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GENERAL REVIEW FOR FINAL EXAM

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Title: GENERAL REVIEW FOR FINAL EXAM


1
GENERAL REVIEW FOR FINAL EXAM
  • BUSN 364
  • Özge Can

2
Final Exam
  • Exam Date Place
  • June 5, 2013 Wednesday, 1100 -1230
  • Classroom O 001-O 002
  • Exam Format
  • Open-ended questions (50)
  • Short essay question based on one research case
    (50)

3
Final Exam Content
  • Major topics for the exam
  • Conducting ethical research (week 9)
  • Measurement and Sampling (week 11)
  • Survey research (week 12)
  • Experimental research (week 12)
  • Esixting statistics/ Secondary research (week 13)
  • Quantitative data analysis (week 13)

4
Final Exam Content1QAa1szx
  • Field Research Observation Interview (week 14)
  • Focus groups (week 14)
  • Analysis of qualitative data (week 14)
  • Writing the research report (week 15)
  • Course Textbook Neuman (2011)
  • Chapters 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13

5
Exercise 1
  • Sherman, G. D., Haidt, J., Coan, J. A. (2009).
    Viewing cute images increases behavioral
    carefulness. Emotion, 9, 282-286.
  • This article examined how the perception of
    cuteness influences behavioral carefulness,
    enhancing peoples ability to care for infants.
    While researchers took physiological measures of
    heart activity and skin conductance, they exposed
    participants to a slide show of pictures of
    either i) infant animals (kittens and puppies)
    previously judged as very cute, or ii) adult
    animals (cats and dogs) judged to be less cute.

6
Exercise 1 (cont)
  • Both before and after the slideshow, participants
    played the game Operation that required them to
    use tweezers to remove plastic body parts without
    touching the sides of the compartments. The game
    served as an assessment of behavioral
    carefulness. Participants exposed to cute infant
    animals displayed greater improvements in
    fine-motor control from before to after the slide
    show. Lack of consistent changes in
    physiological measures ruled out general
    physiological arousal as an explanation. Results
    indicated that cuteness not only motivates people
    to nurture, but also enhances their ability to do
    so.

7
Exercise 1 (cont)
  • 1. What are the Independent Variable Dependent
    Variable and their operational (measurable)
    definitions here?
  • 2. What are the potential confounding variables?
  • 3. What are the key strengths and weaknesses of
    the above study design?
  • 4. How strong is the external validity of this
    research design?
  • 5. One element in this design was a pretest and
    posttest measure. What are the advantages of
    using this type of design? Was it necessary?
  • 6. Can you find other ways to manipulate
    cuteness and measure carefulness in this
    experiment?

8
Exercise 1 - Answers
  • 1. Independent variable gt perception of
    cuteness
  • (measured by slide show of infant animal
    pictures)
  • Dependent variable gt behavioral
    carefulness
  • (measured by the game Operation)

9
Exercise 1 - Answers
  • 2. Confounding variables (definiton) Factors
    that are not part of the intended hypothesis but
    have effects on variables of interest
  • Possible confounds in this study
  • Personal factors personality, prior experience
    with infant animals, general skill and ability
    level, general physiological arousal (controlled
    in the study) and etc.
  • Other the pictures selected (is there a shared
    understanding on what is cute?), knowing that
    you are in an experiment (anxiety, excess
    motivation and etc)

10
Exercise 1 - Answers
  • 3. We should evaluate it based on how much it
    fits to a classic experimental design
  • There is an experiment and a control group
    (strength)
  • There is pre-test and post-test of the DV
    (strength)
  • Controls for a potential confounding variable
    (strength)
  • No random sampling to two groups (weakness)
  • How good are the measurements and the
    manipulation. They
  • may somewhat artificial and not represent the
    real world
  • (weakness)

11
Exercise 1 - Answers
  • 4. To increase external validity
  • We should have random sampling and random
    assignment. Do we have these in the research?
  • Manipulation of cuteness effective enough? Can
    we measure it in a better way?
  • Can the performance in the game Operation
    really explain nurturing behavior in life?

12
Exercise 1 - Answers
  • 5. Pre-test and post-test gt measuring
    dependent variable both before the treatment
    (manipulation) and after the treatment
  • In this study, participants play the game
    Operation both before and after watching the
    slide show
  • Pre-test and post-test design better grasps the
    real impact of the IV (manipulation) by enabling
    us to compare the situation before and after and
    see whether there is any difference.

13
Exercise 1 - Answers
  • 6. Alternative measures
  • For cuteness gt the smell of baby powder versus
    deodorant watching babies smiling and sleeping
    innocently versus older children playing
    aggressively and fighting showing a video of
    little children with bunny customes vs. witch
    costumes
  • For carefulness gt walking a balance beam,
    carrying an egg on a spoon, playing a videogame,
    simulation of driving a car in the traffic,
    carrying a tray with one hand, taking a test,
    solving a puzzle

14
Exercise 2
  • Please indicate whether the following measures
    are
  • nominal, ordinal, interval or ratio scales
  •  
  • a) Prices on the stock market
  • b) Marital status, classified as married and
    single
  • c) Academic rank instructor, assistant
    professor,
  • associate professor, or professor
  • d) Letter grades at school A, B, C, and D

15
Levels of Measurement
16
Exercise 2- Answers
  • a) Prices on the stock market gt ratio
  • b) Marital status, classified as married and
    single gt nominal
  • c) Academic rank instructor, assistant
    professor,
  • associate professor, or professor gt ordinal
  • d) Letter grades at school A, B, C, and D gt
    interval

17
Exercise 3
  • Please identify and briefly comment on which type
    of sampling is more appropriate for each case
  • a) Economists try to come up with a consumer
    price index which involves a sample of market
    items which they think serves the economic
    purpose best
  • b) Selection of people for jury duty without
    giving anyone
  • any priority

18
Exercise 3 (cont)
  • c) We want to know about the general technology
    preferences of the subscribers of an engineering
    journal. Subscribers are composed of mechanical
    engineers, electrical engineers and civil
    engineers.
  • d) Special interest on the lifes and problems of
    heavy
  • drinking (alcoholic) people

19
Exercise 3 Answers
  • a) Non-random sampling (e.g. theoretical or
    judgmental sampling)
  • b) Random sampling (e.g. simple random sampling)
  • c) Random sampling (e.g. stratified sampling)
  • d) Non-random sampling (e.g. snowball sampling)

20
Exercise 4
  • Please identify what is wrong with each of the
    following survey questions and make suggestions
    on how they can be improved
  • Do you ever feel alienated from your work?
  • All the time
  • Often
  • Occasionally
  • Never

21
Exercise 4 (cont)
  • What is your annual salary?
  • Below 5,000 TL
  • 5,000 10,000 TL
  • 10,000 15,000 TL
  • 15,000 20,000 TL
  • 20,000 25,000 TL
  • 25,000 30,000 TL
  • 30,000 TL and above

22
Exercise 4 (cont)
  • How satisfied are you with the provision of
    educational services and social services in your
    area?
  • Very satisfied
  • Fairly satisfied
  • Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
  • Fairly dissatisfied
  • Very dissatisfied

23
Exercise 4 (cont)
  • Do you think scientists should step up the
    research for new, more effective, affordable
    detection methods?
  • Yes
  • No

24
Exercise 5
  • Please design each of the above sources in the
    appropriate APA reference style
  • a) 308-324.
  • b) Journal of Culinary Science Technology
  • c) Ruetzler, T.
  • d) 21(4)
  • e) Food, bevarage, and service quality Does
    culture impact satisfaction with university food
    services?
  • f) (2008).

25
Exercise 5- Answers
26
Exercise 5 (cont)
  • a) APA Online
  • b) (2004).
  • c) retrieved May 22, 2008
  • d) American Psychological Association
  • e) from http//apa.org/pi.viotv.html
  • f) Violence on television What do children
    learn? What can parents do?

27
Exercise 5- Answers
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