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Theories of Peace

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Title: Theories of Peace


1
Theories of Peace
2
Goal to use the concept of the enemy to
construct a theoretical framework for analyzing
peace
3
Peace Creation and maintenance of relationship
of proven value and worth
4
  • Types of Peace
  • Separate Disentangle Co-Existence
  • Associate Entangle Partnerships
  • Goal of Peace
  • Restore reestablish trust, value
  • Build create trust, value

5
  • Tractable Conflicts
  • Peace mediated, resolved conflicts
  • Opponent an adversary, rival
  • Type of Conflict conflict of interests
  • Peaceful Outcome win-win resolution
  • Peace fair, just, cooperative relationships
  • Opponent an oppressor
  • Type of Conflict unbalanced relationships
  • Peaceful Outcome mutually beneficial
    relationships
  • Intractable Conflicts
  • Peace defeat of the enemy
  • Enemy antithesis of peace
  • Type of Conflict protracted, intractable
    differences
  • Outcome irreconcilable differences

6
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7
Chantal Mouffe 1. The constitutive other and the
impossibility of a world without antagonisms 2.
Difference vs. Negating Identity 3. We/them --
Friend/enemy 4. Displacement of the enemy with
the adversary.
8
  • Tractable Conflicts
  • Peace mediated, resolved conflicts
  • Opponent an adversary, rival
  • Type of Conflict conflict of interests
  • Peaceful Outcome win-win resolution
  • Peace fair, just, cooperative relationships
  • Opponent an oppressor
  • Type of Conflict unbalanced relationships
  • Peaceful Outcome mutually beneficial
    relationships
  • Intractable Conflicts
  • Peace defeat of the enemy
  • Enemy antithesis of peace
  • Type of Conflict protracted, intractable
    differences
  • Outcome irreconcilable differences

9
Transcenders If the enemy is someone who was
potentially one of us and from whom we have been
separated by violence, then the first task is to
reestablish the human bonds that once connected
us. Transformers By definition, intractable
conflicts cannot be resolved. Still, they can be
transformed into tractable ones that are, in
principle, capable of resolution. The only way
to do this is to construct a context that
includes the sacrificially expelled other.
10
  • Tractable Conflicts
  • Peace mediated, resolved conflicts
  • Opponent an adversary, rival
  • Type of Conflict conflict of interests
  • Peaceful Outcome win-win resolution
  • Peace fair, just, cooperative relationships
  • Opponent an oppressor
  • Type of Conflict unbalanced relationships
  • Peaceful Outcome mutually beneficial
    relationships
  • Intractable Conflicts
  • Peace defeat of the enemy
  • Enemy antithesis of peace
  • Type of Conflict protracted, intractable
    differences
  • Outcome irreconcilable differences

11
  • Bouldings Definition of Peace
  • Peace as Not War a setting in which conflict and
    excitement, debate and dialogue, drama and
    confrontation do not get out of hand and become
    destructive
  • Positive Aspects
  • Condition of good management
  • Orderly resolution of conflict
  • Harmony associated with mature relationships
  • Negative Aspects
  • Absence of turmoil
  • Absence of tension
  • Absence of conflict
  • Absence of war

12
Bouldings Approach
1. The goal is to make peace more probable and
war less likely. 2. The concept of the causes of
war is rejected because war and peace are
multi-causal, subject to quite strong random
influences, and sharp discontinuities at the
breaking points. 3. The variable of war-peace
system, particular the international system, can
be classified roughly by the way in which they
contribute either to the strain or to the
strength of the system. 4. Conflict activities
are those in which we are conscious that an
increase in our welfare may diminish the welfare
of others or an increase in the welfare of others
may diminish our welfare.
5. The difference between peace and war is mainly
defined in terms of the taboo line the line
that defines what we can do but refrain from
doing from what we can do and do.
13
Bouldings Paradigm
All Human Activity
Non-conflict
Peace
Conflict
War
14
  • Peace and War
  • War and Peace are not merely the absence of the
    other, but positively definable states of a
    system.
  • Example awake and asleep neither is simply the
    opposite of the other.
  • Peace and war can be represented as differing
    phases in a system.
  • A different system of acting and thinking
    characterizes the war and peace phases.

15
Perception of Reality in War Peace
Peacetime 1. Good and Evil have many shades of
gray. 2. The present is pretty much like other
times. 3. Great forces (nature, God,
civilization) are not particularly involved in
our disputes. 4. After the present period, things
will go on pretty much as they always have. 5.
Life is complex with many problems to be solved
that have varying importance from day to day. 6.
All people act pretty much the same and act from
the same motives. 7. We can talk with those we
disagree with.
Wartime 1. Good and Evil are reduced to us and
them with no bystanders. 2. The present has a
special qualitya final battle of good and
evil. 3. The great forces of the cosmos are for
us against them. 4. When the war is over things
will be vastly different. 5. There is only one
problem with ultimate importance that must be
solved 6. "We" and "They" are qualitatively
different. They wish for power. We act in self
defense and with respect for common decency. 7.
They lie and are so evil that only force can
settle the issues
16
Bouldings Paradigm
All Human Activity
Non-conflict
Peace
Conflict
War
17
Approaches to Conflict Reduction/De-escalation
18
Approaches to Conflict Reduction/De-escalation
  1. Conflict Management
  2. Conflict Resolution
  3. Conflict Transformation

19
  • Conflict Management
  • Good news At the end of the day, you are alive.
  • Bad news Whether you live through tomorrow is
    uncertain.
  • Goal To prevent conflicts from escalating into
    total conflict.
  • Assumptions
  • It is better to aim low and succeed than to aim
    high and fail.
  • Many of the most achievable improvements in the
    situation accomplish little and put prior
    advancements in jeopardy.

20
  • Method
  • Create a hiatus in which neither side tries to
    destroy the other Create live and let live
    attitude in the places where people interact by
    removing or managing the factors that cause
    threat (coexistence)
  • Degree of integration
  • Degree of imposition or coercion

21
  • Strategy
  • Appeal to self-interest ones own existence is
    dependent upon the existence of the other.
  • Create moral anchors that allow both sides to
    see the human face of the other.
  • Encourage alignment based upon interests other
    than sectarian identity.
  • Contain issues that could increase polarization.

22
Conflict Resolution Good news Many conflicts are
non-zero sum. Bad news Not all problems are
non-zero sum. Assumption The gap between the
parties can be transverse with small steps Goal
Remove the resistances or obstacles to an overall
resolution or settlement.
23
  • Method
  • Fractionating the conflict into resolvable issues
    by based the various interests involved.
  • Shared interests
  • Different interests
  • Different valuations
  • Different expectations
  • Different attitudes about risk
  • Different time preferences
  • Different capabilities
  • Opposing Interests

24
  • Strategy
  • Logrolling
  • Creating a package linking less valued
    concessions to more valued gains.
  • Concessions that avoid losses are more effective
    than concession improve upon gains.
  • Entrapment Once people made a concession or
    agreement, they tend to act and think in ways
    that justify this move.
  • Constructive ambiguity If a conflict is likely
    to become less important in the future, then
    leave its resolution ambiguous.

25
Conflict Transformation Good News It produces
the best (most rewarding and most enduring)
solutions. Bad News It is problem-solving in a
reconciliation framework (we-ness). Goal Create
new solutions that go beyond the scope of what
seems immediately possible. Assumption We agree
about where we want to go.
26
  • Method Turn the conflict into political
    (economic, social) problem that we acting
    together can solve.
  • Why is the conflict irresolvable?
  • There are incompatible interests real or
    perceived.
  • Parties are too angry to talk constructively.
  • There exist fundamental differences in values
    about the subject of the conflict or about
    process for resolving it.
  • The parties hold different versions of the
    truth about what already has or will happen in
    the future and about the facts involved.
  • The parties have differing views of what their
    relationship is or should be.
  • There exist misunderstandings that are hard to
    sort out.

27
  • Method (continued)
  • The conflict becomes a complex riddle or puzzle
    that has to be solved mutually or cooperatively.
  • Diagnosing the conflict sorting out the various
    various interests, values, preferences,
    realities, emotional investments, and so on .

28
  • Strategy
  • Expanding the pie
  • Claiming vs. creating value
  • Creating new compensation frameworks
  • Finding new ways to compensate a party for
    yielding on a issue
  • Bridging
  • Identifying interests that can be satisfied by
    redesigning the framework or context

29
Peace/War System
Stable War
Unstable War
Strain
Unstable Peace
Stable Peace
Strength
30
Peace/War System
Strain Structural Variables 1. Images of the
past 2. Professionalization of conflict Dynamic
Variables 1. Arms Race 2. Differential Growth a.
Population b. Economic
Strength Structural Variables 1. Memories of
the past 2. Professionalization mediators,
etc. Dynamic Variables 1. Travel and
communication 2. Web of economic
interdependencecross-cutting
31
  • European Union
  • European Coal and Steel Community
  • Treaty of Paris, April 18, 1951
  • Coal and steel were the fundamental building
    blocks of industry.
  • The heavy industries of the Ruhr had been the
    traditional basis for German power. Three times
    in the previous seventy years, France and Germany
    had fought over the coal reserves of
    Alsace-Lorraine.
  • Integrating the coal and steel industry would
    ensure that Germany and France developed common
    interests that would help prevent military and
    economy rivalry.

32
Vision of Jean Monnet Robert Schuman To sneak
up on peace Functionalism upgrading common
interests Functional spillover Technical
spillover Political spillover

33
  • Principal Objectives
  • Establish European citizenship
  • Ensure freedom, security, and justice
  • Promote economic and social progress
  • Assert Europes role in the world

Three Pillars Pillar 1 primarily economic (EC
EMU) Pillar 2 joint action in foreign and
security affairs Pillar 3 justice and home
affairs
34
Original Six Countries France, Germany, Italy,
Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands Today 15 member
states 13 candidate countries
Institutions The European Commission The
Council of the Union The European
Parliament The Court of Justice The Court of
Auditors
35
  • Tractable Conflicts
  • Peace mediated, resolved conflicts
  • Opponent an adversary, rival
  • Type of Conflict conflict of interests
  • Peaceful Outcome win-win resolution
  • Peace fair, just, cooperative relationships
  • Opponent an oppressor
  • Type of Conflict unbalanced relationships
  • Peaceful Outcome mutually beneficial
    relationships
  • Intractable Conflicts
  • Peace defeat of the enemy
  • Enemy antithesis of peace
  • Type of Conflict protracted, intractable
    differences
  • Outcome irreconcilable differences

36
Curles Approach
1. The most useful categories for thinking about
peace are peaceful and unpeaceful
relationships. 2. The goal is to transform
unpeaceful relationship into peaceful
relationship. 3. Conflict occurs when one side
desires something that can be obtained only at
the expense of what another side desires. His
view is objectivist and concerns incompatible
interests. 4. The key variables are (1) balanced
and unbalanced and (2) high and low levels of
awareness. 5. Exploitative imbalance is a
particular prevalent form of unpeaceful
relationship and is his principal concern.
37
Curles Paradigm
Unbalanced, low awareness
Unbalanced, high awareness
Education
Balanced, high awareness
Confrontation
Conciliation Bargaining
No conflict
Development
38
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39
Curles Paradigm
Unbalanced, low awareness
Unbalanced, high awareness
Education
Balanced, high awareness
Confrontation
Conciliation Bargaining
No conflict
Development
40
  • Paulo Freire Pedagogy of the Oppressed
  • The purpose of education is to empower people to
    be the creators of their own history.
  • The method is dialogical. No one is absolutely
    ignorant.
  • Identification of generative themes that give
    rise to limit situations.
  • Exploration of untested feasibility.
  • Dialogue is the exercise of freedom.

41
Curles Paradigm
Unbalanced, low awareness
Unbalanced, high awareness
Education
Balanced, high awareness
Confrontation
Conciliation Bargaining
No conflict
Development
42
Confrontation
I. Non-ViolenceA Response to Violence Criteria
for Effectiveness 1. Active force against
force 2. Effective against violence II. Source of
Power Role of Consent How do you think about
your power? III. Methods of Struggle A.
Non-Violence Protest Persuasion B.
Non-Cooperation 1. Social 2. Economic 3.
Political C. Non-Violent Intervention IV.
Mechanism of Change A. Conversion B.
Accommodation C. Coercion
43
  • Tractable Conflicts
  • Peace mediated, resolved conflicts
  • Opponent an adversary, rival
  • Type of Conflict conflict of interests
  • Peaceful Outcome win-win resolution
  • Peace fair, just, cooperative relationships
  • Opponent an oppressor
  • Type of Conflict unbalanced relationships
  • Peaceful Outcome mutually beneficial
    relationships
  • Intractable Conflicts
  • Peace defeat of the enemy
  • Enemy antithesis of peace
  • Type of Conflict protracted, intractable
    differences
  • Outcome irreconcilable differences

44
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45
Components of Peace
Justice Just War Theory, International Law, Arms
Control Security Realist Political
Theory Non-violence Pacifism
46
Basic Human Rights
  • Physical security
  • Subsistence
  • Effective participation
  • Free physical movement

47
  • Tractable Conflicts
  • Peace mediated, resolved conflicts
  • Opponent an adversary, rival
  • Type of Conflict conflict of interests
  • Peaceful Outcome win-win resolution
  • Peace fair, just, cooperative relationships
  • Opponent an oppressor
  • Type of Conflict unbalanced relationships
  • Peaceful Outcome mutually beneficial
    relationships
  • Intractable Conflicts
  • Peace defeat of the enemy
  • Enemy antithesis of peace
  • Type of Conflict protracted, intractable
    differences
  • Outcome irreconcilable differences
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