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Political Parties, Candidates and Campaigns

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Chapter 8 Political Parties, Candidates and Campaigns Early leaders were wary of the idea of parties though some grew to favor them Enable like-minded people to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Political Parties, Candidates and Campaigns


1
Chapter 8
  • Political Parties, Candidates and Campaigns

2
History of Parties in the U.S.
  • Early leaders were wary of the idea of parties
    though some grew to favor them
  • Enable like-minded people to exercise collective
    power
  • US parties originated because of a rivalry
    between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton

3
History
  • Jefferson, who supported state rights and small
    landowners, had supporters that would become
    known as Jeffersonians.
  • Hamilton organized the formal party (the
    Federalists) in turn.
  • In the 1820s, Jackson developed grassroots party
    known as Democrats. Whigs formed.

4
History
  • Whigs party declined with slavery debate.
  • Democrats split along regional lines,
    realignments occurred.
  • Realignment occurs with great political change

5
Realignment Occurs
  1. When disruption of the existing political order
    emerges over an unusually powerful issue (ex.
    Slavery)
  2. An election results in the votes strongly
    shifting support to a different party

6
Realignment Occurs
  • 3. A major change in policy brought about
    through the action of the stronger party
  • 4. When an enduring change in the party
    coalitions occurs which works to one partys
    advantage

7
Today
  • US has weak 2 party system where 3rd parties
    exist but difficult for them to win
  • Most democracies have a multiparty system
  • Democrats www.democrats.org
  • Republican www.gop.com

8
Party System
  • Party coalition the groups and interests that
    support a party
  • Party identification a political term to
    describe a voter's underlying allegiance to a
    political party
  • Voters can vote straight party or split ticket

9
Party and Voting
  • Prospective Voting occurs when the voter chooses
    a candidate on the basis of what the candidate
    promises to do during an election

10
Party and Voting
  • Retrospective Voting Based on a judgment about
    past performance(s) support the incumbent party
    because of performance or doesnt

11
Party System Organization
  • Nomination refers to the selection of the
    individual who will run as the partys candidate
    in the general election
  • Links public to elected leaders

12
Structure of the Party
  • Decentralized, fragmented organizations
  • Candidate driven
  • US has tradition of two party system

13
Structure of the Party
  • Assist candidates with technology, workers, and
    funds
  • Can influence candidates but cannot compel party
    loyalty

14
Party Structure
  • Local parties vary greatly in structure and
    activities tend to concentrate on elections that
    coincide with local boundaries (ex mayor)

15
Party Structure
  • State parties each party is headed by a central
    committee made up of members of local party
    organizations and local and state officeholders
    engage in fundraising, voter registration, etc.
    play larger role in state elections than national

16
Structure of Parties
  • National Party Organization
  • National Republican Committee and National
    Democratic Party
  • Structured similarly to states
  • National headquarters in Washington, DC
  • Set national party agenda and policy
  • Run by chairperson chosen by the national
    committee

17
Parties Money
  • Federal Election Commission (www.fec.gov)
    regulates
  • Hard money goes directly to candidate can be
    spent as candidate chooses (2000 maximum per
    contributor for individual donors and 5000 max
    for interest groups)

18
Parties Money
  • Soft money goes to party building can not be
    given directly to a candidate
  • Individual donations and PACs

19
Campaign Funds
  • Some public funding
  • Political Action Committees
  • Critical to winning office
  • Hire fundraisers

20
Voter Communication
  • Party candidate must utilize mass communication
  • 1st campaign ad by LBJ (http//youtube.com/watch?v
    OKs-bTL-pRg)
  • 1st televised debate http//youtube.com/watch?vUr
    92R4Gvcj4

21
Voter Communication
  • Personal appearances
  • (http//youtube.com/watch?vl9s-XCULhcM)

22
Voter Communication
  • Changes with new technology
  • 24 hour news
  • Youtube.com
  • Websites
  • Blogs
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