AP PSYCHOLOGY Review for the AP Exam Chapter 5- - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 120
About This Presentation

AP PSYCHOLOGY Review for the AP Exam Chapter 5-


Title: AP PSYCHOLOGY Review for the AP Exam Chapter 5- Author: SBBC Last modified by: 22730 Created Date: 4/8/2010 1:21:45 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:415
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 121
Provided by: sbbc1


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: AP PSYCHOLOGY Review for the AP Exam Chapter 5-

AP PSYCHOLOGYReview for the AP ExamChapter 5-
  • Sensation
  • a process by which our sensory receptors and
    nervous system receive and represent stimulus
  • Perception
  • a process of organizing and interpreting sensory
    information, enabling us to recognize meaningful
    objects and events

Bottom-Up Processing analysis that begins with
the sense receptors and works up to the brains
integration of sensory information Top-Down
Processing information processing guided by
higher-level mental processes as when we
construct perceptions drawing on our experience
and expectations
The implications of this top to bottom flow if
information is that information coming into the
system (perceptually) can be influenced by what
the individual already knows about the
information that is coming into the system
Sensation- Basic Principles
  • Psychophysics
  • study of the relationship between physical
    characteristics of stimuli and our psychological
    experience of them
  • Light- brightness
  • Sound- volume
  • Pressure- weight
  • Taste- sweetness

TRANSDUCTION transformation of one form of
energy into another-- especially the
transformation of stimulus information into nerve
signals by the sense organs. Without
transduction, ripe tomatoes would not appear red
(or pinkish gray--in the case of many tomatoes
purchased in the grocery store).
SENSORY ADAPTATION--loss of responsiveness in
receptor cells after stimulation has remained
unchanged for a while, as when a swimmer becomes
adapted to the temperature of the water.
Absolute Threshold minimum stimulation needed
to detect a particular stimulus usually defined
as the stimulus needed for detection 50 of the
time Difference Threshold minimum difference
between two stimuli that a subject can detect 50
of the time just noticeable difference
(JND) increases with magnitude
Sensation- Thresholds
  • Signal Detection Theory
  • predicts how and when we detect the presence of
    a faint stimulus (signal) amid background
    stimulation (noise)
  • assumes that there is no single absolute
  • detection depends partly on persons
  • experience
  • expectations
  • motivation
  • level of fatigue
  • Webers Law- to perceive a difference between
    two stimuli, they must differ by a constant
  • light intensity- 8
  • weight- 2
  • tone frequency- 0.3

Vision- Stabilized Images on the Retina
Our perceptions are organized by the meanings our
minds impose.
  • Transduction- conversion of one form of energy
    to another
  • Wavelength- the distance from the peak of one
    wave to the peak of the next
  • Hue- dimension of color determined by wavelength
    of light
  • Intensity- amount of energy in a wave determined
    by amplitude
  • brightness
  • loudness

Vision- Spectrum of Electromagnetic Energy
Vision- Physical Properties of Waves
Amplitude greatness of magnitude.(physics) the
maximum displacement of a periodic wave
Wave amplitude determines the intensity of colors
and sounds.
  • Pupil- adjustable opening in the center of the
  • Iris- a ring of muscle that forms the colored
    portion of the eye around the pupil and controls
    the size of the pupil opening
  • Lens- transparent structure behind pupil that
    changes shape to focus images on the retina

  • Accommodation --the process by which the eyes
    lens changes shape to help focus near or far
    objects on the retina
  • change in shape of lens
  • focus near objects
  • Retina --the light-sensitive inner surface of the
    eye, containing receptor rods and cones plus
    layers of neurons that begin the processing of
    visual information
  • inner surface of eye
  • light sensitive
  • contains rods and cones
  • layers of neurons
  • beginning of visual information processing

  • Acuity- the sharpness of vision
  • Nearsightedness --condition in which nearby
    objects are seen more clearly than distant
    objects because distant objects in front of
  • nearby objects seen more clearly
  • lens focuses image of distant objects in front of
  • Farsightedness --condition in which faraway
    objects are seen more clearly than near objects
    because the image of near objects is focused
    behind retina
  • faraway objects seen more clearly
  • lens focuses near objects behind retina

Farsighted Nearsighted Normal
Vision Vision Vision
Light rays from distant objects focus in
frontwhen image reaches the back, the rays
spread out creating a blur.
Light rays from near objects focus behind the
retina creating a blur.
Retinas Reaction to Light- Receptors
  • Optic nerve- nerve that carries neural impulses
    from the eye to the brain
  • Blind Spot- point at which the optic nerve leaves
    the eye, creating a blind spot because there
    are no receptor cells located there
  • Fovea- central point in the retina, around which
    the eyes cones cluster

Retinas Reaction to Light- Receptors
Rods are more sensitive to light than the cones
which is why the world looks colorless at night.
  • Cones
  • near center of retina (fovea)
  • fine detail and color vision
  • daylight or well-lit conditions
  • Rods
  • peripheral retina
  • detect black, white and gray
  • twilight or low light

Nocturnal animals such as mice, toads, rats and
bats have retinas made up almost entirely of rods.
Vision- Receptors
Visual Information Processing
  • Feature Detectors
  • neurons in the visual cortex respond to
    specific features
  • shape
  • angle
  • movement

Illusory Contours
Subjective Contours
Visual Information Processing
  • Parallel Processing
  • simultaneous processing of several dimensions
    through multiple pathways (color, motion, form,
  • Trichromatic (three color) Theory
  • Young (1802) and Helmholtz (1850)
  • three different retinal color receptors
  • red
  • green
  • blue

You see colors according to their response to the
wavelengths of light striking the
retina---short-preferring (blue),
middle-preferring (green), and long-preferring
Visual Information Processing
  • Opponent-Process Theory- opposing retinal
    processes enable color vision
  • ON OFF
  • red green
  • green red
  • blue yellow
  • yellow blue
  • black white
  • white black

Visual Information Processing
Color Constancy Perceiving familiar objects as
having consistent color, even if changing
illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by
the object
  • Audition
  • the sense of hearing
  • Frequency
  • the number of complete wavelengths that pass a
    point in a given time
  • Pitch
  • a tones highness or lowness
  • depends on frequency

Audition- The Ear
  • Outer Ear
  • Auditory Canal
  • Eardrum
  • Middle Ear --chamber between eardrum and cochlea
    containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil,
    stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the
    eardrum on the cochleas oval window
  • Inner Ear --innermost part of the ear, containing
    the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular
  • oval window
  • Cochlea-- coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the
    inner ear
  • basilar membrane
  • hair cells

  • Place Theory
  • the theory that links the pitch we hear with the
    place where the cochleas membrane is stimulated
  • Frequency Theory
  • the theory that the rate of nerve impulses
    traveling up the auditory nerve matches the
    frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense
    its pitch

How We Locate Sounds
(No Transcript)
  • Conduction Hearing Loss
  • hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical
    system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea
  • Nerve Hearing Loss
  • hearing loss caused by damage to the cochleas
    receptor cells or to the auditory nerve
  • Older people tend to hear low frequencies well
    but suffer hearing loss for high frequencies

20-29 years
30-39 years
40-49 years
50-59 years
Over 60 years
  • Skin Sensations
  • pressure
  • only skin sensation with identifiable receptors
  • warmth
  • cold
  • pain

  • Gate-Control Theory
  • theory that the spinal cord contains a
    neurological gate that blocks pain signals or
    allows them to pass on to the brain
  • gate opened by the activity of pain signals
    traveling up small nerve fibers
  • gate closed by activity in larger fibers or by
    information coming from the brain

Sometimes a child can be afflicted with a
disorder known as CIPA -- congenital
insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis, She can
feel touch, her brain doesn't receive signals
that she's experiencing pain, and she hardly
When Gabby was 4 months old, she was biting her
fingers until they bled. By the time she was 2,
her teeth had to be removed so she wouldn't hurt
herself. When she was a toddler, Gabby scratched
her cornea and was given eye gel, The thick gel
had a reflux reaction to rub your eye, Because
one eye became so infected, it had to be removed
  • Taste Sensations
  • sweet
  • sour
  • salty
  • bitter
  • Sensory Interaction
  • the principle that one sense may influence
  • as when the smell of food influences its taste

Age, Sex and Sense of Smell
Body Position and Movement
  • Kinesthesis
  • the system for sensing the position and movement
    of individual body parts
  • Vestibular Sense
  • the sense of body movement and position
  • including the sense of balance

.means that at any moment we focus our awareness
on only a limited aspect of all that we are
capable of experiencing.
  • Selective Attention focus of conscious awareness
    on a particular stimulus

Change Blindness
Perceptual Illusions
Perceptual Illusions
Perceptual Illusions
Perceptual Illusions
Picture or a word?
Perceptual Organization- Gestalt
  • Visual Capture
  • tendency for vision to dominate the other senses
  • Gestalt--an organized whole
  • tendency to integrate pieces of information into
    meaningful wholes

Perceptual Organization- Gestalt
  • Grouping
  • the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into
    coherent groups
  • Grouping Principles
  • proximity- group nearby figures together
  • similarity- group figures that are similar
  • continuity- perceive continuous patterns
  • closure- fill in gaps
  • connectedness- spots, lines and areas are seen as
    unit when connected

___ ___ ___ - ___ ___ - ___ ___ ___
___ ___ ___ ___ - ___ ___ ___ - ___ ___ ___
___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ - ___ ___ ___ ___
Perceptual Organization- Grouping Principles
Illusory Contours
Perceptual Organization
  • Figure and Ground--organization of the visual
    field into objects (figures) that stand out from
    their surroundings (ground)

Perceptual Organization- Grouping Principles
  • Gestalt grouping principles are at work here.

Perceptual Organization-Depth Perception
  • Depth Perception
  • ability to see objects in three dimensions
  • allows us to judge distance
  • Binocular cues
  • retinal disparity
  • images from the two eyes differ
  • closer the object, the larger the disparity
  • convergence
  • neuromuscular cue
  • two eyes move inward for near objects

Visual Cliff
Perceptual Organization-Depth Perception
  • Monocular Cues
  • relative size
  • smaller image is more distant
  • interposition
  • closer object blocks distant object
  • relative clarity
  • hazy object seen as more distant
  • texture coarse --gt close
  • fine --gt distant
  • relative height
  • higher objects seen as more distant
  • relative motion
  • closer objects seem to move faster
  • linear perspective
  • parallel lines converge with distance
  • relative brightness
  • closer objects appear brighter

Light Shadow
Perceptual Organization-Depth Perception
Perspective Techniques
Perceptual Organization Depth Perception
Illusory Depth
Photographer Walter Wick cut out pieces of paper
shaped to imitate stair positions and colored
them to simulate light and shadow.
Perceptual Constancy
  • Perceptual Constancy
  • perceiving objects as unchanging despite changes
    in retinal image
  • color
  • shape
  • size

Ponzo Illusion
Perceptual Organization-Muller-Lyer Illusion
Perceptual Organization-Brightness Contrast
Perceptual Organization-Brightness Contrast
Perceptual Constancy We know that the shadow
doesnt change the color of tile B to the same as
tile A, even when it looks that way.
Sensory Restriction-Blakemore Cooper, 1970
  • Kittens raised without exposure to horizontal
    lines later had difficulty perceiving horizontal

Perceptual Interpretation
  • Perceptual Adaptation
  • (vision) ability to adjust to an artificially
    displaced visual field
  • prism glasses
  • Perceptual Set
  • a mental predisposition to perceive one thing and
    not another

Perceptual Set- Schemas
What you see in the center is influenced by
perceptual set
Perception and the Human Factor
  • Human Factors Psychology
  • explores how people and machines interact
  • explores how machine and physical environments
    can be adapted to human behaviors

Perceptual Set- Human Factors
Consciousness our awareness of ourselves and our
environments the process by which the brain
creates a model of internal and external
CORE CONCEPT Consciousness can take many forms,
while other mental processes occur simultaneously
outside our awareness.
Some occur spontaneously
Food or oxygen starvation
Some are physiologically induced
Some are psychologically induced
Sensory deprivation
Consciousness is not good at multitasking So,
if you try to drive while talking on the cell
phone, you have to shift your attention back and
forth between tasks.
Preconscious defined as memories of events
(i.e. a wedding) and facts (i.e. Lansing is the
capital of Michigan) that have once been the
focus of attention Unconscious defined as many
levels of processing that occur without
awareness, including brain systems and others
that can have subtle influences on behavior.
PRIMING a technique that has an influence on
answers people give without their being conscious
that they were influenced. There are many
possible answers to this question, but I
increased the probability that you would chose
the word, DEFINE, by using it twice in the
previous slide.
Sleep and Dreams
  • Biological Rhythms
  • periodic physiological fluctuations
  • Circadian Rhythm
  • the biological clock
  • regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour
    cycle, such as of wakefulness and body temperature
  • Daydreaming
  • mildly, altered state of consciousness
  • attention inward to memories, expectations, and
    desires often with vivid mental imagery
  • REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep
  • recurring sleep stage
  • vivid dreams
  • paradoxical sleep
  • muscles are generally relaxed, but other body
    systems are active

Brain Waves and Sleep Stages
  • Alpha Waves
  • slow waves of a relaxed, awake brain
  • Delta Waves
  • large, slow waves of deep sleep
  • Hallucinations
  • false sensory experiences

Stages in a Typical Nights Sleep
Sleep Across the Lifespan
How much sleep we need depend on several
factors genetics--different for each
species circadian rhythms personal
characteristics and habits exercise influences
the need for sleep (however, strenuous physical
activity increase the amount of slow-wave stage 4
What interferes with sleep?
Exercise increases endorphins and activity in
your system. It is best to exercise in the
early morning or late afternoon. Eating
activates the digestive system. It is best to
eat prior to 6 or 700 pm. Alcohol depresses
activity in the brain that control our
self-monitoring behaviors. While it will
initially induce relaxation, overuse will
interfere with REM sleep and cause insomnia and
infrequent sleep patterns.
  • Dreams
  • sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts
    passing through a sleeping persons mind
  • hallucinatory imagery
  • discontinuities
  • incongruities
  • delusional acceptance of the content
  • difficulties remembering
  • Sigmund Freud--The Interpretation of Dreams
  • wish fulfillment
  • discharge otherwise unacceptable feelings
  • Manifest Content
  • remembered story line
  • Latent Content
  • underlying meaning

  • As Information Processing
  • helps facilitate memories
  • REM Rebound
  • REM sleep increases following REM sleep

the sleeping brain tries to make sense of its own
spontaneous bursts of activity.
In this view, dreams originate when their own
periodic neural discharges emitted by the brain
stem. When the energy sweeps over the cerebral
cortex, the sleeper experiences impressions of
sensation, memory, motivation, emotion and
movement. (Hobson, McCarley 1977)
Sleep Disorders
  • Insomnia
  • persistent problems in falling or staying asleep
  • Narcolepsy
  • uncontrollable sleep attacks
  • Sleep Apnea
  • temporary cessation of breathing, as much as
    several hundred times a night ..(its normal to
    cease breathing a few times an hour during the
  • momentary reawakenings
  • Nightmares
  • Occur in REM sleep during the early morning
  • Night Terrors
  • occur within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep,
    usually during Stage 4
  • high arousal-- appearance of being terrified

  • Hypnosis
  • a social interaction in which one person (the
    hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that
    certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or
    behaviors will spontaneously occur
  • Posthypnotic Amnesia
  • supposed inability to recall what one experienced
    during hypnosis
  • induced by the hypnotists suggestion
  • Dissociation
  • a split in consciousness
  • allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur
    simultaneously with others
  • Hidden Observer
  • Hilgards term describing a hypnotized subjects
    awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go
    unreported during hypnosis

Explaining Hypnosis
Uses of hypnosis Research--can induce temporary
mental conditions (anxiety, hallucinations,
depression) Treatment--phobias, eliminating
unwanted behaviors (smoking, eating) Anesthesia--
medical dental practices (not everyone can do
Drugs and Consciousness
  • Psychoactive Drug
  • a chemical substance that alters perceptions and
  • Physical Dependence
  • physiological need for a drug
  • marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms
  • Psychological Dependence
  • a psychological need to use a drug
  • for example, to relieve negative emotions
  • Tolerance
  • diminishing effect with regular use
  • Withdrawal
  • discomfort and distress that follow discontinued

  • Depressants
  • drugs that reduce neural activity, inhibits the
    transmission of messages in CNS
  • slow body functions
  • alcohol, barbiturates, opiates, benzodiazepines
  • Stimulants
  • drugs that excite neural activity in CNS
  • Dangers include frightening hallucinations,
    paranoid delusions children born to users at at
    increased risk for cognitive problems, emotional
    difficulties and behavior-control disorders.
  • speed up body functions, increase concentration,
    reduce behavior in ADHD.
  • caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine,
    methamphetamine, MDMA (ecstacy),

Psychoactive Drugs
  • Hallucinogens
  • psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort
    perceptions and evoke sensory images in the
    absence of sensory input
  • Most hallucinogens work at the receptor sites for
    the neurotransmitter serotonin
  • LSD, mescaline, psilocybin, PCP, cannabis
  • Opiates
  • opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin)
  • opiates depress neural activity, temporarily
    lessening pain and anxiety
  • Similar to bodys pain relieving chemicals, the
  • Opium, morphine, heroin, codeine, methadone

Psychoactive Drugs
  • Barbiturates
  • drugs that depress the activity of the CNS,
    reducing anxiety but impairing memory and
  • Side effect of reducing REM sleep time
    withdrawal from barbituates results in REM
    rebound and unpleasant dreams
  • Sedatives, sleep, anesthetic, anticonvulsant
  • Amphetamines
  • drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing
    speeded-up body functions and associated energy
    and mood changes
  • Weight control, counteract anesthesia

Cocaine Euphoria and Crash
Psychoactive Drugs
  • Ecstasy (MDMA)
  • synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen
  • both short-term and long-term health risks
  • LSD
  • lysergic acid diethylamide
  • a powerful hallucinogenic drug
  • also known as acid
  • THC
  • the major active ingredient in marijuana
  • triggers a variety of effects, including mild

Psychoactive Drugs
LEARNING Chapter 8
  • John B. Watson
  • viewed psychology as objective science
  • generally agreed-upon consensus today
  • Learning
  • relatively permanent change in an organisms
    behavior due to experience
  • experience (nurture) is the key to learning

recommended study of behavior without reference
to unobservable mental processes not universally
accepted by all schools of thought today
It is widely known that human beings are born
with only two natural fears. One is the fear of
falling and the second is the fear of loud
noises. Where, then, do all of our other fears
come from?
John B. Watson in his experiment with Little
Albert, an 11 month old baby, studied how
emotions are learned. He presented (A) a white
rat (CS) and (B) a loud noise (US) to Little
Albert. After several pairings, Albert showed
fear (CR) of the white rat. Later, Albert
generalized the fear to stimuli that were simular
to CS, such as (C) a beard.
  • We learn by association
  • Our minds naturally connect events that occur in
  • Aristotle 2000 years ago
  • John Locke and David Hume 200 yrs ago
  • Associative Learning
  • learning that two events occur together
  • two stimuli
  • a response and its consequences

The core of classical conditioning stems from
reflex responses. A REFLEX is an unlearned
response that is naturally elicited by specific
stimuli that are biologically relevant for the
Prior to the experiment the tone used had no
prior meaning for the dogs. This was a NEUTRAL
STIMULUS and elicits no effect. The UCS
naturally elicits the UCR. Dogs were placed in a
restraining harness. At regular intervals, a
tone (NS) sounded and the dogs were given food
(UCS). With repeated pairings of the NS and UCS,
the neutral stimulus becomes the CS and dogs
began salivating (CR).
  • Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
  • effective stimulus that unconditionally-automatica
    lly and naturally- triggers a response
  • Unconditioned Response (UCR)
  • unlearned, naturally occurring automatic response
    to the unconditioned stimulus
  • salivation when food is in the mouth
  • Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
  • previously neutral stimulus that, after
    association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes
    to trigger a conditioned response
  • Conditioned Response (CR)
  • learned response to a previously neutral
    conditioned stimulus

Pavlovs Classic Experiment
Before Conditioning
UCS (food in mouth)
Neutral stimulus (tone)
No salivation
UCR (salivation)
During Conditioning
After Conditioning
UCS (food in mouth)
CS (tone)
Neutral stimulus (tone)
UCR (salivation)
CR (salivation)
Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning
  • Classical Conditioning
  • organism comes to associate two stimuli
  • lightning and thunder
  • tone and food
  • begins with a reflex
  • a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that
    evokes the reflex
  • neutral stimulus eventually comes to evoke the

  • Acquisition
  • the initial stage of learning, during which a
    response is established and gradually
  • in classical conditioning, the phase in which a
    stimulus comes to evoke a conditioned response
  • in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a
    reinforced response
  • Extinction
  • diminishing of a CR
  • in classical conditioning, when a UCS does not
    follow a CS
  • in operant conditioning, when a response is no
    longer reinforced
  • Spontaneous Recovery
  • -reappearance, after a rest period, of an
    extinguished CR

  • Generalization
  • tendency for a stimuli similar to CS to evoke
    similar responses
  • Discrimination
  • in classical conditioning, the ability to
    distinguish between a CS and other stimuli that
    do not signal an UCS
  • in operant conditioning, responding differently
    to stimuli that signal a behavior will be
    reinforced or will not be reinforced

Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
  • B.F. Skinner (1904-1990)
  • Harvard University
  • elaborated Thorndikes Law of Effect
  • developed behavioral technology
  • Operant Conditioning
  • type of learning in which behavior is
    strengthened if followed by reinforcement or
    diminished if followed by punishment
  • Law of Effect
  • Thorndikes principle that behaviors followed by
    favorable consequences become more likely and
    behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences
    become less likely

Thorndike's Puzzle Box, used a cat solving the
puzzle of how to escape from the box. However,
unlike Skinner's experiment with rats, the cat
did not show any systematic strategies in
learning. He simply scrambled around in the box
until he stepped on the lever. From this,
Thorndike proposed the Law of Effect which says
that an animals learned response that results in
rewarding consequences are strengthened, and the
responses with punishing consequences are
In one experiment, Skinner placed a rat inside a
box with two levers, one that issued a reward
when pulled and the other that issued a
punishment. Over time, the rat began to stop
pulling the lever that shocked him and just
focused on the lever that gave him food.
As a result, Skinner was able to show the effects
of reinforcement and punishment in operant
Operant Conditioning
  • Reinforcer
  • any event that strengthens the behavior it
  • Shaping
  • conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide
    behavior toward closer approximations of a
    desired goal
  • Successive Approximations
  • reward behaviors that increasingly resemble
    desired behavior
  • Skinner Box
  • soundproof chamber with a bar or key that an
    animal presses or pecks to release a food or
    water reward
  • contains a device to record responses

Principles of Reinforcement
  • Primary Reinforcer
  • innately reinforcing stimulus
  • satisfies a biological need
  • Secondary Reinforcer
  • conditioned reinforcer
  • learned through association with primary
  • Continuous Reinforcement
  • reinforcing the desired response each time it
  • learning occurs rapidly
  • extinction occurs rapidly
  • Partial Reinforcement
  • reinforcing a response only part of the time
  • results in slower acquisition
  • greater resistance to extinction

Schedules of Reinforcement
  • 1) Fixed Ratio (FR)
  • reinforces a response only after a specified
    number of responses
  • like piecework pay
  • 2) Variable Ratio (VR)
  • reinforces a response after an unpredictable
    number of responses
  • like gambling, fishing
  • very hard to extinguish because of
  • 3) Fixed Interval (FI)
  • reinforces a response only after a specified time
    has elapsed
  • response occurs more frequently as the
    anticipated time for reward draws near
  • 4) Variable Interval (VI)
  • reinforces a response at unpredictable time
  • produces slow steady responding
  • like pop quiz

In essence, if one's actions make the thing
happen it is a ratio if time must pass then it
is an interval.
Operant Conditioning
  • We learn to associate a response and its

  • Punishment
  • aversive event that decreases the behavior that
    it follows
  • powerful controller of unwanted behavior

Punished behavior is not forgotten, it's
suppressed- behavior returns when punishment is
no longer eminent Causes increased aggression-
shows that aggression is a way to cope with
problems- Explains why aggressive delinquents
and abusive parents come from abusive homes
Creates fear that can generalize to desirable
behaviors, e.g. fear of school, learned
helplessness, depression Does not necessarily
guide toward desired behavior- reinforcement
tells you what to do--punishment tells you what
not to do- Combination of punishment and reward
can be more effective than punishment
alone Punishment teaches how to avoid it
  • Latent Learning
  • learning that occurs, but is not apparent until
    there is an incentive to demonstrate it
  • Overjustification Effect
  • the effect of promising a reward for doing what
    one already likes to do
  • the person may now see the reward, rather than
    intrinsic interest, as the motivation for
    performing the task

Operant Conditioning
  • Taught dogs that they were helpless to escape
    from an electric shock by placing a barrier in
    the cage to prevent dogs from escaping when they
    were shocked.
  • Removed the barrier but the dogs made no effort
    to escape.

Father of Positive Psychology Univ. Pennsylvania
This learned helplessness has been compared to
people who are depressed. They feel past/future
events are out of their control and they are
helpless depression.
Cognition and Operant Conditioning
  • Intrinsic Motivation
  • Desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and
    to be effective
  • Extrinsic Motivation
  • Desire to perform a behavior due to promised
    rewards or threats of punishments
  • Observational Learning
  • learning by observing and imitating others
  • Modeling
  • process of observing and imitating behavior
  • Prosocial Behavior
  • positive, constructive, helpful behavior
  • opposite of antisocial behavior

Observational Learning
  • Mirror Neurons
  • frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing
    certain actions or when observing another doing
  • may enable imitation, language learning, and

Albert Bandura wanted to study aggression in
adolescents. He suggested that environment causes
behavior, true but behavior causes environment
as well. He labeled this concept reciprocal
determinism The world and a persons behavior
cause each other.
The bobo doll studies made of film of one of
his students, a young woman, essentially beating
up a bobo doll. showed his film to groups of
kindergartners who, as you might predict, liked
it a lot. when they were let out to play, the
little kids started beating the daylights out of
the bobo doll.
He called the phenomenon observational learning
or modeling, and his theory is usually called
social learning theory.
Components of Thought
CONCEPTS Mental representations of categories
of items or ideas, based on experience. building
blocks of thinking allow organization in
systematic ways
CONCEPTS Might be classes of objects (chairs,
birds, birthday parties) properties (red,
large) abstractions (truth, love) relations
(smarter than.) procedures (how to tie your
shoes) intentions (intention to break into a
CONCEPTS TWO KINDS Natural concepts mental
classifications that develop out of everyday
experiences in the world. (birds, mothers face,
artichokes, Statue of Liberty) Artificial
concepts defined by a set of rules or
characteristics (dictionary definitions,
mathematical formulas)
We organize much of our memory into CONCEPT
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
  • Cognitive Maps
  • Mental, visual representation of the layout of
    ones environment
  • example- after exploring a maze, rats act as if
    they have learned a cognitive map of it

Cognitive maps help you get to psychology class
or drive your mom to the theatre or help you walk
around your house.
Schema Cluster of related concepts that
provides a general conceptual framework for
thinking about a topic, an event, an object,
people or a situation in ones life. (Zimbardo)
provide contexts provide expectations provide
features likely to be found when encountering
familiar people or situations.
For example, take the word, TERMINAL.
Are you in an airport? a hospital? an auto
How does the meaning change?
We also have SCHEMAS about persons, roles, and
ourselves. An event schema is called a SCRIPT.
We have scripts for going to restaurant, going to
church, going to the library, or making love.
Culture influences our scripts. U.S.
servicewomen in the middle east had to change
many behaviors taken for granted at home, such as
walking unescorted in public or driving a car or
wearing clothing that showed their faces and
legs, when they went into Arab countries.
Conflicting scripts can make people awkward and
difficult to understand. Sometimes it can be so
uncomfortable, they dont want to play the scene
INDUCTIVE REASONING form of thinking using
individual cases or particular facts to reach a
general conclusion. The ice is cold all ice is
cold DEDUCTIVE REASONING form of thinking in
which conclusions are inferred from premises, the
conclusions are true if the premises are true (if
this, then that) All men are mortal Socrates is
a man Socrates is mortal
  • What abilities do good thinkers possess?
  • Identify the problem
  • Select a strategy
  • Trial and error (for simple problems)
  • Algorithms
  • Heuristics

ALGORITHMS formulas or procedures. If applied
correctly, algorithms will always work.
balance checkbook, figure gas mileage,
calculate gradepoint average.
  • HEURISTICS simple, basic rules or rule of
    thumb. (i.e.) feed a cold, starve a fever
    Heuristics do not guarantee a solution, but they
    give us a good start. Useful heuristics include
  • Working backward
  • Searching for analogies. (if the new problem is
    similar to the one youve faced previously)
  • Breaking a big problem into smaller pieces

  • Obstacles to problem-solving include
  • Mental set
  • Functional fixedness
  • Self-imposed limitations

Say this word 3 times. SILK
  • Lack of specific knowledge
  • Lack of interest
  • Low self-esteem
  • Fatigue
  • Drugs (even legal drugs)
  • Stress
  • Bias

What do cows drink?
Did you say milk? They actually drink water. . .
. But this is an example of mental set.
  • BIAS
  • Confirmation bias finding fault with
    information that doesnt confirm your belief.
  • Hindsight bias people overestimate their
    ability to have predicted an event
  • Anchoring bias faulty heuristic caused by basing
    an estimate on a completely unrelated quantity.
  • 1 x 2 x 3 x 4 x 5 x 6 x 7 x 8 ?
  • 8 x 7 x 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 ?

When these equations are given to 2 separate
groups of people to ESTIMATE, the average answer
for 1 was 512, and 2 was 2250.
  • d) Representativeness bias faulty heuristic
    strategy based on the presumption that once
    people or events are categorized, they share all
    the features of other members in that category.
  • e) Availability bias faulty heuristic strategy
    that estimates probabilities based on information
    that can be recalled from personal experience.

Marzano outlined 9 strategies most likely to
improve student achievement 1. Identifying
similarities and differences 2. Summarizing and
note taking 3. Reinforcing effort and providing
recognition 4. Homework and practice 5.
Nonlinguistic representations 6. Cooperative
learning 7. Setting objectives and providing
feedback 8. Generating and testing hypotheses 9.
Cues, questions, and advance organizers
  • Following the 1948 Convention of the American
    Psychological Association, B S Bloom took a lead
    in formulating a classification of "the goals of
    the educational process".
  • Three "domains" of educational activities were
  • Cognitive Domain
  • Affective Domain
  • Psychomotor Domain
  • Bloom and his co-workers established a hierarchy
    of educational objectives, (Bloom's Taxonomy),
    which divide cognitive objectives into
    subdivisions ranging from the simplest behaviour
    to the most complex.

BLOOMs TAXONOMY High school students are rarely
asked higher level questions Level
1 Knowledge Level 2 Comprehension Level 3
Application Level 4 Analysis Level
5 Synthesis Level 6 Evaluation
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com