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Religion, Peace and Justice

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Religion, Peace and Justice War and Peace Peace is at the very heart of the teachings of Jesus. However, Christians have long been divided about whether it is ever ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Religion, Peace and Justice


1
Religion, Peace and Justice
2
War and Peace
  • Peace is at the very heart of the teachings of
    Jesus.
  • However, Christians have long been divided about
    whether it is ever right to go to war, or use
    violence.
  • Some believe that there are times when a
    Christian has no choice but to go to war.
  • Some believe that to go to war is better than
    what would result if they did not go to war.

3
  • Old Testament Teaching

4
I pursue and overtake my enemies until I have
made an end of them I do not turn back. I strike
them down and they can rise no more I wipe out
those that hate me, Psalms 1837-39
5
Attack the land of Merathaim and those who live
in Pekod. Pursue, kill and completely destroy
them, declares the LORD. Do everything I have
commanded you. (Jeremiah 5021)
6
Do not take revenge on someone who wrongs you.
If anyone slaps you on the right cheek, let him
slap your left cheek also. (Matthew 539)
Censored
7
Blessed are the peacemakers for they are Gods
children (Matthew 59)
8
put down your sword, for those who live by the
sword die by the sword. (Matthew 2652)
9
Just War
  • Write down at least three conditions of a just
    war, as proposed by St Thomas Aquinas

10
  • The Just War
  • For a war to be just, St Thomas Aquinas laid down
    three conditions
  • The war must only be started and controlled by
    the authority of the state or the ruler.
  • There must be a just cause. Those attacked are
    attacked because they deserve it.
  • The war must be fought to promote good or avoid
    evil. Peace and justice must be restored
    afterwards.
  • Two more were added later
  • The war must be the last resort.
  • There must be proportionality in the way the
    war is fought, e.g. innocent civilians should not
    be killed. Only enough force must be used to
    achieve your goals.

11
  • Holy Wars are fought by people who believe either
    that God is on their side or that they have
    righteousness on their side.
  • The Crusades were Holy Wars.
  • What other examples can you think of?
  • Holy Wars have been fought through the centuries
    but they morally pose many questions
  • 1.     Who really knows what is right?
  • 2.     Is it right to kill for religion or a set
    of beliefs?
  • 3.     How can anyone know that God is on his or
    her side?

12
Case Study
  • The War in Iraq

13
  • Christian opposition to the Iraq War
  • The Vatican (Roman Catholic) came out against war
    in Iraq. Archbishop Renato Martino, a former UN
    envoy and current prefect of the Council for
    Justice and Peace, told reporters that war
    against Iraq was a "preventative" war and
    constituted a "war of aggression", and thus did
    not constitute a just war. On February 8, 2003,
    Pope John Paul II said "we should never resign
    ourselves, almost as if war is inevitable."
  • Both the outgoing Archbishop of Canterbury
    (Church Of England), George Carey, and his
    successor, Rowan Williams, spoke out against war
    with Iraq.
  • The executive committee of World Council of
    Churches, (ecumenical) issued a statement in
    opposition to war with Iraq, stating that "War
    against Iraq would be immoral, unwise, and in
    breach of the principles of the United Nations
    Charter."

http//news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/272401
9.stm this link is brill!!! Compares the Iraq
war directly with the Thomist principles
14
Pacifism
  • Some Christians throughout history have been
    conscientious objectors, who, because of their
    Christian conscience refuse to bear arms in
    military service.
  • Many of these people are pacifists people who
    are totally opposed to war.
  • Pacifism has been particularly strong amongst the
    Religious Society of Friends (Quakers), who have
    been inspired by the Peace Testimony, which they
    presented to Charles II in 1960.
  • We utterly deny all outward wars and strife, and
    fighting with outward weapons, for any end, or
    pretence whatever this is our testimony to the
    whole world.

15
Reasons why Christians might be pacifists
  • An evil action should not be returned and
    perpetuate evil.
  • Example of JC - Sermon on the Mount Matthew 5.
  • War doesnt solve the problems
  • The Commandments

16
The Aims of Punishment
What is the point of Punishment?
17
Deterrence
18
Protection
19
Retribution
20
Reformation
21
Vindication
Punishments vindicate (Uphold) the law and let
society know what is acceptable and unacceptable
behaviour.
22
  • BUT SURELY JESUS WOULD NOT AGREE WITH MY
    PUNISHMENT?
  • John 87
  • Matthew 73
  • Matthew 539
  • What do you think these quotes are actually
    saying about Jesus view of punishment?
  • Why do Christians believe it is important to have
    a system of punishment?

23
Does Capital Punishment work?
List three reasons in favour of Capital
Punishment. List three reasons against Capital
Punishment.
24
Aims of punishment
  • Deterrence put people off
  • Protection keeping the world safe
  • Retribution to pay for the crime
  • Reformation to become a better person
  • 5) Vindication???

25
Question
  • State 4 facts about Elizabeth Fry

26
Elizabeth Fry
  • Worked to help make prisons better places
  • Was a Christian (Quaker)
  • Lived 1780 to 1845
  • She visited Newgate prison in London, and she was
    so appalled by the conditions there, that she
    started to campaign for Prison reform.
  • Also worked to make things better on prison ships
    (eg to Australia), which were often overcrowded
    and many people died.

27
It can never be right to fight in a war. Do
you agree? Give reasons for your answer, and show
that you have thought about different points of
view. You must refer to Christianity in your
answer. (5 marks)
28
It can never be right to fight in a war. Do you
agree? Give reasons for your answer, and show
that you have thought about different points of
view. You must refer to Christianity in your
answer. (5 marks)
I disagree with this statement, because I believe
that there are certain conditions when a war has
to be fought. It might be to fight a terrible
evil dictator (like Saddam Hussain)or to protect
your land from being invaded (like Hitler). Some
people may disagree with me and say that war is
always wrong because it causes suffering and
misery, particularly of innocent people. Some
Christians say that war is o.k under certain
conditions, this is called the just war theory.
Other Christians (such as Quakers) say that Jesus
said turn the other cheek and love your
neighbour, so they are pacifists.
29
It can never be right to fight in a war. Do you
agree? Give reasons for your answer, and show
that you have thought about different points of
view. You must refer to Christianity in your
answer. (5 marks)
I disagree with this statement, because I believe
that there are certain conditions when a war has
to be fought. It might be to fight a terrible
evil dictator (like Saddam Hussain)or to protect
your land from being invaded (like Hitler). Some
people may disagree with me and say that war is
always wrong because it causes suffering and
misery, particularly of innocent people. Some
Christians say that war is o.k under certain
conditions, this is called the just war theory.
Other Christians (such as Quakers) say that Jesus
said turn the other cheek and love your
neighbour, so they are pacifists.
30
It can never be right to fight in a war. Do you
agree? Give reasons for your answer, and show
that you have thought about different points of
view. You must refer to Christianity in your
answer. (5 marks)
I disagree with this statement, because I believe
that there are certain conditions when a war has
to be fought. It might be to fight a terrible
evil dictator (like Saddam Hussain)or to protect
your land from being invaded (like Hitler). Some
people may disagree with me and say that war is
always wrong because it causes suffering and
misery, particularly of innocent people. Some
Christians say that war is o.k under certain
conditions, this is called the just war theory.
Other Christians (such as Quakers) say that Jesus
said turn the other cheek and love your
neighbour, so they are pacifists.
31
It can never be right to fight in a war. Do you
agree? Give reasons for your answer, and show
that you have thought about different points of
view. You must refer to Christianity in your
answer. (5 marks)
I disagree with this statement, because I believe
that there are certain conditions when a war has
to be fought. It might be to fight a terrible
evil dictator (like Saddam Hussain)or to protect
your land from being invaded (like Hitler). Some
people may disagree with me and say that war is
always wrong because it causes suffering and
misery, particularly of innocent people. Some
Christians say that war is o.k under certain
conditions, this is called the just war theory.
Other Christians (such as Quakers) say that Jesus
said turn the other cheek and love your
neighbour, so they are pacifists.
32
It can never be right to fight in a war. Do you
agree? Give reasons for your answer, and show
that you have thought about different points of
view. You must refer to Christianity in your
answer. (5 marks)
I disagree with this statement, because I believe
that there are certain conditions when a war has
to be fought. It might be to fight a terrible
evil dictator (like Saddam Hussain)or to protect
your land from being invaded (like Hitler). Some
people may disagree with me and say that war is
always wrong because it causes suffering and
misery, particularly of innocent people. Some
Christians say that war is o.k under certain
conditions, this is called the just war theory.
Other Christians (such as Quakers) say that Jesus
said turn the other cheek and love your
neighbour, so they are pacifists.
5
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