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Political Parties

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* Few people actually read party platforms, but they re a useful summary of what the party believes in. This table contrasts the Democratic and Republican platforms ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Political Parties


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(No Transcript)
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8
Political Parties
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Video The Big Picture
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ies_Seg1_v2.html
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Learning Objectives
Identify the functions that political parties
perform in American democracy
8.1
Determine the significance of party
identification in America today
8.2
5
8
Learning Objectives
Describe how political parties are organized in
the United States
8.3
Evaluate how well political parties generally do
in carrying out their promises
8.4
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8
Learning Objectives
Differentiate the various party eras in American
history
8.5
Assess both the impact of third parties on
American politics and their limitations
8.6
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8
Learning Objectives
Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of
responsible party government
8.7
8
Video The Basics
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Meaning of Party
8.1
  • Tasks of the Parties
  • Parties, Voters, and Policy Downs Model

10
Tasks of the Parties
8.1
  • Linkage institutions
  • Parties, elections, interest groups, media
  • Tasks that parties perform
  • Pick candidates
  • Run campaigns
  • Give cues to voters
  • Articulate policies
  • Coordinate policies

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Parties, Voters, and Policy Downs Model
8.1
  • Rational choice theory
  • Political scientist Anthony Downs model
  • Most voters are moderate
  • Center of political spectrum
  • Parties seek voter loyalty
  • Position themselves to left and right of center

12
8.1
FIGURE 8.1 Downs model How rational parties
position themselves near (but not at) the center
of public opinion
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8.1
Tea Party
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8.1
8.1 How do parties maximize their appeal to
voters?
  1. Position themselves near political center
  2. Lie about their opponents
  3. Stake out clear positions to the left or right
  4. Make party members sign loyalty oaths

15
8.1
8.1 How do parties maximize their appeal to
voters?
  1. Position themselves near political center
  2. Lie about their opponents
  3. Stake out clear positions to the left or right
  4. Make party members sign loyalty oaths

16
Party in the Electorate
8.2
  • Party membership is psychological
  • Citizens think they know what parties stand for
  • Choose parties based on affinity with personal
    preferences
  • More Americans identify as independents

17
8.2
FIGURE 8.2 Party identification in the United
States, 19522012
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8.2
8.2 More Americans are identifying as
Independents, especially
  1. People over 65
  2. Minorities
  3. Young people
  4. Less-educated citizens

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8.2
8.2 More Americans are identifying as
Independents, especially
  1. People over 65
  2. Minorities
  3. Young people
  4. Less-educated citizens

20
Video Thinking Like a Political Scientist
8.2
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Party Organization From the Grass Roots to
Washington
8.3
  • Local Parties
  • 50 State Party Systems
  • National Party Organizations

22
Local Parties
8.3
  • Once main party organization
  • Party machines
  • Rewarded voters
  • New York and Chicago
  • Patronage
  • Jobs for voters and contributors
  • Progressive reforms ended this system

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8.3
Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley
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8.3
50 State Party Systems
  • No two exactly alike
  • Some well-funded, some weak
  • Permanent headquarters
  • Provide technical services
  • Open or closed primaries
  • Straight-ticket voting
  • Single column or random list of candidates

25
National Party Organizations
8.3
  • National convention
  • Meets every four years
  • Writes party platform
  • Formal nomination of candidates
  • National committee
  • Operates between conventions
  • Led by national chairperson

26
8.3
8.3 What are the functions of the partys
national convention?
  1. Write party platform
  2. Nominate candidate for president
  3. Meet every four years to revise rules
  4. All of the above

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8.3
8.3 What are the functions of the partys
national convention?
  1. Write party platform
  2. Nominate candidate for president
  3. Meet every four years to revise rules
  4. All of the above

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Party in Government Promises and Policy
8.4
  • Party in power determines policy
  • Coalitions support parties
  • Most presidents fail to implement campaign
    promises
  • But they do live up to some of them
  • Party platforms are blueprints

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Explore the Simulation You Are a Voter
8.4
http//media.pearsoncmg.com/long/long_longman_medi
a_1/2013_mpsl_sim/simulation.html?simulaURL17
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8.4
8.4 Which of the following is a campaign promise
kept by President Reagan?
  1. Increase social welfare spending
  2. Increase defense spending
  3. Increase the federal deficit
  4. Increase funding for education

31
8.4
8.4 Which of the following is a campaign promise
kept by President Reagan?
  1. Increase social welfare spending
  2. Increase defense spending
  3. Increase the federal deficit
  4. Increase funding for education

32
Explore Political Parties Which Party Governs
Better?
8.4
http//media.pearsoncmg.com/long/long_edwards_mpsl
gia_16/pex/pex8.html
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Party Eras in American History
8.5
  • 1796-1824 First Party System
  • 1828-1856 Jackson and Democrats Versus the Whigs
  • 1860-1928 Two Republican Eras
  • 1932-1964 New Deal Coalition
  • 1968-Present Southern Realignment and the Era of
    Divided Party Government

34
8.5
Party platforms, 2012
35
1796-1824 First Party System
8.5
  • Madison warned against factions
  • Hamilton and the Federalist Party
  • Capitalist support, Northeast
  • Short-lived
  • Ideas of loyal opposition and rotation of power
    new
  • Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans
  • Agrarian support, South
  • Torn by factions

36
1828-1856 Jackson and Democrats Versus the Whigs
8.5
  • General Andrew Jackson as leader
  • Democratic-Republicans -gt Democratic Party
  • New coalition in election of 1828
  • Westerners, Southerners, poor whites
  • Broaden suffrage
  • Martin Van Buren
  • Theory of loyal opposition
  • Whig Party

37
1860-1928 Two Republican Eras
8.5
  • 1850s Slavery dominated politics
  • Split both parties
  • Republicans rose as anti-slavery party
  • Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War
  • Second party realignment
  • Lasted 60 years
  • Democrats controlled the South
  • 1896 Second Republican era
  • Democrats and free silver

38
1932-1964 New Deal Coalition
8.5
  • Hoover loses to FDR
  • FDR promises New Deal
  • New coalition formed
  • Elements of New Deal coalition
  • Urban dwellers
  • Labor unions
  • Catholics and Jews
  • The poor
  • Southerners
  • African Americans

39
8.5
The Roosevelt realignment
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8.5
FIGURE 8.3 Party coalitions today
41
1968-Present Southern Realignment and the Era of
Divided Party Government
8.5
  • Nixons Southern strategy
  • Support for states rights, law and order, strong
    military posture
  • Win Southern Democrats

42
8.5
FIGURE 8.4 Realignment in the South
43
1968-Present Southern Realignment and the Era of
Divided Party Government
8.5
  • Republicans did not have Congress
  • New pattern
  • Divided government now normal
  • Dealignment

44
8.5
8.5 Which events sparked party realignments?
  1. Civil War
  2. Great Depression
  3. Nixons Southern strategy
  4. A and B only

45
8.5
8.5 Which events sparked party realignments?
  1. Civil War
  2. Great Depression
  3. Nixons Southern strategy
  4. A and B only

46
Video In Context
8.5
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Third Parties Their Impact on American Politics
8.6
  • Three types of third parties
  • Cause parties
  • Offshoots of major parties
  • Vehicles for individual candidacies
  • Rarely win office but can affect elections
  • Why only two parties?

48
8.6
A successful third party candidate
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Video In the Real World
8.6
http//media.pearsoncmg.com/ph/hss/SSA_SHARED_MEDI
A_1/polisci/presidency/Seg5_PoliticalParties_v2.ht
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8.6
8.6 Why are there only two major parties in the
U.S.?
  1. Only two parties are constitutionally allowed
  2. Two parties fulfill preferences of all voters
  3. No interest in additional parties
  4. Winner-take-all elections

51
8.6
8.6 Why are there only two major parties in the
U.S.?
  1. Only two parties are constitutionally allowed
  2. Two parties fulfill preferences of all voters
  3. No interest in additional parties
  4. Winner-take-all elections

52
Understanding Political Parties
8.7
  • Democracy and Responsible Party Government How
    Should We Govern?
  • American Political Parties and the Scope of
    Government

53
Democracy and Responsible Party Government How
Should We Govern?
8.7
  • Responsible party model
  • Distinct governing programs
  • Internal cohesion and commitment
  • Major party must implement program
  • Major party must accept responsibility
  • Party leadership weak in U.S.
  • Blue Dog Democrats
  • Is this good or bad?

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8.7
TABLE 8.2 Partisan divisions on key roll call
votes during George W. Bushs presidency
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American Politics and the Scope of Government
8.7
  • Not as broad as in Europe
  • Health care example
  • Parties not disciplined
  • Hard to cut spending
  • Not disciplined enough to say no
  • Get more for own constituents

56
Discussion Question
8
How did the modern two-party system develop in
the United States? What are party realignments
and when have they occurred? What role do parties
play in American democracy?
57
Video So What?
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ies_Seg6_v2.html
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8
  • Further Review
  • On MyPoliSciLab
  • Listen to the Chapter
  • Study and Review the Flashcards
  • Study and Review the Practice Tests
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