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Making a Peace

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Making a Peace Bringing an End to the Great War Changes in Leadership Britain PM Herbert Asquith resigned in Dec. 1916 and was replaced by fellow liberal David Lloyd ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Making a Peace


1
Making a Peace
  • Bringing an End to the Great War

2
Changes in Leadership
  • Britain
  • PM Herbert Asquith resigned in Dec. 1916 and was
    replaced by fellow liberal David Lloyd George,
    aka the Welsh Wizard.
  • France
  • In Nov. 1917 Georges Clemenceau became French
    premier, giving France determined leadership.

3
Propaganda
  • As the war came to a stalemate and the casualties
    piled up, governments had to find ways to keep
    the support of their people.
  • They turned to propaganda to do this.

4
Propaganda
5
American Entry
  • With the revelation of the Zimmerman Telegram,
    the U.S. declared war on Germany in April, 1917.
  • It took nearly a year for U.S. forces to be
    assembled and arrive in any great numbers in
    France under the command of General John J.
    Black Jack Pershing.

6
The Allied Advance
  • In March 1918, with peace achieved in the east,
    the Germans attempted on final offensive in
    France.
  • The united command of British, Americans and
    French under French Gen. Foch counterattacked in
    July.
  • A German retreat began, culminating on Aug. 8th
    when British tanks broke through at Amiens.

7
The Armistice
  • On Sept 30, Bulgaria signed an armistice.
  • Turkey capitulated on Oct. 30th
  • Austria surrendered on Nov. 3rd.
  • Alone and exhausted, Germany signed armistice at
    5am Nov. 11, 1918 to go into effect at 11am
    that same day, when the guns of World War I fell
    silent.

8
The Paris Peace Conference
  • The peace conference began in Jan. 1919.
  • Delegates representing 32 nations attended.
  • Meeting dominated by the Big Four
  • Woodrow Wilson of the United States
  • Georges Clemenceau of France
  • David Lloyd George of the UK
  • Vittorio Orlando of Italy
  • (Germany and Russia were not represented)

9
The Paris Peace Conference
  • Wilsons Fourteen Points
  • Peace plan proposed by Wilson
  • Called for open diplomacy, open seas, free trade,
    arms reduction, national self-determination and
    the creation of the League of Nations.
  • European allies had major reservations for
    Wilsons peace without victory plan.

10
The Paris Peace Conference
  • Allies had plans of their own
  • Clemenceau wanted security guarantees and war
    reparations to rebuild northern France.
  • Lloyd George wanted the continental balance of
    power restored so Britain could focus on its
    empire.
  • Orlando wanted to gain as much territory for
    Italy as possible.

11
The Versailles Treaty
  • The peace settlement with Germany.
  • The Rhineland
  • France wanted the Rhineland to become a separate
    buffer state, Wilson objected.
  • Instead, the Rhineland was occupied by allied
    troops for a period of 15 years.
  • The region would also remain permanently
    demilitarized.

12
The Versailles Treaty
  • Alsace and Lorraine
  • Alsace and Lorraine was returned to control of
    France (had been taken by Germany in 1871)
  • The Saar
  • The coal-rich area was placed under control of
    the League of Nations, with the coal going to
    France.
  • In a plebiscite, people of the Saar voted to
    return to German control in 1935.

13
The Versailles Treaty
  • Poland
  • Germany lost territory to France, Belgium and
    Denmark, but lost the most territory to the new
    state of Poland.
  • East Prussia was separated from the rest of
    Germany by the Polish Corridor, giving Poland
    access to the Baltic sea.

14
The Versailles Treaty
  • Disarmament and Reparations
  • The German army was restricted to 100,000 men.
  • The navy was a coastal defense force.
  • Germany had no air force, tanks, or submarines.
  • Clause 231
  • Germany and its allies were made to accept
    responsibility for the war.
  • The treaty was signed at the Hall of Mirros on
    June 28, 1919.

15
The Mandate System
  • Colonial territories of the Central Powers fell
    into the hands of the allies under mandates.
  • Africa German territories went to France,
    Britain and South Africa
  • The Pacific German islands went to Japan,
    Australia, and New Zealand.
  • Middle East Ottoman territories of Syria, and
    Lebanon went to France, Iraq, Palestine an Jordan
    went to Britain.

16
Italys Claims
  • Italys claims of territories caused conflict at
    the Paris Peace Conference.
  • Italy desired territories of Austria that became
    part of the new Yugoslavia.
  • This caused resentment among Italian nationalists.

17
The League of Nations
  • Wilsons major push was the creation of a
    international body to avoid war.
  • The League consisted of a Council, Assembly and
    Secretariat headquartered in Geneva, as well as a
    World Court in the Hague.
  • The U.S. Senate failed to ratify the treaty and
    the U.S. never joined the league.

18
Self Determination
  • One of Wilsons major principles put into effect
    in Eastern Europe.
  • Austria-Hungary was divided into states of
    Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia
    (joined with Serbia and Montenegro).
  • Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania gained
    independence from Russia.
  • Poland was created from German, Austrian and
    Russian territory (won more in 1920 war)

19
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20
Effects of the War
  • The number of World War I casualties (military
    and civilian) was about 40 million - over 19
    million deaths and 21 million wounded. This
    includes 9.7 million military deaths and about
    10.0 million civilian deaths.

21
Effects of the War
  • European idea of progress was shattered, culture
    of pessimism would prevail.
  • European hegemony was broken, economic and
    military power on the decline.
  • The war irrevocably changed European political
    scene (Russian Rev., Irish Revolt)
  • The war and the failed peace led to economic
    depression and the rise of fascism (Mussolini and
    Hitler.)
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