Chapter 1: The Athletic Trainer and the Sports Medicine Team - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 1: The Athletic Trainer and the Sports Medicine Team


Title: The Sports Medicine Team Author: UNCCH Last modified by: Hardin, John Created Date: 6/4/2001 1:30:20 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 1: The Athletic Trainer and the Sports Medicine Team

Chapter 1 The Athletic Trainer and the Sports
Medicine Team
  • John Hardin MA, ATC, CSCS
  • Sports Medicine
  • Spain Park High School

Sports Medicine
  • Broad field of medical practices related to
    physical activity and sport
  • Involves a number of specialties involving active
  • Typically classified as relating to performance
    enhancement or injury care and management


Sports Medicine
Human Performance
Injury Management
Practice of Medicine
Exercise Physiology
Sports Physical Therapy
Sport Psychology
Athletic Training
Sports Nutrition
Sports Massage
The Players on the Sports Medicine Team
  • Physicians
  • Dentist
  • Podiatrist
  • Nurse
  • Physicians Assistant
  • Physical Therapist
  • Athletic Trainer
  • Massage Therapist
  • Ophthalmologist
  • Dermatologist
  • Gynecologist
  • Exercise Physiologist
  • Biomechanist
  • Nutritionist
  • Sport Psychologist
  • Coaches
  • Strength Conditioning Specialist
  • Social Worker
  • Neurologist
  • Osteopath
  • Psychiatrist

Growth of Professional Sports Medicine
  • International Federation of Sports Medicine
  • American Academy of Family Physicians (1947)
  • National Athletic Trainers Association (1950)
  • American College of Sports Medicine (1954)
  • American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine
  • National Strength and Conditioning Association
  • American Academy of Pediatrics, Sports Committee
  • Sports Physical Therapy Section of APTA (1981)
  • NCAA Committee on Competitive Safeguards and
    Medical Aspects of Sports (1985)

National Athletic Trainers Association (NATA)
  • Purpose
  • To enhance the quality of health care for
    athletes and those engaged in physical activity,
    and to advance the profession of athletic
    training through education and research in the
    prevention, evaluation, management and
    rehabilitation of injuries
  • 30,000 members

Purpose of Professional Sports Medicine
  • Promote involvement of various health related
  • Dentistry, podiatry, chiropractic medicine
  • Focus on athletic health and safety
  • All bodies have worked towards the reduction of
    injury and illness in sport

Sports Medicine Journals
  • A variety of publications exist, providing
    excellent resources to the sports medicine
  • Journal of Athletic Training
  • Journal of Sports Rehabilitation
  • International Journal of Sports Medicine
  • Physician and Sports Medicine
  • Clinics in Sports Medicine
  • American Journal of Sports Medicine

The Athletic Trainer
  • Charged with injury prevention and health care
    provision for the athlete and physically active
  • Consists of athletic, recreational or competitive
  • Requires physical skills and utilizes strength,
    power, endurance, speed, flexibility, range of
    motion and agility
  • Athletic trainer deals with the athlete and
    injury from its inception until the athlete
    returns to full competition

Roles and Responsibilities Performance Domains
  • Prevention of athletic injuries
  • Clinical evaluation and diagnosis
  • Immediate care of injuries
  • Treatment, rehabilitation and reconditioning of
    athletic injuries
  • Health care administration
  • Professional responsibilities

Personal Qualities of ATCs
  • Stamina and Adaptability
  • Prevents burnout
  • Empathy
  • Ability to detect stress with a desire to
    minimize that stress
  • Sense of Humor
  • Helps relieve tension and promote relaxation

Personal Qualities of ATCs
  • Ability to Communicate
  • Oral and written communication is necessary
  • Intellectual Curiosity
  • Lifelong commitment to learning
  • Ethics
  • High standard of conduct and integrity

The ATC and the Athlete
  • Major concern for the ATC athlete
  • All decisions impact the athlete
  • The injured athlete must always be informed
  • Be made aware of the how, when and why that
    dictates the course of injury rehabilitation

The ATC and the Athlete
  • The athlete must be educated about injury
    prevention and management
  • Instructions should be provided regarding
    training and conditioning
  • Inform the athlete to listen to his/her body in
    order to prevent injuries

The ATC and Parents
  • ATC must keep parents informed,
  • Particularly in the secondary school setting
  • The parents decision regarding healthcare must be
    a primary consideration
  • Insurance plans may dictate care
  • Selection of physician

The ATC and Parents
  • ATC, physician and coaches must be aware and
    inform parents of Health Insurance Portability
    and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
  • Regulates dissemination of health information
  • Protects patients privacy and limits the people
    who could gain access to medical records

The ATC and the Team Physician
  • ATC works under the direct supervision of a
  • Physician and ATC must be able to work together
  • Have similar philosophical opinions regarding
    injury management
  • Helps to minimize discrepancies and

Roles and Responsibilities of the Team Physician
  • Compiling medical histories and conducting
    physical exams
  • Pre-participation screening
  • Diagnosing injury
  • Deciding on disqualifications
  • Based on medical knowledge and psychophysiological
    demands of the sport

Roles and Responsibilities of the Team Physician
  • Attending practice and games
  • Commitment to sports and athletes
  • Potentially serve as the ATEP Medical Director
  • Provides input into educational content
  • Provides programmatic instruction

The ATC and the Coach
  • Must understand the role of the ATC
  • Coach must clearly understand the limits of their
    ability to function as a healthcare provider
  • Directly responsible for injury prevention
  • Appropriate conditioning programs

Roles and Responsibilities of the Team Physician
  • Coach must be aware of risks associated with the
  • Provide appropriate training and equipment
  • Must have knowledge of CPR and first aid
  • Must have thorough knowledge of skills,
    techniques, and environmental factors associated
    with sport
  • Develop good working relationships with staff,
    including athletic trainers

Athletic Training
  • Where have we been?
  • Where are we now?
  • Where are we going?

Athletic Training Where have we been clinically?
  • Traditional employment settings deal exclusively
    with an athletic population
  • Colleges
  • Secondary schools

Athletic Training Where are we now clinically?
  • Today, ATCs work in a variety of settings
  • Professional sports
  • Hospitals
  • Clinics
  • Industrial settings
  • The military
  • Equipment sales
  • Physician extenders

Athletic Training Where are going clinically?
  • Employment opportunities are becoming
    increasingly diverse
  • Dramatic transformation since 1950
  • Due largely in part to the efforts of the NATA
  • More employment settings will include
  • Research
  • Administration

Athletic Training Where are we going
  • Evolution of the profession has led to
  • Recognition of ATCs as healthcare providers
  • Increased diversity of practice settings
  • Passage of practice acts
  • Third party reimbursement for athletic trainers
  • Constant revision and reform of athletic training

Athletic Training Where have we been
  • Formerly there were two types of athletic
    training education programs
  • Accredited education programs
  • Competency-based education
  • Internship education programs
  • Quantity-based education

Athletic Training Where are we now
  • In 1998, the NATA - Education Council was
    established to dictate the educational
    preparation for the athletic training student
  • Focus has shifted to competency based education
    at the entry level
  • Education Council has significantly expanded and
    reorganized the clinical competencies and

Athletic Training Education Competencies Twelve
Content Areas
  • Risk management
  • Pathology of injuries and illnesses
  • Assessment and evaluation
  • Acute care
  • Pharmacological aspects of injury and illness
  • Therapeutic modalities
  • Therapeutic exercise
  • General medical conditions and disabilities
  • Nutritional aspects of injury and illnesses
  • Psychosocial intervention and referral
  • Organization and administration
  • Professional responsibilities

Athletic Training Where are we now
  • June 1990 the AMA officially recognized
    athletic training as an allied health profession
  • Committee on Allied Health Education and
    Accreditation (CAHEA) was charged with developing
    the guidelines for academic programs to use in
    preparation of individuals for entry into
    profession through the Joint Review Committee on
    Athletic Training (JRC-AT)

Athletic Training Where are we now
  • June 1994 - CAHEA dissolved
  • Replaced immediately by the Commission on
    Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs
  • Recognized as an accreditation agency for allied
    health education programs by the U.S. Department
    of Education
  • Entry level college and university athletic
    training education programs at both undergraduate
    and graduate levels are currently accredited by

Athletic Training Where are we going
  • In 2003, JRC-AT became an independent accrediting
  • New name Commission on the Accreditation of
    Athletic Training Education (CAATE)
  • CAATE will accredit athletic training education
    programs without
  • No involvement from CAAHEP

Athletic Training Where are we going
  • CAATE will seek affiliation with CHEA once it is
    fully independent
  • CHEA is a private nonprofit national organization
    that coordinates accreditation activity in the
    United States
  • Recognition by CHEA will put CAATE on the same
    level as other national accreditors, such as
  • CAAHEP accreditation will be discontinued in
    2006 CAATE will begin in 2007

Athletic Training Where are we going
  • Specialty Certifications
  • Build on entry level knowledge
  • NATA is in the process of developing specialty
  • Further enhance professional development
  • Aid in expanding scope of practice

Athletic Training Where are we going
  • Seven proposed specialty certifications
  • Business practice, medical care management,
    occupational health, wellness, pediatric/adolescen
    t health, adult/geriatric health, special health
  • Candidates will have to complete experiential
    requirements and pass a standardized examination

Requirements for Certification as an Athletic
  • Must have extensive background in formal academic
    preparation and supervised clinical experience
  • Upon meeting the educational guidelines
    applicants are eligible to sit for the Board of
    Certification (BOC) examination

BOC Examination
  • Examination consist of the following
  • Written portion
  • Practical portion
  • Written simulation
  • Exam assesses the 6 domains
  • Prevention of injuries
  • Evaluation and diagnosis
  • Immediate care of injuries
  • Treatment, rehabilitation reconditioning
  • Organization and administration
  • Professional responsibility

BOC Examination
  • Upon passing BOC examination, you are a BOC
    certified athletic trainer
  • Credential of ATC
  • BOC certification is a prerequisite for licensure
    in most states

Continuing Education Requirements
  • Continuing education is a requirement to maintain
    the ATC credential
  • Ensure ongoing professional growth and
  • Requirements that must be met to remain certified
  • 80 CEUs over the course of three years

  • Purpose
  • To encourage ATC to obtain current professional
    development information
  • To explore new knowledge in specific areas
  • To master new athletic training related skill and
  • To expand approaches to effective athletic
  • To further develop professional judgement
  • To conduct professional practice in an ethical
    and appropriate manner

  • CEUs are awarded for
  • Attending symposiums, workshops, seminars
  • Serving as a speaker or panelist
  • Certification exam model
  • Participating in the USOC program
  • Authoring a research article authoring/editing a
  • Completing post-graduate work
  • Obtaining CPR and first aid certification

State Regulation of the Athletic Trainer
  • During the early-1970s NATA realized the
    necessity of obtaining some type of official
    recognition by other medical allied health
    organizations of the athletic trainer as a health
    care professional
  • Laws and statutes specifically governing the
    practice of athletic training were nonexistent in
    virtually every state

  • Athletic trainers in many individual states
    organized efforts to secure recognition by
    seeking some type of regulation of the athletic
    trainer by state licensing agencies
  • To date 40 of the 50 states have enacted some
    type of regulatory statute governing the practice
    of athletic training
  • Rules and regulations governing the practice of
    athletic training vary tremendously from state to

  • Regulation may be in the form of Licensure
  • Limits practice of athletic training to those who
    have met minimal requirements established by a
    state licensing board
  • Limits the number of individuals who can perform
    functions related to athletic training as
    dictated by the practice act
  • Most restrictive of all forms of regulation

  • Regulation may be in the form of Certification
  • Does not restrict using the title of athletic
    trainer to those certified by the state
  • Can restrict performance of athletic training
    functions to only those individuals who are

  • Regulation may be in the form of Registration
  • Before an individual can practice athletic
    training he/she must register in that state
  • Individual has paid a fee for being placed on an
    existing list of practitioners but says nothing
    about competency

  • Regulation may be in the form of Exemption
  • State recognizes that an athletic trainer
    performs similar functions to other licensed
    professions (e.g. physical therapy), yet still
    allows them to practice athletic training despite
    the fact that they do not comply with the
    practice acts of other regulated professions

Future Directions for the ATC
  • Determined by the efforts of the NATA and its
  • Ongoing re-evaluation, revision and reform of
    athletic training education
  • CAATE will become an accrediting agency
  • Third party billing will gradually become the
    rule, not the exception for ATCs
  • Standardization of state practice acts
  • ATCs will seek specialty certifications
  • Expanding breadth and scope of practice

Future Directions for ATC
  • Increase in secondary school employment
  • Increase in recognition of ATC as a physician
  • Potential for expansion in the military,
    industry, and fitness/wellness settings
  • With general population aging, there may be
    increased opportunity to work with aging
    physically active individuals
  • Continue to enhance visibility through research
    and scholarly publication

Future Directions for ATC
  • Continue to be available for local and community
    meetings to discuss healthcare of the athlete
  • Increase recognition and presence internationally
  • Most importantly, continue to focus efforts on
    injury prevention and to provided high quality
    healthcare to physically active individuals who
    are injured while participating in sport
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