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HIST 207


HIST 207 MODERN HISTORY KO UNIVERSITY PROF. ZAFER TOPRAK www.ata.boun.edu.tr GLOBAL HISTORY The course puts the phenomenon of globalization into historical ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HIST 207


ZAFER TOPRAK www.ata.boun.edu.tr
  • The course puts the phenomenon of globalization
    into historical perspective and introduces
    students to the big themes and questions that
    arise from global perspectives on the past.
  • It covers globalization as a set of processes
    that operate simultaneously and unevenly on
    several historical levels and in various

  • Emphasis is given to the political, economic,
    social, and cultural changes that transformed
    Europe during the twentieth century. Europe has
    been characterized by extraordinary waves of
  • From colonialism / imperialism to decolonization,
    alongside increasing cultural ethnic diversity
    from division between capitalism and communism,
    between dictatorship democracy, to a striking
    convergence of socioeconomic political systems.

  • Course Requirements
  • Grading will be as follows
  • 1) a) attendance 15
  • b) pop quizzes 15
  • 2)      mid-term exam 35
  • 3)      final exam 35
  • 100

  • Week I February 4-6
  • Globalization a new phenomenon
  • Introductory lectures
  • Week II February 11-13
  • Overseas Expansion and Imperialism
  • Jürgen Osterhammel and Niels P. Petersson,
    1750-1880 Imperialism, Industrialization, and
    Free Trade, chapter in Globalization A Short
    History, Princeton University Press, 2005, pp.

  • Week III February 18-20
  • Overseas Expansion and Imperialism
  • A. G. Hopkins, Overseas Expansion, Imperialism,
    and Empire, 1815-1914, chapter in Short Oxford
    History of Europe The Nineteenth Century, (T. C.
    W. Blanning, ed.), Oxford University Press, 2000,
    pp. 210-240.

  • Week IV February 25-27
  • International Relations and the End of Empires
  • Rondo Cameron, Overview of the World Economy in
    the Twentieth Century, chapter in A Concise
    Economic History of the World, Oxford University
    Press, 1991, pp.322-344.

  • Week V March 3-5
  • Politics and Economy in the First Half of the
    20th Century
  • Jürgen Osterhammel and Niels P. Petersson,
    1880-1945 Global Capitalism and Global Crises,
    chapter in Globalization A Short History,
    Princeton University Press, 2005, pp. 81-111.

  • Week VI March 10-12
  • The Dark Age in the Interwar Years
  • Rajnarayan Chandavarkan, Europe 1900-1945
    Imperialism and the European Empires, chapter in
    Short Oxford History of Europe Europe 1900-1945,
    (Julian Jackson, ed.), Oxford University Press,
    2002, pp. 138-172.

  • Week VII March 17-19
  • Deglobalization or Economic Disintegration
  • Rondo Cameron, International Economic
    Disintegration, chapter in A Concise Economic
    History of the World, Oxford University Press,
    1991, pp.345-368.

  • Review Session
  • Mid-Term Exam
  • Week VIII March 24-26
  • Social Crisis in the Interwar Years
  • Robin W. Winks R. J. Q. Adams, Between the
    Wars A Twenty-Year Crisis, chapter in Europe
    Crisis and Conflict 1890-1945, Oxford University
    Press, 2003, pp. 125-175.

  • Week IX March 31-April 2
  • Political Crisis Democracy versus
    Authoritarianism / Totalitarianism
  • Robin W. Winks R. J. Q. Adams, The Democracies
    and the Non-Western World, chapter in Europe
    Crisis and Conflict 1890-1945, Oxford University
    Press, 2003, pp. 176-208.
  • April 7-9 Spring Break

  • Week X April 14-16
  • Economy and Society in the Second Half of the
    20th Century
  • Rondo Cameron, Rebuilding the World Economy,
    chapter in A Concise Economic History of the
    World, Oxford University Press, 1991, pp. 369-395.

  • Week XI April 21-23 (Holiday)
  • Globalizatan and the Cold War
  • Jürgen Osterhammel and Niels P. Petersson, 1945
    to Mid-1970s Globalization Split in Two,
    chapter in Globalization A Short History,
    Princeton University Press, 2005, pp. 113-139.

  • Week XII April 28-30
  • From Cold War to Détente 1962-79
  • Anthony Best, Jussi M. Hanhimaki, Joseph A.
    Maiolo, Kirsten E. Schulze, From Cold War to
    Détente 1962-79, chapter in International
    History of the Twentieth Century, London New
    York, Routledge, 2004, 265-287.

  • Week XIII May 5-7
  • The Era of Globalization
  • Anthony Best, Jussi M. Hanhimaki, Joseph A.
    Maiolo, Kirsten E. Schulze, The End of the Cold
    War and the Brave New World 1980-2000, chapter
    in International History of the Twentieth
    Century, London New York, Routledge, 2004,

  • Week XIV May 12-14
  • Reviews Session

  • Globalisation is international integration. It
    can be described as a process by which the people
    of the world are unified into a single society.
  • Globalization refers to a multidimensional set of
    social processes that create, multiply, stretch,
    and intensify worldwide social interdependencies
    exchanges while at the same time fostering in
    people a growing awareness of deepening
    connections between the local and the distant.

  • Globalization is an uneven process, meaning that
    people living in various parts of the world are
    affected very differently by this gigantic
    transformation of social structures and cultural

  • One defining characteristic of the process
  • Movement towards greater interdependence
  • This process is a combination of economic,
    technological, socio-cultural and political

  • Globalization compresses the time and space
    aspects of social relations.
  • James Mittelman
  • Globalization can be defined as the
    intensification of worldwide social relations
    which link distant localities in such a way that
    local happenings are shaped by events occurring
    many miles away and vice versa.
  • Anthony Giddens

  • Scholars not only hold different views with
    regard to proper definitions of globalization,
    they also disagree on its scale, causation,
    chronology, impact, trajectories, and policy
  • The word "globalization" has been used by
    economists since 1981 however, its concepts did
    not permeate popular consciousness until the
    later half of the 1990s.

  • Various social scientists have tried to
    demonstrate continuity between contemporary
    trends of globalization and earlier periods.
  • Globalization is viewed as a centuries long
    process, tracking the expansion of human
    population and the growth of civilization, that
    has accelerated dramatically in the past 50

  • The global integration of humankind had its
    beginnings under Portuguese auspices in the 15th
  • The process of globalization had its origins in
    Europe, through the Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch,
    French, and English territorial and maritime
    expansion into all habitable continents, and
    included the discovery and colonization of the
    New World.

  • Proto-globalization
  • Early forms of globalization existed during the
    Roman Empire, the Parthian Empire, and the Han
    Dynasty, when the silk road started in China,
    reached the boundaries of the Parthian Empire and
    continued onwards towards Rome.

  • The Islamic Golden Age is also an example, when
    Muslim traders and explorers established an early
    global economy across the Old World resulting in
    a globalization of crops, trade, knowledge and
    technology and later during the Mongol Empire,
    when there was greater integration along the Silk

  • Globalization became a business phenomenon in the
    17th century when was established.
  • The Dutch East India Company is described as the
    first multinational corporation,

  • An important driver for globalization Sharing
    risk through joint ownership
  • Because of the high risks involved with
    international trade, The Dutch East India Company
    became the first company in the world to share
    risk and enable joint ownership through the
    issuing of shares.

  • Liberalization in the 19th century is sometimes
    called "The First Era of Globalization", a period
    characterized by rapid growth in international
    trade and investment, between the European
    imperial powers, their colonies, and, later, the
    United States.
  • An Era of Colonization - Imperialism
  • It was in this period that areas of sub-saharan
    Africa and the Island Pacific were incorporated
    into the world system.

  • The decades preceding the outbreak of World War I
  • witnessed an era of extensive globalization.
  • The first era of globalization during the 19th
    century was the rapid growth of international
    trade between the European imperial powers, the
    European colonies, and the United States.

  • Belief in the superiority of their own nation
    nationalism has supplied the mental enery
    required for large-scale warfare.
  • The enormous productive capacities of the modern
    state nation state have provided the material
    means necessary to fight the total wars of the
    last century.

  • The "First Era of Globalization" began to break
    down at the beginning with the first World War,
    and later collapsed during the gold standard
    crisis in the late 1920s and early 1930s.
  • The Dark Age for humanity due to world wars.
  • After World War II, globalization was restarted
    and was driven by major advances in technology,
    which led to lower trading costs.

  • Globalization in the era since World War II was
    first the result of planning by economists,
    business interests, and politicians who
    recognized the costs associated with
    protectionism and declining international
    economic integration.

  • Their work led to the Bretton Woods conference
    (1944) and the founding of several international
  • intended to oversee the renewed processes of
    globalization, promoting growth and managing
    adverse consequences.
  • These were the International Bank for
    Reconstruction and Development (the World Bank)
    and the International Monetary Fund (IMF).

  • It has been facilitated by advances in technology
    which have reduced the costs of trade, and trade
    negotiation rounds,
  • originally under the auspices of General
    Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which led
    to a series of agreements to remove restrictions
    on free trade.

  • Since World War II, barriers to international
    trade have been considerably lowered through
    international agreements - (GATT).
  • The Uruguay round (1984 to 1995) led to a treaty
    to create the World Trade Organization (WTO), to
    mediate trade disputes and set up a uniform
    platform of trading.

  • Other bi- and multilateral trade agreements,
    including sections of Europe's Maastricht Treaty
    and the North American Free Trade Agreement
    (NAFTA) have also been signed in pursuit of the
    goal of reducing tariffs and barriers to trade.

  • The dramatic creation, expansion, and
    acceleration of worldwide interdependencies
    global exchanges that have occurred since the
    early 1970s represent another quantum leap in the
    history of globalization.

  • Particular initiatives carried out as a result of
    GATT and the World Trade Organisation (WTO), for
    which GATT is the foundation, have included

  • Promotion of free trade
  • a) Reduction or elimination of tariffs
    construction of free trade zones with small or no
  • b) Reduced transportation costs, especially from
    development of containerization for ocean
  • c) Reduction or elimination of capital controls,
  • d) Reduction, elimination, or harmonization of
    subsidies for local businesses,

  • Restriction of free trade
  • a) Harmonization of intellectual property laws
    across the majority of states, with more
  • b) Supranational recognition of intellectual
    property restrictions (e.g. patents granted by
    China would be recognized in the United States)

  • The nature of these developments has been
    criticized by many including Noam Chomsky who
  • ... That enhances what's called "globalization,"
    a term of propaganda used conventionally to refer
    to a certain particular form of international
    integration that is (not surprisingly) beneficial
    to its designers Multinational corporations and
    the powerful states to which they are closely

  • In the decades following World War II, even the
    most conservative political parties in Europe and
    the United States rejected the laissez-faire
    ideas and instead embraced an extensive version
    of state interventionism propagated by British
    economist John Maynard Keynes, the architect of
    the Bretton Woods system.
  • By the 1980s, however, British Prime Minister
    Margaret Thatcher and US President Ronald Reagan
    led the neoliberal revolution against
    Keynesianism, consciously linking the notion of
    globalization to the liberation of economies
    around the world.

  • Concrete neoliberal measures include
  • 1. Privatization of public enterprises
  • 2. Deregulation of the economy
  • 3. Liberalization of trade and industry
  • 4. Massive tax cuts
  • 5. Monetarist measures to keep inflation in
    check, even at the risk of increasing
  • 6. Strict control on organized labour
  • 7. The reduction of public expenditures,
    particularly social spending
  • 8. The down-sizing of government
  • 9. The expansion of international markets
  • 10. The removeal of controls on global financial

  • The new neoliberal economic order received
    further legitimation with the 1989-91 collapse of
    communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.
  • Since then, the three most significant
    developments related to economic globalization
    have been
  • The internationalization of trade and finance
  • The increasing power of transnational
  • c) The enhanced role of international economic
    institutions like the IMF, the World Bank, and
    the WTO.

  • Effects of globalization
  • Globalization has various aspects which affect
    the world in several different ways such as
  • a) Industrial
  • b) Financial
  • c) Economic

  • Industrial (alias trans nationalization) -
    emergence of worldwide production markets and
    broader access to a range of foreign products for
    consumers and companies

  • Financial - emergence of worldwide financial
    markets and better access to external financing
    for corporate, national and subnational borrowers

  • Economic - realization of a global common market,
    based on the freedom of exchange of goods and

  • However, the following problems are noted
  • Poorer countries are sometimes at disadvantage
  • While it is true that globalization encourages
    free trade among countries on an international
    level, there are also negative consequences
    because some countries try to save their national

  • The main export of poorer countries is usually
    agricultural goods.
  • It is difficult for these countries to compete
    with stronger countries that subsidize their own
  • Because the farmers in the poorer countries
    cannot compete, they are forced to sell their
    crops at much lower price than what the market is

  • Exploitation of foreign impoverished workers
  • The deterioration of protections for weaker
    nations by stronger industrialized powers has
    resulted in the exploitation of the people in
    those nations to become cheap labor.
  • Due to the lack of protections, companies from
    powerful industrialized nations are able to force
    workers to endure extremely long hours, unsafe
    working conditions, and just enough salary to
    keep them working.

  • The abundance of cheap labor is giving the
    countries in power incentive not to rectify the
    inequality between nations.
  • If these nations developed into industrialized
    nations, the army of cheap labor would slowly
    disappear alongside development.

  • With the world in this current state, it is
    impossible for the exploited workers to escape
  • It is true that the workers are free to leave
    their jobs, but in many poorer countries, this
    would mean starvation for the worker, and
    possible even his/her family.

  • Shift from manufacturing to service work The low
    cost of offshore workers have enticed
    corporations to move production to foreign
  • The laid off unskilled workers are forced into
    the service sector where wages and benefits are
    low, but turnover is high. This has contributed
    to the widening economic gap between skilled and
    unskilled workers.

  • The loss of these jobs has also contributed
    greatly to the slow decline of the middle class
    which is a major factor in the increasing
    economic inequality in the United States.
  • Families that were once part of the middle class
    are forced into lower positions by massive
    layoffs and outsourcing to another country.

  • This also means that people in the lower class
    have a much harder time climbing out of poverty
    because of the absence of the middle class as a
    stepping stone.

  • The rise of contingent work
  • As globalization causes more and more jobs to be
    shipped overseas, and the middle class declines,
    there is less need for corporations to hire full
    time employees.
  • Companies are less inclined to offer benefits
    (health insurance, bonuses, vacation time, shares
    in the company, and pensions), or reduce
    benefits, to part time workers.

  • Most companies dont offer any benefits at all.
  • Even though most of the middle class workers
    still have their jobs, the reality is that their
    buying power has decreased due to decreased
  • Job security is also a major issue with
    contingent work.

  • Weakening of labor unions
  • The surplus in cheap labor coupled with an ever
    growing number of companies in transition has
    caused a weakening of labor unions in the United
  • Unions loss their effectiveness when their
    membership begins to decline.

  • As a result, unions hold less power over
    corporations that are able to easily replace
    workers, often for lower wages, and have the
    option to not offer unionized jobs anymore.

  • Political Globalization
  • Political globalization refers to the
    intensification and expansion of political
    interrelations across the globe.
  • These processes raise an important set of
    political issues pertaining to the principle of
    state sovereignty, the growing impact of
    intergovernmental organization, and the future
    prospects for regional global governance.

  • Humans have organized their political differences
    along territorial lines that generate a sense of
    belonging to a particular nation-state in the
    last few centuries.

  • This artificial division of planetary social
    space into domestic and foreign spheres
    corresponds to peoples collective identities
    based on the creation of a commonus
    unfamiliar them. demonizing the images of the
  • The modern nation-state system has rested on
    psycological foundadions cultural assumptions
    that convey a sense of existential security and
    historical continuity.

  • The origins of the modern nation-system can be
    traced back to 17th-century political
    developments in Europe.
  • The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 concluded a
    series of religious wars among the main European
    powers following the protestant Reformation.

  • Based on the newly formulated principles of
    sovereignty territoriality, the new model of
    self-contained, impersonal states challenged the
    medieval mosaic of small polities.
  • with local and personal political power but
    still subordinated to a larger imperial
  • transnational character of vast imperial

  • The Westphalian model gradually strengthened a
    new conception of international law based on the
    principle that all states had an equal right to
  • The unified territoral areas constituted the
    foundation for modernitys secular national
    system of political power.
  • Absolutist kings in France and Prussia
  • Constitutional monarchs and republican leaders of
    England and the Netherlands,

  • The centuries following the Peace of Westphalia
    saw the further centralization of political
    power, the expansion of state administration, the
    development of professional diplomacy, and the
    successful monopolization of the means of
    coercion in the hands of the state.
  • States also provided the military means required
    for the expansion of commerce, which, in turn,
    contributed for the spread of the European form
    of political rule around the globe.

  • The second half of the 18th century a double
    revolution ushered in the modern world
  • The Industrial Revolutution starting in England
    about 1760
  • The French Revolution of 1789 introduced a new
    age of political order initially in Europe and
    later throughout the world.
  • The industrial revolution required more than a
    century to affect all the areas that are
    productive industrial countries today.
  • However, The dynamics of state-building and
    preindustrial colonialism fueled an early era of

  • Durign the early modern period, the Europeans
    managed to take control of the worlds seas,
    although no one Europan power held a dominant
    positition over its competitors.
  • The Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, English, ad
    French, and even multinational pirate crews were
    far superior to every other sea power.
  • European naval supremacy extended to all branches
    of high-seas navigation exploration, commerce,
    and warfare.

  • The ties between naval power and commercial
    shipping were closer in Europe than they had ever
    been in any civilization in history.
  • The role of navies acquired a completely new
    dimension as instruments of the early modern
  • Much of Europes innovative talent was spent o
    perfecting naval navigation techniques and in
    establishing and running such complex
    organization as the British East India Company,
    and the Royal Navy.

  • Once Europe ahd secured control of the high seas,
    the stage was set for the rise of the most
    dynamic economic sector in the 18th century.
  • Moreover, shipbuilding shipping became
    important economic sectors each in its own right.
  • At first, military branch of seafaring was
    subordinate in importance to commercial shipping

  • Around the middle of the 18th century, the
    military branch emancipated itself from its
    supporting role and became an instrument of a
    form of politics unknown until then.
  • The strongest adversaries considered the entire
    world to be a theater of war.
  • Large infantry units were shipped overseas.
    Britain pioneered this new strategic concept.

  • British forces drove the French out of Canada,
    fouth them and their indigeous allies in India,
    attacked Manila and Havana, two of the wealthiest
    cities in the Spanish colonial empire.
  • The same phenomenon repeated itself in the larger
    conflicts between Britain and revolutionary,
    later Napoleonic, France, from 1793-1815.
  • Britain occupied many strategically vital ports
    in the wake of Napoleonic Wars, including
    Gibraltar, Malta, the Cape of Good Hope, and

  • The British completed their military conquest of
  • Attempted for the very first time to establish
    diplomatic relations with China.
  • In 1788, Australia became the destination of the
    first British penal transports turning the
    continent into another colony.

  • As a fiscal military state Britain was capable
    of mobilizing a greater amount of financial
    resources at home than were the absolutistic
    monarchies of the Eurasian continent.
  • The improved capacity of naval warfare was one of
    the results of British efforts to rationally
    organize the states policies of taxation and
    debt financing.
  • France and Russia quickly copied the British

  • The concentration of power in the Atlantic region
    was one of the most imqportant reasons for the
    great crisis of the Western Hemisphere.
  • In the 1760s both the British state and the
    Spanish crown attempted to strengthen their
    respective holds over their American colonies.
  • Response Thirteen British colonies declared
    their independence in 1776 and fought against the
    British and defeated them in 1783.

  • In the Spanish colonies the first attempts by the
    Creole elite to free themselves proved too week,.
    But they finally succedded in becoming
    independent as the Spanish monarchy fell apart in
    the wake of Napoleons invasion.
  • By 1825 the Spanish colonial empire had
    disappeared altogether from the American

  • A third war of independence started in 1791 by
    the mulatto planters and black slaves in St.
    Dominique the most importannt sugar producing
    area of the world.
  • Civil war French British intervention
    independence in 1804 under the name of Haiti, the
    first black republic in History

  • The crises in the Atlantic between the Old and
    New Worlds from about 1765 to 1825 were the
    result of intense processes of integration in
    this maritime region.
  • Paradoxical consequences in the long-term.
  • The revolts of settler and slaves destroyed some
    of the existing links.
  • Once its sugar-exporting economy collapsed,
    slave-free Haiti dropped out of the global

  • In the USA the political elite directed the
    nations attention westward, away from the
    Atlantic. Great adventure of settling the North
    American continent began.
  • The new republics of South and Central America
    wanted to have as little to do with Spain as

  • New international links were forged between the
    two sides of the Atlantic.
  • In place of Spain, Latin American countries
    established new economic relations with the
    leader of globalization, Britain.
  • The economic, social, and cultural relations
    between the USA and the Britain survived the
    political split and developed over time into the
    special relationship.

  • Napoleons global repercussion The invasion of
    Egypt in 1798.
  • Alarmed the entire Muslim world
  • Spurred British imperialism on to furtthur
    expansion in Asia

  • The mature expression of the modern nation-state
    system at the end of World War I
  • US President Woodrow Wilsons Fourteen Points
    based on the principle of national
  • All forms of national identity should be given
    their territorial expression
  • Enshrining the nation-state as the ethical
    legal pinnacle of his proposed interstate

  • Extremely difficult to enforce in practice
  • Wilson lent some legitimacy to those radical
    ethnonationalist forces that pushed the worlds
    main powers into another war of global

  • The League of Nations.
  • Yet, Wilsons commitment to the nation-state
    coexisted with internationalist dream of
    establishing a global system of collective
    security under the auspices of a new
    international organization, the League of
  • The United Nations
  • His idea of giving international cooperation an
    institutional expression was eventually realized
    with the founding of the United Nations in 1945.

  • While deeply rooted in a political order based on
    the modern nation-state system,
  • the UN and other fledgling intergovernmental
    organizations served a catalyst for the gradual
    extension of political activities across national
  • thus undermining the principle of national

  • As globalization tendencies grew stronger during
    the 1970s, it became clear that the international
    society of separate states was rapidly turning
    into a global web of political interdependencies
    that challenged the sovereignty of nation-states.
  • In 1990, at the outset of the Gulf War, US
    President George H. W. Bush pronounced dead the
    Westphalian model by announcing the birth of a
    new world order.

In 1924, Is BankasiIn 1925, Sanayi ve Maadin
BankasiIn 1927, Tesvik-i Sanayi Kanunu
  • Contemporary manifestiations of globalization
    have led to the partial permeation of these old
    territorial borders, in the process also
    softening hard conceptual boundaries cultural
    lines of demarcation.
  • .

In 1924, Is BankasiIn 1925, Sanayi ve Maadin
BankasiIn 1927, Tesvik-i Sanayi Kanunu
  • Hyperglobalizers have suggested that the period
    since tle late 1960s has been marked by a
    radical deterritorialization of politics, rule,
    and governence.

In 1924, Is BankasiIn 1925, Sanayi ve Maadin
BankasiIn 1927, Tesvik-i Sanayi Kanunu
  • Globalization sceptics have not oly affirmed the
    continued relevance of the nation-state as the
    political container of modern social life but
    have also poited to the emergence of regional
    blocks as evidence for new forms of

  • Question
  • Is it really true that the power of nation-state
    has been curtailed by massive flow of capital,
    people, and technology across territorial
    boundaries ?

  • Political globalization is the creation of a
    world government which regulates the
    relationships among nations and guarantees the
    rights arising from social economic
  • Politically, the United States has enjoyed a
    position of power among the world powers in part
    because of its strong and wealthy economy.

  • With the influence of globalization and with the
    help of The United States own economy, China has
    experience some tremendous growth within the past
  • If China continues to grow at the rate projected
    by the trends, then it is very likely that in the
    next twenty years, there will be a major
    reallocation of power among the world leaders.

  • China will have enough wealth, industry, and
    technology to rival the United States for the
    position of leading world power.

  • Informational globalization
  • Increase in information flows between
    geographically remote locations

  • Cultural globalization
  • Growth of cross-cultural contacts advent of new
    categories of consciousness and identities such
    as Globalism
  • Globalism which embodies cultural diffusion, the
    desire to consume and enjoy foreign products and
    ideas, adopt new technology and practices,
    participate in a world culture.

  • Greater international cultural exchange
  • Spreading of multiculturalism, and better
    individual access to cultural diversity (e.g.
    through the export of Hollywood and Bollywood
  • However, the imported culture can easily supplant
    the local culture, causing reduction in diversity
    through hybridization or even assimilation.
  • The most prominent form of this is
    Westernization, but Sinicization of cultures has
    taken place over most of Asia for many centuries.

  • Ecological globalization
  • The advent of global environmental challenges
    that can not be solved without international
    cooperation, such as climate change,
    cross-boundary water air pollution,
    over-fishing of the ocean, and the spread of
    invasive species.
  • Many factories are built in developing countries
    where they can pollute freely.

  • Social globalization
  • The achievement of free circulation by people of
    all nations.
  • Greater international travel and tourism
  • Greater immigration, including illegal
  • Spread of local consumer products (e.g. food) to
    other countries (often adapted to their culture)

  • World-wide fads and pop culture such as Pokémon,
    Sudoku, Numa Numa, Origami, Idol series, YouTube,
    Orkt, Facebook , and MySpace.
  • World-wide sporting events such as FIFA World Cup
    and the Olympic Games.
  • Formation or development of a set of universal

  • Imperialism
  • Scholarly opinion split into two camps
  • Radical / Marxist Camp
  • Verus
  • Liberal / Conservative Camp
  • One camp Radical intellectual drew on Marx and
  • linked 19th-century imperialism to the
    development of industrial capitalism.

  • The process of capital accumalation generated
    internal contradictions that found expression
    during the last quarter of the 19th century in
    new and all-encompassing forms of imperialism.
  • The struggle for control of the world was not
    confined to the acquisition of colonies it
    culminated in WWI.
  • Imperialism, like capitalism, knew no frontiers
    economic integration created colonies as well as

  • liberal-conservative camp
  • Grouped around a liberal-conservative banner,
    rejected Marxism,
  • elaborated a range of alternative accounts of
    empire and imperialism.
  • Against mono-causal economic analysis was ranged
    a multiplicity of diplomatic, political, social,
    and cultural, as well as economic, explanations
    of empire-building.
  • Against the determinism of impersonal forces was
    set the role of individuals and chance.

  • Eurocentric versus Ex-centric
  • Eurocentrism was countered by the ex-centric
  • shifted causation to the periphery by emphasizing
    the role of sub-imperialists, or men-on-the-spot.
  • Debits versus Benefits
  • The claim that imperialism was explotative
    provoked alternative exercises in historical
    accounting to show that it brought benefits.

  • The 19th century was a period of unparalleled
    imperial expansion.
  • Extraordinary voyages of discovery in previous
    centuries had enabled cartographers to inscribe
    other continents on the map of mankind.
  • Parts of the world, notably the Americas and the
    Indies, had already experienced European conquest
    and rule.

  • Europeans, in turn, had been influenced by what
    they read and by what they consumed.
  • Colonial imports had brought the exotic to the
    Old World.
  • from spices to silver, from potatoes to
    tobacco, from sugar to tea
  • A fascination with distant lands Defoes
    Robinson Crusoe (1719)

  • Petentartive capacity of Europe in the 19th
  • the applicationof science, especially new
    technology, to the means of production,
    communication, and coercion, gave Europe a
    penetrative capacity far in excess of anything
    available to merchant venturers and

  • It became posible to convert mastery of the sea
    to ascendancy on land in new and decisive ways
  • to move the frontiers of Eurean influence deep
    into the still-uncharted interior of vast

  • Exploration Partition - Occupation
  • By the close of the 19th century, exploration had
    been overtaken by partition and partition, in
    turn, by occupation.
  • Spheres of influence
  • Large segments of other continents had been
    annexed, and spheres of influence established
    over much of the Middle East, the Far East, and
    Latin America.

  • Expansion and Imperialism
  • The terms expansion and imperialism are often
    used as if they were interchangeable.
  • To do so is to lose a valuable distinction.
  • Europes expansion overseas is an inclusive term
  • If imperialism is removed for separate study,
    expansion can be reserved for international
    movements (whether of people, trade, or ideas)
    that were not imperialistic.

  • Imperialism
  • Imperialism can than be used to refer to a
    particular form of expansion, one marked by
    inequality and subordination, and by the
    intergration of a client or satellite state into
    more powerful host or mother country.

  • Empire versus Nation State
  • The integration is always incomplete an empire
    remains a multi-ethnic conglomerate if it
    assimilates subject peoples fully, it becomes an
    enlarged nation state.
  • Imperialism can exist without an empire being

  • The criterium
  • Whether the sovereignty or independence of the
    recipient was effectively and significantly
    diminished - Argentina the Ottoman Empire.
  • Subordination to imperialism
  • Subordination to imperialism does not, of itself,
    entail one result, and the result that applies at
    one moment may well alter with the passage of

  • Three vantage points 1815, 1870, 1914.
  • A marked contrast in the picture before (in
    1815) and after (in 1914)
  • The global order that existed in 1918 showed
    distinct signs of change after 1850.
  • By 1870 the manifestations of these changes were
    readily apparent.
  • By 1914 they had transformed the world.

  • The Eurepean empires in 1815
  • The long and debilitating conflict between
    Britain and France was a struggle for the mastery
    of the world as well as Europe.
  • Following the Peace of Paris in 1763, France had
    been excluded from the two greatest prizes North
    America and India.
  • Under the aggressive leadership of Napoleon
    Bonaparte, the French had attempted to reclaim
    and extend their lost position.

  • Britains triumph at Trafalgar in 1805 delivered
    supremacy over the oceans.
  • Waterloo effectively levelled France on the
    continent of Europe and kept it there long enough
    for the Pax Britanicca to become an entrenched
    reality for the greater part of the century.
  • Meanwhile, London replaced Amsterdam as the
    commercial and financial capital of Europe.

  • An imperial quiescence / rest with free trade
    era ?
  • Or Anti-Imperialism ?
  • There was a growing trend away from empire from
    the late 18th century provided the basis for the
    view that the ensuing era of free trade was
    essentially anti-imperialist.
  • Much of the 19th century was a period of imperial
    quiescence / rest.
  • Sudden renewal of imperialist rivalries during
    the last quarter of the century.

  • It is impossible to accept the proposition that
    there was a long period of anti-imperialism
    between two phases of empire, one old and one
  • Britains record after the loss of American
    colonies is scarcely that of an anti-imperial
  • The first half of the 19th century saw
    substantial formal additions to the British
  • Overseas expansion also increased Britains
    informal presence and influence.

  • 1838, a free-trade treaty with the Ottoman
  • Safeguarded the position of European settlers,
  • Subjected tariffs to external control,
  • Emilinated state monopolies.
  • The treaty was followed by a package of
    modernizing reforms Tanzimat Reforms
  • After a show of force, a similar free-trade
    treaty was signed with Persia in 1841.

  • Britain fought two wars with China in 1839-42 and
  • Gained Hong Kong and a string of Treaty Ports
    that were intended to promote British trade with
    the largely untapped interior.
  • But the greatest scope for creating an informal
    empire lay in Latin America.
  • The idea was to shape the newly independent
    republics through trade, investment, and the
    export of British liberalism.

  • A whole range of notable extensions to Britains
    effective presence in non-European world during
    the first half of the 19th century.
  • The most influential explanation focuses on the
    Industrial Revolution.
  • Industrialization distinguished Britains
    economic development from that of other European
  • It can also account for Britains much greater
    success overseas as well.

  • New industries grew up within the protection of
    mercantilist restrictions, which most
    manufacturers were anxious to cling to for as
    long as possible, and free trade was not
    established fully until 1850, following the
    abolition of the Corn Laws in 1846 and the
    Navigation Act of 1849.
  • Clear signs of systematic connection between the
    process of industrialization and imperialism date
    from the 1830s and 1840s.

  • Triumph or Difficulties
  • A manifestation not of the triumph of industry
    but of its emerging difficulties.
  • The staple exports (especially cotton goods) were
    suffering from overproduction and falling profits
  • needed new markets, which could not be obtained
    readily in protectionist Europe.

  • Population growth and Unemployment
  • Population growth was outstripping domestic food
  • and
  • rising unemployment was generating a challenge to
    civil order.

  • Mercantilism versus Liberalism
  • The decision to abandon mercantilism was an
    experiment designed to provide new markets for
    manufactures and new sources of food for the
    urban population.

  • Finance and Service Sector
  • The place of the Industrial Revolution
  • Attention needs to be shifted to the development
    of finance and commercial services, symbolized by
    the rise of London as the pre-eminent center of
    world trade an by the emergence of the pound
    sterling as the leading international currency.

  • LONDON and the CITY
  • London major center of service-sector
    employment the City generated vital overseas
  • Considerable influence in political circles.

  • Warehouse versus Workshop
  • Imperial expansion was designed not only to solve
    industrys problem but to maximize the Citys
  • make Britain the warehouse of the world rather
    than its workshop.

  • Defence and the Navy
  • Considerations of defence to be given prominence
    in accounting for Britains overseas expension.
  • The small, offshore island had long been obliged
    to give the highest priority to the need to
    protect itself against larger and more powerful
    neighbours, first Spain annd then France.

  • The main strategy was to develop the navy.
  • Naval strength was supported by mercantilist
  • wealth created by seaborne commerce generated
    valuable foreign earnings and a degree of
    independence from land-based predators.

  • The first half of the 19th century was a period
    of markedly uneven development in Europes
    relations with non-European societies.
  • Once great empires were in retreat or had
    collapsed, Britain alone was creating new
    frontiers of expension, formal and informal,

  • By maximizing its comparative advantage in
    finance, shipping, and commerce, and by creating
    reliable political allies abroad,
  • Britain hoped to bring into being an
    international regime that would support its own
    emerging liberal economic and political order.

  • From 1870 onwards
  • The period of intense imperialist competition
    that characterized the years leading down to the
    First World War.
  • Major economic, political, and cultural trends
    began to emerge from about the middle of the

  • By 1870 a number of interlocking economic and
    technological changes had begun to transform the
    landscape of continental Europe.
  • Industrialization had spread in a slow and patchy
    way from the early years of the century.

  • By the last quarter of the century, particular
    regions of Germany, France, and Belgium had
    sizeable industrial sectors.
  • Germany, the most advanced of the continental
    powers, was starting to pioneer the products of
    the second industrial revolution, such as
    chemicals and electrical goods.

  • Steam power
  • The aplication of steam power, which was
    fundamental to improvements in manufacturing
    productivity, enabled striking gains to be made
    in transport efficiency.
  • Railways
  • Railways were built from the 1830s.
  • Transoceanic steamship services began in the
  • These developments cut the cost and speeded up
    the movement of goods and people dramatically.

  • Electricity
  • Another miraculous innovation was electricity.
  • It had a similar effect on information flows
    following the invention of the land telegraph in
    the 1840s and the submarine cable in the 1850s.

  • War Technology
  • Improvements in technology also transformed the
    means of destruction, making possible large and
    more powerful navies
  • and,
  • through the invention of automatic loading and
    mobile field guns, brought the prospect of total
    war nearer.

  • These innovations impringed on the overseas world
    very soon after they were adopted in Europe.
  • During the 1850s regular steamship services began
    to ports in sub-Saharan Africa, railway
    construction started in India, Australia, and
    Latin America and the first transatlantic
    telegraph cable was laid.
  • Railway-building in most of Asia and Africa
    awaited the coming of European rule at the close
    of the century.

  • Engineering skills
  • New engineering skills enabled the great canals
    of Suez (1869) and Panama (1914) to part four

  • Modern weapons
  • They had the considerable merit of enabling the
    few to dominate the many.
  • Modern weapons arrived even sooner.
  • Enfield rifles to deal with the Indian Mutiny in
  • Gatlings machine guns from 1862.
  • Maxims much improved version of machine gun in
  • These engines of destruction were labour-saving
    devices the cost of coercion diminished.

  • Wolume value of trade
  • These developments greatly strengthened the
    connection between Europe and the rest of the
  • The volume and value of trade expanded to reach
    unprecedented levels.
  • More significant
  • Changes in the structure of the international
  • Increasing specialization produced the classic
    pattern of exchange

  • Unequal
  • Europe exported manufactures and the rest of the
    world concentrated on produciding raw materials
    and foodstuffs.
  • The growth of export enclaves across the world
    cereals, vegetable oils, cotton, jute, coffee,
    cocoa, rubber, silk, timber.
  • Carried by steamship to the ports of Europe in
    exchange for
  • The staples of the great manufacturing centers
  • Notably textiles and metal goods.

  • The mining revolution
  • Rich deposits of gold and other minerals, such as
    diamonds, copper, and tin were found on distant
  • It was at this point, in the second half of the
    century, that the Industrial Revolution began to
    have an important effect on economic relations
    with the world beyond Europe.

  • Export of capital - Financial flows
  • The expansion of world trade was closely
    associated with the export of capital and the
    movement of people.
  • After about 1850, financial flows from Europe
    were of growing importance in funding development
    in the rest of the world.

  • At first, capital was directed mainly to
  • to assist classical structures, like the Ottoman
  • or
  • to modernize or to help entirely new states, like
    the Latin American republics, to come into being.

  • Private venture
  • From 1870s, a growing proportion of finance was
    raised for private venture, above all for
  • With increasing scale and specialization, a new
    set of large banks and complementary commercial
    and shipping firms emerged to manage the
    international economy.
  • The integration of commodity markets was matched
    by the integration of capital markets.

  • Financial crisis in the United States in 1873
  • Transmitted to the other industrializing
    countries and, via them, to the exporters of
    primary products.
  • The Ottoman bankrapcy The foundadion of the
    Ottoman Debt administration in 1881.

  • The opening of new frontiers generated a fresh
    exodus from Europe.
  • Emigration was fuelled by population growth,
    unemployment, and political instability.

  • New opportunities grew and the cost of taking
    them fell.
  • About the middle of the 19th century the
    large-scale, enforced movement of Africans across
    the Atlantic was finally halted and was replaced
    by a flow of free, desperately poor, migrants

  • English, Scots, Welsh, and Irish settled in Nort
  • Spanish and Italian emigrants went to Latin
  • The other colonies of settlement the Cape,
    Australia and New Zeland began to fill out.
  • These flows expanded greatly during the last
    quarter of the century.

  • The movement of peoples between and within the
    other continents
  • Increased numbers of Chinese found their way to
    Singapore and other parts of south-east Asia.
  • Indian settlers and transient workers expanded
    their age-old ties with East Africa and extended
    them south to the Cape.
  • Africans, Vietnamese, Malays, and many others
    travelled long distances to work in mines and on

  • Taken as a whole, what was happening globally by
    1870 was the movement of one factor of
    production, labour, funded by another, capital,
    to take up opportunities on a third, immobile
    factor, land.
  • The effort to convert souls travelled in harness
    with the effort to transform economies and
  • By 1870, there had been a revival of missionary
    energy and activity that continued down to 1914,
    especially in Africa and Asia.

  • The information gathered from these diverse
    sources and places was processed in new or
    expanded ways.
  • Increasing literacy, combined with growth of the
    popular press, brought news of the wider world to
    a non-specialist audience.
  • Fact and fantasy were mixed to produce malleable
    representations and misrepresentations of other

  • By the turn of the century, the colonial novel
    had become a well-recognized literary genre.
  • Images of distant lands, typically mixed with
    imperial and patriotic thems, found many other
    popular outlets.
  • Scholarship also played its part in conveying
    ideas about the non-European world.

  • Geography, geology, oceanography, anthropology,
    botany, zoology, tropical medicine, and history
    were among the academic disciplines that were
    generally stimulated by overseas expansion.
  • Empire, its heroes, and the values they
    exemplified also entered into the training of the
    young, especially in Britain, through the
    education system, sport, and youth organization
    such as Boy Scouts and Girl Guides.

  • Imperialism became an increasingly prominent item
    on the political agenda after 1870.
  • This was a time of intense imperialist rivalries.
  • The whole of Africa was partitioned and
    subsequently occupied, principally by Britain
    and France.

  • Other European powers, old and new, shared in the
  • The spread of informal influence and the creation
    of informal empires.
  • Although Latin America, the Middle East, and
    China did not become European colonies, their
    independence was significantly compromised.

  • A number of Latin American republics, headed by
    Argentina, were dominated by British finance and
    trade, and their political elites were beguiled /
    attracted by British liberalism.

  • The Ottoman Empire fell increasingly under the
    control of Britain, France, and Germany after
    defaulting on its external debt in 1875.
  • The Ottoman economic and financial structures
    integrated into the European and world economies
    in the 19th century.
  • In this process, the essential factor was the
    rapid growth in trade between the Ottoman Empire
    and the leading countries of Europe.

  • During the three-quarters of a century following
    the free trade treaties, signed first with
    Britain in 1838 then with other European
  • total Ottoman exports increased more than five
  • while imports measured in current prices expanded
    six and a half times.

  • The Ottoman economic structure witnessed a
    deep-going commercialization in the wake of
    Napoleonic wars.
  • Although a number of bilateral trade and
    commercial relations between the Ottoman Empire
    and Europe predated the Tanzimat reform of 1839,
  • the proclamation of the reform edict, greatly
    accelerated Ottoman integration into the world

  • Both the reforms of the Tanzimat era and the
    growth in foreign trade had a positive impact on
    internal trade.
  • The injection of money through foreign trade
    dismantled the self-sufficient, closed economic

  • Britain and Russia divided Persia into spheres of
    informal influence in 1907
  • China resisted foreign incursions until prised /
    forced open by the rising power of Japan after
    the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-5.
  • There followed a scramble for concessions and
    influence that resulted in large segments of
    China being partitioned informally between
    Britain, France, Russia, and Germany.

  • The question to be addressed
  • Why was expansion converted into imperialism (and
    then into empire) at certain times and in certain
  • This outcome was not inevitable.
  • Britain exported manufactured goods, capital, and
    people to the United States on a large scale in
    the 19th century, yet it ditd not attempt to
    re-annex its former colonies or to turn them into
    an informal empire.
  • French capital and expertise played a significant
    part in modernizing Russias economy and army at
    the close of the century without making the Tsar
    a pawn of Paris.

  • The explanation
  • The relationsihp between parties was one of
    approximate equality it was not possible even if
    it were desirable, for one to dominate the other.
  • For expansion to become imperialism and for
    imperialism to be translated into empire, two
    conditions had to be met
  • The motive had to be strong enough for the
    attempt to be made.
  • The inequality between expanding and the
    receiving states had to be sufficiently large to
    make the prospect of domination practible.
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