Human Development Index (HDI) GDP plus life
    expectancy and education ratios
  • Green GDP GDP minus direct costs of
    environmental degradation
  • Ecological Footprint (EF) land/capita needed to
    support consumption of resources

63
Sustainable Development
  • Promotion of commodity exports has led to overuse
    of natural resource base ?
  • Development which meets the present day needs
    without compromising the abilities of future
    generations to meet their needs
  • Primacy of environmental awareness in development
    thought (especially including to values of trade)
  • damage limitation and sustainability maximation
  • Integration of economic growth to social equity
    and environmental management
  • UN World Commission on Environment and
    Development (Brundtland Commission) 1987 Our
    Common Future
  • Earth Summit - the United Nations Conference on
    Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de
    Janeiro 1992

64
Basic Needs
  • Sturcturing the core values of development with
    the hierarchy of needs ?
  • basic goods and services necessary for a minimum
    standard of living
  • primacy, sufficient conditions satisfaction of
    basic individual needs for everybody
  • secondary aim, necessary conditions global
    economic equality, rising per capita incomes
  • WB 1972 redistribution of growth and meeting
    basic needs
  • - development cooperation and money distribution
    to small projects
  • International Labor Organisation (1976)
    Employment, Growth and Basic Needs

65
Emphasis on Culture
  • protection of local culture from cultural
    homogenisation
  • emphasis on studying endogeneous characteristics
    and influence of characteristics coming from
    outside
  • new (paradigmatic) interests
  • religion and language structuring culture
  • gender in development practices
  • power, knowledge and empowerment
  • otherness
  • a challenge to Western development model
  • a challenge to universalist development theories
  • distrust on state as a development coordinator
  • new definitions of poverty from local
    perspectives

66
Development from Below
  • Empowerment
  • capacitation
  • participation
  • Indeginous knowledge
  • populism
  • critique of science
  • Trickle-up
  • grass-root development agency
  • Voluntarism
  • creativist idea of individuals (contra
    consumerism)
  • Avoidance of bureaucracy
  • Self-reliance as objective (contra as means for
    modernisation)
  • aims and values from within
  • no forerunners to follow
  • Modenisation from outside causes decay of
    natural societies

67
Influence on Development Research and Policies
  • Research focus on
  • society/individual level
  • participation
  • ecology and culture (contra economy and social
    sciences)
  • abandonment of universalist theories
    (ethnocentrism)
  • Policy emphasis on
  • NGOs
  • partnership
  • new development actors (former margins)

68
Samuel P. Huntington The Clash of Civilizations
and the Remaking of World Order (1996)
  • Explanation of post-Cold War world
  • when studying conflicts attention to cultural
    identity and its meaning in the world order
  • crystallisation of argument modernisation ?
    Westernisation
  • the world is based on civilisations
  • civilisations subordinate to cyclic development
    model

69
Samuel P. Huntington The Clash of Civilizations
and the Remaking of World Order (1996)
  • Civilisations
  • in present-day world seven or eight civilisations
    (in the world history over 20)
  • broadest cultural levels of identification, based
    on language, culture, tradition, religion
  • unique, uniting cluster of views about God,
    society, liberties, authorities, relationships,
    hierarchies
  • have centre (core states) and peripheries
  • lines between civilisations are fuzzy (blending
    and overlapping)

70
Samuel P. Huntington The Clash of Civilizations
and the Remaking of World Order (1996)
  • Ideological clashes ? civilisation clashes
  • civilisation-consciousness has risen
  • increasing interactions between peoples
  • nation state (old source of identity) has
    weakened because of economic modernisation
  • modernisation from within bases on cultural
    authenticity
  • end of ideological conflict exposes profound
    cultural characteristics
  • rising economic regionalism (EU, NAFTA, Mercosur,
    AFTA)
  • macro level
  • civilisations (core states) compete for military
    and economic power, struggle over control of
    international institutions, and promote their
    political and religious values
  • micro level
  • territorial struggles are located to
    civilisational peripheries, the fault lines
    between civilisations

71
Samuel P. Huntington The Clash of Civilizations
and the Remaking of World Order (1996)
  • Fault Lines
  • replace (unfold from) Cold War boundaries (e.g.
    Iron Curtain) as the points of crisis
  • replacement of conflicts between social classes
    to those between peoples belonging to different
    cultural entities
  • regions of the most dangerous cultural conflicts
  • potential for escalation when civilisations rally
    to the support of their kin countries
  • the potential third World War is a civilisation
    conflict that starts in the fault line
  • intracivilization conflicts less intense and less
    likely to expand
  • fault lines of the present-day Islam civilization
    are especially vulnerable (Yugoslavia, Caucasus,
    Israel, India, North East Africa)

72
Samuel P. Huntington The Clash of Civilizations
and the Remaking of World Order (1996)
  • Cyclic Development Model (West and the Rest)
  • during 500 years Western civilisation created a
    multipolar intracivilisation power system (nation
    states) and decisively inluenced other
    civilisations ? hegemony
  • the failure of band-wagoning West is a sign of
    diminished hegemony
  • (temporary) survival of the West depends on
    Westerners accepting their civilizstion as unique
    not universal and that West should not intervene
    violently other civilisations
  • the time will come for a new hegemonic
    civilisation (most probably from East Asia)

73
Samuel P. Huntington The Clash of Civilizations
and the Remaking of World Order (1996)
  • Research focus on
  • civilisation-depended cultural forms and values
  • influences of shifting hegemony
  • Criticism
  • premises for identification mechanisms vague
    (profound, however changeable when needed)
  • when a cluster of values is unique enough for
    being value base of a civilisation?
  • are civilisations internally that uniform?
  • are there real unchanging cultural forms?

74
Anti-Development
  • Development discourse is a political endeavor of
    those willing to speak for others
  • - development intervention based on deceptive
    fictional ideology
  • Means of development incorrect
  • - trusteeship intervention obstructs free growth
  • - state is an authoritarian actor
  • - Neo-Liberalism
  • Means and goals of development incorrect
  • - rejection of growth
  • - Post-Development

75
Post-Development
  • perspective ranging from military closure to soft
    retsructure of minds
  • emphasis on local knowledge
  • Development
  • form of Western modernism and scientific
    distortion (Westernisation)
  • new religion of the West
  • antidemocratic programme
  • authoritarian, privileging discourse
  • empowerment of the Western knowledge system
  • universalistic presupposition
  • ethnocentric model of society
  • concept for exploitation of endogenous cultures
  • normalisation, homogenisation

76
Anti-managerialism
  • anti-authoritarian sensibility
  • disgust to external control mechanisms
    international financial institutions and state
    (control system is one version of the Panopticon)
  • suspicion of new managerialisms of the NGOs
    (alternative development)
  • new clothes (sustainable, human, local, social)
    for development
  • unclear and managerial aims self-sufficiency,
    basic needs, participation etc.
  • post-development as present-day anarchism
  • anti-political tendency (cf. other post-isms)

77
Critique of Science
  • Present hegemony of science is based on the
    privileged position of Western middle-aged man
  • - one knowledge system hegemony gives support to
    one political programme (for example economics)
  • - prohibition of the knowledge systems of
    non-Western societies
  • - forming of laboratory states of the Third
    World
  • - unethical intentions, worldview and mindset
    (aim at mastery over nature)
  • ? need for new endogenous truths

78
Neo-Classical Economics
  • underdevelopment explained by differences in
    policies (not in initial conditions)
  • emphasising equilibrium on the laws of supply and
    demand
  • efficiency required (best met by perfect
    competition in free markets)
  • focus on disaggregeted microstudies (away with
    grand theories)
  • agrument free markets underpin human freedom in
    general, states should avoid interventions

79
Neoliberalism
  • starting-point Liberalism and neo-classical
    economics
  • reason of underdevelopment exploitative state
    evil government
  • development idea free markets and international
    trade allow the best context for general welfare
  • objective establishment of a global market-based
    system
  • elimination of state interventions to the minimum
  • with open and outaward-looking economy
  • with privatisation of state-owned enterprises

80
Rise of the Neoliberalist Doctrine
  • End of Bretton Woods system 1973
  • New Right governments of USA, Britain and Germany
    1980s
  • Structural adjustment programs of IMF and WB
  • Washington Consensus

81
Postwar Global System
  • Realization of the international underdevelopment
    problem
  • focus change civilization gt economic growth
  • hegemonic change in the international politics
  • Bretton Woods institutions a global economic and
    political government
  • World Bank
  • International Monetary Fund (IMF)
  • International Trade Organization (ITO)/ General
    Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT)/ World
    Trade Organization (WTO)
  • United Nations (UN)
  • Political outlinings of world system
  • Western Liberal Democracy Doctrine
  • Socialist Revolutionary Doctrine
  • Non-alignment Doctrine

82
World Bank i.e. International Bank for
Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and
International Development Association (IDA)
  • responsibility of economic reconstruction and
    development projects
  • provide low-interest loans, interest-free credit,
    and grants to development projects
  • project lending gt program lending
  • from the principle of national sovereignty to
    growing conditionality on the competence of the
    recipient government
  • not bank, but rather a specialized agency of the
    United Nations
  • World Bank Group IBDR, IDA, International
    Finance Corporation (IFC), The Multilateral
    Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA), The
    International Centre for Settlement of Investment
    Disputes (ICSID)

83
The International Monetary Fund
  • IMF is responsible for ensuring the stability of
    the international monetary and financial system
  • responsibility of
  • promoting international monetary cooperation
  • promoting exchange rate stability
  • promoting orderly exchange arrangements
  • fostering balanced economic growth of
    international trade and high levels of employment
  • providing temporary financial assistance to
    countries to help ease balance of payments
    adjustment
  • operations
  • surveillance over exchange arrangements
  • financial assistance
  • technical assistance

84
International Trade Organization (ITO) gt General
Agreement of Tariffs and Trade (GATT) gt World
Trade Organization (WTO)
  • BW ITO
  • responsibility of
  • controlling commodity prices
  • promoting equal access to the markets, products
    and productive facilities
  • promoting on a reciprocal and mutually
    advantageous basis for the reduction of tariffs
    and other barriers to trade and the elimination
    of discriminatory treatment in international
    commerce
  • facilitating through the promotion of mutual
    understanding, consultation and co-operation, the
    solution of problems relating to international
    trade
  • GATT (1947)
  • agreement without surveillance tools of an
    organization planned
  • WTO (1995)
  • responsibility of helping producers to conduct
    their business with administering trade
    agreements, negotiations, handling trade
    disputes, monitoring national trade policies, and
    offering technical assistance
  • state-to-state relations cooperative openness,
    harmonization, fairness, risk reduction
  • domestic policies self-restraint, coalition
    building
  • international organization trade functionalism,
    comparative institutionalism

85
United Nations (UN)
  • UN responsible for
  • political outlining of global economy and
    security
  • planning and realizing of large development aid
    programs
  • taking care of world peace and security, social
    and economic development, human rights and other
    humanitarian affairs, and international law
  • maintaining equilibrium of international system
    and administering international dialogue
  • Main bodies
  • General Assembly
  • Economic and Social Council
  • International Court of Justice
  • Security Council
  • Trusteeship Council
  • Secreteriat

86
Governmental organisations
87
Non-governmental organisations
88
Third World
  • bringing off of the bipolar world from the
    perspective of global power structure
  • forming of a political coalition between
    underdeveloped countries in order to gain
    self-sufficiency
  • ending of the neo-colonialism
  • introduction of the term Third World as a symbol
    of these common objectives
  • Bandung Conference 1955
  • Non-Align Movement

89
Fourth and Fifth Worlds
  • development project has immisered others
  • the immiserizing is both geographical and
    structural, but not based on class structures so
    much as power/knowledge privileges
  • the new poor (end of national solidarity)
  • native indigenous minorities
  • least advanced countries (end of international
    solidarity)
  • women

90
Globalisation
  • unlimited and accelerating movement and
    transportation of ideas, people, capital and
    products
  • links between world parts widen and become deeper
  • vanishing state?
  • critique
  • black protectionism
  • red protectionism
  • green protectionism

91
Poverty
  • mainstream understanding income and ability to
    consumption, synonymous with underdevelopment
  • Post-developmentalist critique
  • political concept has displaced modernisation as
    the motive for development policies of both
    international financial organizations and
    governments (focus change)
  • extension health, social services, political
    rights etc.
  • relatisization culture/poverty, meaning of
    poverty lines

92
Development Theories
93
Development Theories
94
A. Analysis of what is
B. Analysis what ought to be
95
Narratives of development History from Past to
Present
96
Development Ethics
97
Visions of Development
  • dependence on the view about human being as an
    actor (voluntarist/determinist)
  • character of the object ? the focus of the
    research problem is already fundamental
  • reflexive development reaction to preceding
    development theories ?
  • spiral of reflexivities
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