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INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY

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Title: INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY


1
INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER 5 - PERCEPTION
2
WHAT ARE 6 FEATURES OF PERCEPTION?
  • knowledge-based - we interpret sensations based
    on what we already know
  • inferential- we form perceptual hypotheses based
    on incomplete information
  • categorical- put sensations in categories based
    on common features

3
6 Features of Perception (continued)
  • relational- features can be related in a
    consistent, coherent way
  • adaptive- allows focusing on most important
    information to handle a situation
  • automatic-does not depend on necessarily on
    conscious processes

4
2. WHAT ARE 2 APPROACHES TO PERCEPTION?
  • constructionist- emphasizes knowledge basis and
    inferential character of perception
  • ecological- source of information sensed
    directly from the environment incoming stimuli
    give necessary information.

5
3. WHAT ARE 2 PRINCIPLES OF PERCEPTION?
  • figure/ground figure has meaning, stands out,
    seems to be in front, and has contours or edges
    ground is meaningless, shapeless and seems to be
    in back of the figure.
  • grouping includes proximity or closeness,
    similarity, continuity, closure, orientation,
    simplicity.

6
4. WHAT ARE 4 ASPECTS OF PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY?
  • definition objects seem to remain constant in
    size, shape and color regardless of changing
    retinal image.
  • size constancy we believe objects stay the same
    size even though their images on the retina get
    bigger or smaller

7
Perceptual constancy
  • shape constancy objects are seen as being the
    same shape regardless of changing shape of
    retinal image.
  • color constancy perceived color stays the same
    regardless of amount of light shining on it.

8
5. WHAT ARE 3 ASPECTS OF DEPTH PERCEPTION?
  • definition interpretation of how close or far
    away an object is allows perceiving the world in
    3 dimensions.

9
Aspects of depth perception (continued)
  • 6 stimulus cues include
  • relative size,
  • height in visual field,
  • .

10
Stimulus cues
  • interposition,
  • linear perspective,
  • reduced clarity,
  • light and shadow

11
Aspects of depth perception (continued)
  • 3 properties of visual system accommodation
    (eye muscles tighten or relax to focus visual
    image)
  • convergence (rotation of eyes inward or outward
    to focus on close object)
  • binocular disparity (difference between retinal
    images as in view master example)

12
6. WHAT ARE 3 ASPECTS OF PERCEIVED MOTION?
  • looming rapid expansion in size of retinal
    image, filling available space on the retina.
  • movement gradient objects appear to move away
    from horizon as you move forward.
  • info from vestibular and tactile senses when
    accelerate in a car, sense pressure from back of
    seat head tilts back.

13
7.WHAT ARE 4 ASPECTS OF PERCEPTUAL ILLUSIONS?
  • definition distorted or false perceptions of
    reality.
  • stroboscopic motion series of images each
    slightly different, presented quickly one after
    the other give the illusion of motion
  • movies, for example.

14
Perceptual Illusions (continued)
  • induced motion
  • when there is relative motion in figure and
    ground, we perceive motion in the figure
  • example moon and clouds (small image of moon and
    large cloud image
  • moon perceived as figure and seems to be moving).

15
Perceptual Illusions (continued)
  • distortions of shape Poggendorf (diagonal line
    intersect vertical or horizontal lines)

16
Perceptual illusions (continued)
  • Ebbinghaus (small circle surrounded by large
    circles seems smaller than same size circle
    surrounded by small circles dieter example)

17
Perceptual illusions (continued)
  • Ponzo (two horizontal lines between two
    converging lines seem to be different in length
    even though they are actually the same length
    because of linear perspective).

18
8. TOP DOWN PROCESSING AND BOTTOM UP PROCESSING
IN PERCEPTION
  • top down guided by higher level cognitive
    processes and by psychological factors
  • shows effect of motivation and expectation

19
Top down and bottom up processing (continued)
  • bottom up depends on information from stimulus
    to brain by way of senses
  • (inspect abstract painting

20
Top down and bottom up processing (continued)
  • listen to unfamiliar language)

21
9. WHAT ARE 2 FACTORS INFLUENCING TOP DOWN
PROCESSING?
  • expectancy context of stimulus creates
    expectation
  • can bias perception by creating a perceptual set
    can make recognition easier.

22
Factors affecting top-down processing (continued)
  • motivation for example, if hungry more likely
    to see eating places
  • influences perception and recognition.
  •  

23
  • ARE THERE ANY QUESTIONS AT THIS POINT?

24
INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER 9
  • CONSCIOUSNESS

25
1. WHAT IS CONSCIOUSNESS?
  • mental process of being aware of own thoughts,
    feelings, actions, perceptions
  • involves self reference.

26
2. HOW HAS CONSCIOUSNESS BEEN STUDIED?
  • subjective structuralists
  • introspection to identify individual sensations
    unreliable.

27
Studying consciousness (continued)
  • objective
  • eeg, additional eeg information
  • pett, additional pet scan information

28
Objective measures of consciousness
  • cat scans additional cat scan information
  • records of electrical activity in the brain

29
Studying consciousness (continued)
  • animal responses to seeing own image in a
    mirror
  • shows consciousness results from social
    interaction.

30
3. WHAT ARE 3 LEVELS OF CONSCIOUSNESS?
  • a)unconscious totally inaccessible to conscious
    experience e.g. blood pressure
  • requires special methods such as biofeedback

31
Levels of Consciousness (continued)
  • b)cognitive unconscious/preconscious not
    conscious of
  • may easily become aware of
  • "cocktail party" phenomenon

32
Levels of Consciousness (continued)
  • conscious what you are presently aware of
  • lasts about 3 seconds

33
4. WHAT ARE FEATURES OF STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS?
  • range from deep sleep to alert wakefulness
  • may be active or passive

34
  • active manipulating mental activity
  • passive daydreaming
  • may result from natural processes or from choice

35
States of Consciousness (continued)
  • may experience altered states of consciousness

36
States of consciousness (continued)
  • 3 possible characteristics
  • a)shallow careless, uncritical cognitive
    processes
  • b)changed self/other perception
  • weakened self-control or normal inhibition.

37
5. WHAT ARE FEATURES OF DAYDREAMING?
  • altered state of consciousness attention to
    internal events
  • may be fantasy oriented or realistic
  • can interfere or may be harmless or helpful
    relief from boredom

38
why do we daydream
  • 1)may be constant/ongoing and become apparent
    when other mental activity ceases
  • 2)may maintain desirable level of activity when
    stimulation from outside is too low.

39
6. WHAT ARE ASPECTS OF SLEEP?
  • stage 0relaxed, eyes closed, awake, tension in
    body muscles, normal eye movements, eeg mixed
    with some alpha
  • stage 0-1 slow, rolling eye movements, eeg
    irregular, increased alpha

40
Stages of sleep
  • stage 2 eeg shows pointed "spindles"
    k-complexes
  • stage 3 eeg shows spindles k-complexes delta
    waves (slower and stronger than alpha)
  • stage 4 more than 50 delta waves, deepest
    sleep.

41
  • IN GENERAL 1 1/2 HOURS FROM STAGE 1 TO STAGE 4.
  • REM sleep rapid eye movement or active sleep
  • eeg similar to being active and awake

42
REM sleep
  • heart rate, respiration, blood pressure resemble
    active waking state
  • muscle tone decreased almost to paralysis
  • 80 awakenings result in reported dreaming.

43
  • SINGLE NIGHT'S SLEEP 4-6 CYCLES through stages
    1-4
  • each cycle about 90 min (1 1/2hrs),
  • first half mostly deep sleep (stages 3 4)
  • second half mostly stage 2 and REM

44
7. WHAT ARE 7 SLEEP DISORDERS?
  • a)insomnia - problems getting to sleep or staying
    asleep
  • results in fatigue during the day
  • related to mental distress, including depression
    and anxiety

45
  • Insomnia treatment
  • temporary and dangerous/sleeping pills and
    alcohol
  • more effective
  • biofeedback, relaxation training, stress
    management, psychotherapy, associate bed with
    sleeping, avoid caffeine .

46
  • (b) hypersomnia
  • sleep longer than is necessary
  • fatigue
  • daytime naps may contribute to this problem

47
  • (c) narcolepsy
  • experience sudden switch into several minutes of
    REM sleep
  • decreased muscle tone
  • may collapse
  • naps may help  

48
  • (d) nightmares
  • frightening dreams
  • sometimes recurring

49
  • (e) night terrors
  • occur in quiet (non-REM) sleep
  • may be associated with frightening dreams
  • may result in wakening into state of intense
    fear

50
  • (f) sleep-walking
  • mostly starts in non-REM sleep
  • especially stage 4
  • usually not remembered

51
  • (g) REM behavior disorder
  • similar to sleep-walking
  • in REM sleep
  • lack usual near paralysis and lack of muscle
    tone
  • may appear to act out dreams
  • most common in men older than 50.

52
8. WHAT ARE REASONS FOR SLEEPING?
  • sleep is part of circadian rhythm
  • cycle of waking and sleeping over a period of 24
    hours
  • linked to environmental signals, such as light
    and dark
  • cycle continues in absence of external time cues

53
  • maintenance suggests internal biological clock
  • may be located in brain (hypothalamus receives
    signals from eyes, relays signals to other parts
    of brain, helps to maintain 24 to 25 hour
    rhythm)

54
  • disruption is related to depression and jet lag
  • jet lag fatigue, irritability, sleep
    difficulty
  • similar to effects of changes in work habits
    (shift work)resulting in low efficiency and more
    accidents

55
  • less disruption if sleep is shifted to later time
    because underlying rhythm is 24 to 25 hours
  • this is reason that traveling west is less
    disrupting to sleep patterns than traveling east
  • also less disrupting if exposed to properly timed
    bright light and outdoor activity.

56
  • FUNCTIONS OF SLEEP
  • a)sleep may allow body to rest and restore
    itself
  • b)may allow for certain amounts of REM sleep
    which may help to maintain certain nerve cells in
    the part of the brain important to mood and
    alertness and allow restoring the sensitivity of
    those cells

57
  • c)REM sleep may be used to check and expand nerve
    connections in the brain (babies experience about
    REM sleep about 80 pf the time spent sleeping)
  • d) helps imprint what is learned during the day
  • e)possibly assists in thinking about and
    adjusting to day's events.

58
9. WHAT FEATURES OF DREAMING?
  • dreams story-like sequences of images,
    sensations, and perceptions
  • last from a few seconds to many minutes may
    occur in REM sleep and non-REM sleep.
  • Dream memory recall more likely if wake abruptly
    and lie quietly while writing or taping dream
    recollections.

59
  • WHY DREAM
  • psychological events containing information about
    mental processes
  • dreams may influence organization and recall of
    mental activity.

60
  • LUCID DREAMING
  • aware of dreaming while dream is happening
  • during this state,
  • dreamer directs content of dream
  • uses content of dreams to work through problems.

61
10. WHAT ARE ASPECTS OF HYPNOSIS?
  • DEFINITION altered state of consciousness
    resulting from special techniques
  • characterized by responsiveness to suggested
    changes in experience and behavior.
  • Has been used in past to treat paralysis and
    other mental and physical disorders

62
  • INDUCTION PROCEDURE
  • focus attention on restricted set of stimuli and
    imagine certain feelings.
  • can focus on breathing
  • involves relaxing muscles

63
Hypnosis
  • AS A RESULT experience 6 types of changes
    a)reduced planning
  • do not initiate actions
  • wait for instructions
  • b)redistributed/redirected attention
  • form of selective attention
  • c)enhanced ability to fantasize or imagine

64
Hypnosis
  • d)reduced reality testing
  • do not question whether stated facts are true
  • e)increased role-taking ability
  • f)may experience post-hypnotic amnesia and not
    remember what occurred during hypnosis.

65
  • USES OF HYPNOSIS
  • a) control pain
  • b)reduce nausea and bleeding
  • c)decrease use of tobacco and alcohol

66
  • 4 SIGNS OF SUSCEPTIBILITY
  • a)more active imagination
  • b)prone to fantasy
  • c)ability to concentrate on single activity for a
    longer time
  • d)if willing and interested, will think favorably
    and practice

67
  • THEORIES TO EXPLAIN HYPNOSIS
  • a)role acting in a special social role

68
  • b)state altered state, results in difference in
    how suggestions are carried out

69
  • c)dissociation
  • blend of role and state,
  • reorganize how behavior is controlled,
  • split in consciousness,
  • relaxing of central control.

70
11. WHAT ARE CHARACTERISTICS OF MEDITATION?
  • DEFINITION
  • set of techniques to create altered state
  • characterized by inner peace and tranquility.

71
Meditation
  • METHOD
  • usually focus or narrow attention to one thing
    long enough to experience pure awareness.

72
Meditation
  • 4 COMPONENTS
  • a)quiet environment,
  • b)comfortable position
  • c)mental device to organize attention
  • d)passive attitude.

73
Meditation
  • EFFECTS
  • a)decreased respiration, heart rate, muscle
    tension, blood pressure and oxygen use
  • b)increased alpha brain waves (relaxed, awake,
    eyes closed)
  • c)enhanced mental health, self-esteem, social
    openness.

74
Meditation
  • use in moderation
  • excessive use may result in dizziness, anxiety,
    confusion, restlessness and depression.

75
12. WHAT ARE FEATURES OF PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS?
  • DEFINITION
  • chemical substances acting on the brain to create
    different psychological effects.

76
CONSEQUENCES OF DRUG USE
  • a)drug abuse - self administering in ways which
    are socially or medically unacceptable
  • use too much or for too long a time

77
  • b)psychological dependence
  • act as if drug is needed for sense of well-being
  • preoccupied with getting the drug

78
  • c)physical dependence or addiction - altered
    physical state as well as psychological effects
  • continued use is necessary to prevent withdrawal
    symptoms
  • is associated with developing a tolerance to the
    substance used (more of the drug is required to
    experience the desired effects).
  • drug use is compulsive and uncontrollable.

79
CAUSES
  • casual use - usually from social influences
  • abuse - associated with individual psychological
    processes and self-protection
  • may experience changes in consciousness,
    including racing thoughts, euphoria,
    hallucinations, anxiety, coma, death.

80
4 TYPES OF PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS
  • depressants - include alcohol, sedatives,
    anxiolytics/tranquilizers
  • reduce central nervous system (CNS) activity and
    excitability
  • b)stimulants - include amphetamines, cocaine,
    caffeine
  • result in increased behavioral and CNS activity
    and excitability

81
  • c)narcotics - include opium, morphine, heroin
    result in increased sleepiness decreased
    sensitivity to pain
  • d)psychedelics - include LSD, PCP, marijuana,
    psilocybin
  • result in decreased reality contact
  • alters emotions, perceptions, and thinking
    patterns.

82
13. WHAT ARE TWO WAYS IN WHICH LEARNING IS
ASSOCIATED WITH DRUG USE?
  • INVOLUNTARY RESPONSES
  • a)opposite to response associated with the drug
  • occurs outside of awareness
  • depends on pairing stimuli and responses
  • associated with developing tolerance to drug
    (takes more drug to overcome conditioned response
    (increased sensitivity to pain)
  • susceptibility to accidental overdose is
    increased (unfamiliar setting "not ready")
  • b)similar to response associated with drug
  • cues associated with drug remind person of
    pleasurable aspects.

83
  • INTRODUCTORY PSYCHOLOGY
  • REVIEW
  • SOCIAL COGNITION - CHAPTER 17 - BERNSTEIN

84
1. How do social psychology and social cognition
relate to social comparison and social norms?
  • Social psychology study of how an individual's
    behavior and mental processes are influenced by
    experiences with other people.
  • Social cognition mental processes associated
    with how people perceive and react to each other.
  • Example of mental process affected by other
    people social comparison, in which we use other
    people as a basis for comparison
  • use reference groups (categories of people to
    which you see yourself belonging and to which you
    compare yourself) as a basis of comparison

85
  • reference groups influence satisfaction with
    life
  • may result in relative deprivation (sense that
    your not doing well compared to your reference
    group).

86
  • Social norms are products of mental processes
  • norms are learned, socially based rules
    prescribing what to do and what not to do in
    certain situations
  • are transmitted by agents of culture

87
  • sometimes followed automatically
  • make social situations less ambiguous and more
    comfortable
  • example reciprocity or tendency to respond to
    others as you perceive they have acted toward
    you.

88
2. What is social perception?
  • process through which we interpret information
    about others, draw inferences about people and
    develop representation about them
  • influences how we perceive others
  • influences how we explain why people act in
    certain ways.  

89
  • First impressions
  • easily formed
  • hard to change
  • have long-lasting influences on how you respond
    to other people).

90
Social Perception
  • based on schemas
  • coherent organized set of beliefs and
    expectations
  • basic unit of knowledge
  • generalization based on your experience
  • influences your perception of others
  • we use pre-existing schemas to integrate
    individual bits of information

91
Schemas
  • allow looking at meaningful information and fill
    in missing information using knowledge stored in
    long-term memory).
  • Forming impressions (usually done using schemas
    to infer information about a person)
    automatically on the basis of limited
    information

92
  • two general tendencies which influence whether a
    first impression is positive or negative
  • (1)give others benefit of doubt and form positive
    impression, assuming the person is similar to
    yourself
  • (2)negative information is given more weight than
    positive information

93
  • may assume negative information results from
    being unfriendly or other undesirable
    characteristics.

94
4 REASONS FOR STABILITY OF FIRST IMPRESSIONS
  • (A)we tend to be confident of our judgments
  • (B) we tend to interpret new information and
    events in a way to support the first impression
  • (C) we remember a general impression or schema
    better than later added informational details
  • (D)we tend to act in ways which elicit behavior
    consistent with our first impression.

95
First impressions
  • SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECIES
  • idea that initial impression/belief/hypothesis
    elicits behavior which ultimately confirms it
  • can have positive or negative effects.

96
Attributions
  • EXPLAINING BEHAVIOR USING ATTRIBUTION
  • we tend to rely on implicit personality theories
    to judge the behavior of those around us
  • these implicit theories are based on intuition
  • attribution is the process we use to explain why
    a person behaves in a certain way

97
Attributions
  • the explanation we choose helps to understand
    behavior,
  • or predict how someone will act in the future
  • or decide how to control or influence the
    situation should it occur again
  • we tend to attribute behavior to either internal
    or external causes

98
Attributions
  • internal causes reflect characteristics of the
    person
  • external causes reflect characteristics of the
    situation

99
Attribution Example
  • difference between males and females in
    explaining failure in academic situation
  • males tend to attribute failure to external
    causes
  • females tend to attribute cause to internal cause
    (ability)

100
  • result is females experience lower
    self-confidence and increased pessimism about
    academic experience.

101
TWO ATTRIBUTIONAL BIASES
  • tendencies to distort view of behavior
    systematically include
  • (1)fundamental attribution error (general
    tendency to attribute behavior of others to
    internal causes
  • consequences may result in confidence in one's
    impressions of other people
  • may lead to underestimating variability in
    person's behavior created by external causes may
    lead person to blame victims of unfortunate
    circumstances)

102
  • (2)actor-observer bias (we tend to avoid the
    fundamental attribution error when explaining our
    own behavior
  • may attribute our own failure to external causes
  • differences in social information available when
    explaining your own and other people's behavior

103
Attribution biases
  • degree to which we attribute our behavior to
    internal or external causes may depend on whether
    the outcome is positive or negative
  • associated with self-serving bias
  • (tendency to take credit for success and blame
    failure on external causes.

104
3. What are the self-protective functions of
social cognition?
  • These include the self-serving bias which results
    partly from avoiding negative information
  • attributing failure to lack of ability threatens
    self-esteem

105
  • we prefer to think in ways that protect ourselves
    from threat
  • may be associated with unrealistic optimism
    (good things will happen to me bad things will
    happen to other people

106
Self-protective biases
  • feelings of unique invulnerability
  • illusion of control.
  • associated with situations in which we are
    responsible for a particular outcome, such as
    studying for a test
  • may use self-handicapping strategies if we
    anticipate the loss of self-esteem

107
Self-protective bias
  • arrange for failure to be attributed to an
    external cause
  • use self-defeating behavior to explain failure
    not reflecting on internal characteristics
  • may use when unsure past success can be
    maintained

108
Self-protective bias
  • actions allow short-term relief from pain
  • distort reality and causing additional problems
  • prevent achievements
  • eliminate possibility of receiving useful
    information about strengths and weaknesses.

109
4. What are the major ideas relating to
interpersonal attraction?
  • 3 KEYS TO ATTRACTION
  • (A)environment includes physical proximity or
    nearness important because enhances familiarity
    - we tend to like someone if we are around them
    often - leads to increased comfort and decreased
    fear/dislike/anxiety situation of first contact
    influences attraction - reflects principles of
    classical conditioning, in which pleasant
    associations increase likelihood of attraction.

110
  • (B)similarity of attitudes
  • we like people whom we believe are similar to
    ourselves more than those we believe to be
    dissimilar
  • strong, positive relationship between proportion
    of shared attitudes and amount of liking

111
  • strong influence of similar attitudes within a
    social network
  • if we like each other, we develop a norm to like
    and dislike the same people)
  • we prefer balanced relationships to unbalanced
    ones

112
  • (C)physical attractiveness
  • especially in beginning friendships
  • at first, we prefer people who are more
    attractive than we are
  • later we prefer people who are similar to
    ourselves in attractiveness.

113
DEVELOPMENT OF INTIMACY
  • attraction may lead to interdependence mutual
    influence of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors
    between two people
  • is a defining characteristic of intimate
    relationship and
  • What is intimacy?

114
  • intimacy
  • can be predicted from the presence of
  • symmetry,
  • self-disclosure,
  • empathy.

115
5 KEY INGREDIENTS TO SATISFACTORY RELATIONSHIPS
  • - (A)affection - important to reinforce
    self-disclosure
  • (B)emotional expressiveness - important for
    enhancing feelings of closeness and commitment -
    supports expression of strong emotions
  • (C)support - helps us to cope with daily hassles
    and increases morale

116
  • (D)cohesiveness - feelings of closeness derived
    from joint activities
  • (E) sexuality - important component of lasting
    adult relationships - by itself won't support
    satisfaction in lasting relationships
  • requires presence of other components.

117
ANALYSIS OF LOVE
  • - 3 components
  • sexual passion,
  • intimacy,
  • commitment

118
4 types of love
  • resulting from different combinations of the
    components
  • (1)passionate (high in intimacy and sexual
    passion, low in commitment)
  • (2)fatuous (high in sexual passion and
    commitment, low in intimacy)

119
  • (3)companionate (high in intimacy and
    commitment, low in sexual passion)
  • (4)consummate (optimal levels of sexual passion,
    intimacy, and commitment).

120
5 COMPONENTS CONTRIBUTING TO STRENGTH OF
MARRIAGES -
  • (A)reciprocal self-disclosure
  • (B)perception of equitable/balanced relationship
  • (C)mutual trust
  • (D)complementary or compatible personality
    styles
  • (E)mutual liking and respect which affects how
    couple handles anger and conflict.

121
5. What are attitudes? How are they formed and
changed?
  • DEFINITION
  • tendency to respond to experiences with
    particular thoughts, feelings, and actions.  

122
3 COMPONENTS
  • - (A)cognitive - set of beliefs about experience
  • (B)emotional - positive or negative evaluation
    toward experience
  • (C)behavioral - how you act in response to an
    experience.

123
DISCREPANCIES AMONG COMPONENTS -
  • may occur for 3 reasons
  • (1)competing motives and attitudes
  • (2)many ways to express attitudes
  • (3)because of social pressure from norms, we may
    suppress behavioral component while experiencing
    other aspects.

124
2 THEORIES ABOUT SITUATIONS IN WHICH BEHAVIOR
CONFLICTS WITH BELIEFS OR FEELINGS
  • - (A)cognitive dissonance - people prefer that
    beliefs and thoughts be consistent with behavior
  • when act in a way that conflicts with our
    thoughts, we feel uneasy and are motivated to
    decrease the conflict

125
Cognitive Dissonance
  • experiment involving boring task
  • offered 1 or 20 to say "this is exciting and
    interesting"
  • more likely to change private expression of
    attitude if paid 1 than if paid 20.

126
Self-perception
  • (B)self-perception
  • situations arise in which we may be unsure of our
    attitudes
  • we may look back to how we acted and speculate
    about what our attitude must have been
  • requires no tension and dissonance.

127
ATTITUDE FORMATION
  • affected by principles of learning, including
    modeling and social learning in childhood
  • learn from parents what experiences are and how
    to feel, think and act toward experiences
  • affected by classical conditioning which
    influences positive and negative attitudes

128
Attitude formation
  • operant conditioning affects attitudes as a
    result of various rewards and punishments we
    receive after acting in certain ways
  • also form attitudes based on direct experience -
    exposure effect results in more positive attitude
    with increased contact.

129
ATTITUDE CHANGE AND PERSUASIVE COMMUNICATION - 3
FACTORS -
  • (A)communicator characteristics increased change
    if communicator is seen as
  • credible,
  • knowledgeable,
  • trustworthy,
  • similar to audience

130
  • (B)message characteristics
  • can present one or both sides of a message
    depending on prior attitude of audience
  • if sympathetic, present one side to reinforce
    belief
  • if unsympathetic, present both sides to show
    respect for audience attitudes and give arguments
    for change)

131
Message
  • best to state explicit conclusions for increased
    attitude change
  • how extreme or moderate to state conclusions
    depends on credibility of source.
  • if high credibility, use extreme conclusions to
    reinforce attitude change
  • if low credibility, use more moderate conclusions
    to make change more likely)

132
Message
  • fear message is most effective if message is
    moderately frightening (not excessive)
  • accompanied by information on how to avoid the
    feared consequences.

133
Audience
  • (C)3 audience characteristics
  • (1)intelligence
  • highly intelligent audience is better able to
    understand message and also better able to refute
    your message

134
Audience
  • (2)self-esteem
  • audience with low self-esteem less confident of
    their own attitudes
  • may change in response to a persuasive message
  • may also be inattentive
  • may show little interest in new information

135
Audience
  • audience with high self-esteem do attend to
    message but are seldom persuaded to change
  • most likely to change attitude if moderate
    self-esteem
  • give reasonable amount of attention and
    sufficiently unsure of attitude to allow
    persuasion to work

136
Audience
  • (3)psychological involvement with issue
  • high involvement results in attention to message
    and may lead to increased or decreased change
  • high involvement with issue that is central to
    the individual's self-concept will result in
    decreased change

137
Audience
  • high involvement description of achieving
    desirable outcome will result in increased
    attitude change.

138
Reactance
  • (D) reactance
  • state of psychological arousal motivating
    individual to restore lost sense of freedom by
    resisting, opposing, or contradicting perceived
    cause of loss
  • explains why when we are told "you can't do that"
    , we may be motivated to do just that.

139
6. What are prejudice and stereotypes and how may
they be explained?
  • PREJUDICE - positive or negative attitude based
    on perception of group membership
  • has cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects
  • involves stereotyped thinking, positive or
    negative feelings, and behavioral discrimination
    - treating people in different groups
    differently.

140
  • STEREOTYPES - impressions or schemas (sets of
    beliefs and perceptions about entire groups of
    people
  • more powerful and potentially more dangerous than
    individual impressions
  • often involves false assumptions and beliefs -
    that all members of the groups have the same
    characteristics
  • most commonly involve observable personal
    characteristics.

141
3 THEORIES OR SOURCES OF EXPLANATION FOR PREJUDICE
  • (A)motivational
  • involves personality of the individual
  • authoritarian personality is a cluster of traits
    associated with belief in strict social hierarchy
    and the right to expect obedience from
    individuals who have lower status

142
Motivational theory
  • motivates prejudiced individual to identify other
    people's social status relative to
    himself/herself,
  • may result in negative stereotype of people who
    have perceived lower status prejudice
    discrimination

143
Learning
  • (B)learning theories
  • people may have negative attitudes toward groups
    they have little contact with
  • single negative experience may create general
    negative attitude toward an entire group
  • prejudice may be learned from the experience of
    others through social learning - by watching and
    listening

144
Cognitive
  • (C)cognitive theories
  • based on beliefs and how we think
  • stereotypes may be inevitable because of
    complexity of social world
  • effective way to cope with complexity is to form
    social categories based on detectable
    differences

145
Cognitive
  • we form in-groups and out-groups based on
    perceived group membership
  • in-group members are seen as more attractive,
  • having more desirable personality
    characteristics,
  • showing more desirable behavior, and are given
    more preferential treatment.

146
7. How may prejudice be decreased using contact
with a group?
  • If prejudice and stereotyping result from lack of
    information about a group,
  • these responses may be changed with increased
    contact.

147
Decreasing prejudice
  • How are prejudice and stereotyping decreased?
  • receive information contrary to the stereotype
  • realize we are more similar to the out-group
    members than we thought
  • recognize that not all group members are the
    same.
  •  

148
8. How do emotional reactions influence how
people think of themselves?
  • develop beliefs/cognitions/mental representations
    about ourselves throughout life.
  • beliefs may be unified or differentiated.
  • Unified beliefs indicate we have generally the
    same characteristics in every situation and every
    role we have.
  • Differentiated beliefs indicate we see ourselves
    as having different attributes depending on the
    role or situation.

149
Self-perception
  • Having unified or differentiated self-beliefs
    influences our emotional responses.
  • Example, failure on an exam has a more negative
    effect if we have a unified self-schema than if
    we have a differentiated self-schema.

150
Self-perception
  • Self-schemas contain information about various
    aspects of our self-concept

151
Self-perception
  • actual- how we actually are
  • ideal - how we would like to be
  • ought to be - how we think we should be

152
  • Discrepancies among these components may cause
    discomfort and distress
  • difference between actual and ideal results in
    feelings of sadness, dissatisfaction, and
    disappointment
  • difference between actual and should be results
    in guilt, fear, anxiety

153
Self-perception
  • treatment of anxiety and depression often
    involves analyzing how and why a person thinks
    about these discrepancies.

154
IN CONCLUSION
  • ARE THERE ANY QUESTIONS ABOUT ANYTHING WE HAVE
    DISCUSSED SO FAR?
  • REMEMBER THE CONTENT FOR THE FINAL STUDY GUIDE
    QUIZ AND EXAM WILL COME FROM CHAPTERS 5, 9 AND 17
    WITH A FEW ITEMS FROM THE FIRST THREE EXAMS
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