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Title: AP PSYCHOLOGY Review for the AP Exam Chapter 5-

AP PSYCHOLOGYReview for the AP ExamChapter 5-
MEMORY Chapter 9
Memory persistence of learning over time via the
storage and retrieval of information Flashbulb
Memory a clear memory of an emotionally
significant moment or event where were you
when Kennedy died? where were you when 9-11
  • Storage
  • the retention of encoded information over time
  • Retrieval
  • process of getting information out of memory

  • Sensory Memory
  • the immediate, initial recording of sensory
    information in the memory system
  • Short Term Memory
  • activated memory that holds a few items briefly
  • look up a phone number, then quickly dial before
    the information is forgotten
  • Long Term Memory
  • the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse
    of the memory system

Working Memory focuses more on the processing of
briefly stored information another term for
Short Term Memory
  • Encoding
  • the processing of information into the memory

  • Automatic Processing
  • unconscious encoding of incidental information
  • space
  • time
  • frequency
  • well-learned information
  • word meanings
  • we can learn automatic processing
  • reading backwards
  • Effortful Processing
  • requires attention and conscious effort
  • Rehearsal
  • conscious repetition of information
  • to maintain it in consciousness
  • to encode it for storage

  • Hermann Ebbinghaus used nonsense syllables
  • the more times practiced on Day 1, the fewer
    repetitions to relearn on Day 2
  • Spacing Effect
  • distributed practice yields better long term
    retention than massed practice

Encoding-Serial Position Effect
Serial Position Effect--tendency to recall best
the last items in a list
Immediate recall--last items best
Later recall--only first items recalled well
What Do We Encode?
  • Semantic Encoding
  • encoding of meaning
  • including meaning of words
  • Acoustic Encoding
  • encoding of sound
  • especially sound of words
  • Visual Encoding
  • encoding of picture images

  • Imagery
  • mental pictures
  • a powerful aid to effortful processing,
    especially when combined with semantic encoding
  • Mnemonics
  • memory aids
  • especially those techniques that use vivid
    imagery and organizational devices
  • Chunking
  • organizing items into familiar, manageable units
  • like horizontal organization- 1776149218121941
  • often occurs automatically
  • use of acronyms
  • HOMES- Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior
  • ARITHMETIC- A Rat In Toms House Might Eat Toms
    Ice Cream

  • Hierarchies
  • complex information broken down into broad
    concepts and further subdivided into categories
    and subcategories

Storage- Retaining Information
  • Sensory Memory
  • the immediate, initial recording of sensory
    information in the memory system
  • Iconic Memory
  • a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli
  • a photographic or picture image memory lasting no
    more than a few tenths of a second
  • Registration of exact representation of a scene
  • Echoic Memory
  • momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli

Storage-Short Term Memory
  • Short Term Memory
  • limited in duration and capacity
  • magical number 7/-2

Storage--Long Term Memory
  • How does storage work?
  • Karl Lashley (1950) began research on study of
    intelligence and the role of the frontal lobes.
  • Rats learn maze
  • Remove parts of brain
  • Retest rats to see if they remember the maze.

Storage--Long Term Memory
  • Synaptic changes
  • Long-term Potentiation
  • increase in synapses firing potential after
    brief, rapid stimulation
  • Strong emotions make for stronger memories
  • some stress hormones boost learning and retention

Storage- Long Term Memory
  • Amnesia- the loss of memory
  • Explicit Memory
  • memory of facts and experiences that one can
    consciously know and declare
  • Also called declarative memory
  • hippocampus- neural center in limbic system that
    helps process explicit memories for storage
  • Implicit Memory
  • retention without conscious recollection
  • motor and cognitive skills
  • dispositions- conditioning

Anterograde Amnesia inability to form memories
for new information because of brain trauma. new
experiences slip away from a person before they
have a chance to store them in long-term memory.
(Clive Wearing or H.M.) H.M. (Initials for man
with brain operation where hippocampus and
amygdala removed..crucial to laying down new
episodic memories) Retrograde Amnesia the
failure to remember events that occurred prior to
physical trauma. causes include blow to head,
electric shock to the brain
Storage-Long Term Memory
MRI scan of hippocampus (in red)
Retrieval Cues
Recall the ability to retrieve info learned
earlier and not in conscious awareness-like fill
in the blank test Recognition the ability to
identify previously learned items-like on a
multiple choice test Relearning amount of time
saved when relearning previously learned
information Priming activation, often
unconsciously, of particular associations in
Retrieval Cues
  • Context Effects
  • memory works better in the context of original

Retrieval Cues
  • Mood Congruent Memory
  • tendency to recall experiences that are
    consistent with ones current mood
  • memory, emotions or moods serve as retrieval cues
  • State Dependent Memory
  • what is learned in one state (while one is high,
    drunk or depressed) can more easily be remembered
    when in same state
  • Deja Vu- (French) already seen
  • cues from the current situation may
    subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier
    similar experience
  • "I've experienced this before"

  • According to Daniel Schacter, most of our memory
    problems arise from the SEVEN SINS of MEMORY.
  • Three Sins of Forgetting
  • Transcience
  • Absent-mindedness
  • Blocking
  • Three Sins of Distortion
  • 4) Misattribution
  • 5) Suggestibility
  • 6) Bias
  • One Sin of Intrusion
  • 7) Persistence

Sin of forgetting 1) TRANSCIENCE
Memories weaken with time Hermann Ebbinghaus
(1908) learned lists of nonsense syllables and
tried to recall them over time.
  • Ebbinghaus- forgetting curve over 30 days
    --initially rapid, then levels off with time

Sin of forgetting 1) TRANSCIENCE
CONCLUSION For relatively meaningless
material, there is a rapid initial loss of
memory, followed by a declining rate of loss.
HOWEVER, some memories dont follow the classic
forgetting curve. Just like riding a bicycle,
is a phase which indicates that motor skill
memories are often retained for many years.
Sin of forgetting 2) ABSENT-MINDEDNESS Lapses of
  • Forgetting as encoding failure
  • Information never enters the memory system
  • Attention is selective
  • we cannot attend to everything in our environment
  • William James said that we would be as bad off
    if we remembered everything as we would be if we
    remembered nothing

Retrieval failure caused by shifting your
attention elsewhere. (ie) not paying attention
when you laid your keys down
Sin of forgetting 3) BLOCKING Interference
Causes Forgetting
Proactive Interference Retroactive
Interference Serial Position Effect first and
last parts of a poem are easier to remember or
you are more likely to remember the names of
those people you meet first and last than those
in between.
Sin of forgetting 3) BLOCKING Interference
causes forgetting
  • Learning some items may disrupt retrieval of
    other information
  • Proactive (forward acting) Interference
  • disruptive effect of prior learning on recall of
    new information
  • Retroactive (backwards acting) Interference
  • disruptive effect of new learning on recall of
    old information

Sin of forgetting 3) BLOCKING Interference
causes forgetting
  • Retroactive Interference

  • Motivated Forgetting
  • people unknowingly revise history
  • Repression
  • defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing
    thoughts, feelings, and memories
  • Positive Transfer
  • sometimes old information facilitates our
    learning of new information
  • knowledge of Latin may help us to learn French

Sin of Distortion 4) MISATTRIBUTION Memories in
Wrong Context
sometimes memories are retrievable but are
associated with the wrong time, place, or person.
CASE Psychologist David Thompson was accused of
rape, based on victims detailed description of
her assailant. Fortunately, Thompson had an
indisputable alibi. At the time of the crime, he
was being interviewed live on television--about
memory distortions. The victim had been watching
the interview just before she was raped and had
misattributed the assault to Thompson.
Sin of Distortion 5) SUGGESTIBILITY External
Cues Distort or Create
Witnesses to crimes may be interviewed by police,
who might make suggestions about the facts of the
case--deliberately or intentionally--which may
impact the testimony of the witness.
Loftus Palmer (1974) set out test their
hypothesis that the language used in eyewitness
testimony can alter memory. So they aimed to show
that leading questions could distort accounts of
events, therefore making them unreliable.
Participants were shown slides of a car accident
involving a number of cars and were then asked to
describe what had happened as if they were
eyewitnesses.They were then asked specific
questions, including the question "About how fast
were the cars going when they (hit/smashed/
collided/bumped/contacted - the five conditions)
each other?"
Estimating the speed of a car is generally
something that people are poor at doing,
suggesting that they may have been MORE OPEN TO
This distortion of memory is known as the
Sin of Distortion 5) SUGGESTIBILITY External
Cues Distort or Create
Loftus then did research on FABRICATED MEMORY.
She contacted parents of college students and
gained TRUE information of childhood events,
which the students were asked to recall. Loftus
then added FALSE, but plausible, events.
After many recall attempts over a series of days,
many students claimed to recall the contrived
This research would lead other researchers to
some psychologists may use suggestion techniques
to create false recovered memories.
Sin of Distortion 5) SUGGESTIBILITY External
Cues Distort or Create
  • People fill in memory gaps with plausible guesses
    and assumptions
  • Imagining events can create false memories
  • Children's eyewitness recall
  • Child sexual abuse does occur
  • Some innocent people suffer false accusations
  • Some guilty cast doubt on true testimony
  • Memories of Abuse
  • Repressed or Constructed?
  • Child sexual abuse does occur
  • Some adults do actually forget such episodes
  • False Memory Syndrome
  • condition in which a persons identity and
    relationships center around a false but strongly
    believed memory of traumatic experience
  • sometimes induced by well-meaning therapists

Sin of Distortion 6) BIAS Beliefs, Attitudes,
and Opinions Distort Memories
Influence of personal beliefs, attitudes and
experiences on memory Expectancy Bias
--unconscious tendency to remember events as
being congruent with our expectations. Self-Consi
stency Bias --avoid inconsistency. Emotions can
distort our memories.
Sin of Intrusion 7) PERSISTENCE When We Cant
Sometimes memory works all too well when
intense negative emotions are
involved intrusive recollections of unpleasant
events lie at the heart of several psychological
interference--when memory blocks access or
retrieval. TOT (TIP OF THE TONGUE) occurs during
a recall attempt, when there is a poor match
between retrieval cues and the encoding of the
word in long-term memory.
Memory Construction
  • We filter information and fill in missing pieces
  • Misinformation Effect
  • incorporating misleading information into one's
    memory of an event
  • Source Amnesia
  • attributing to the wrong source an event that we
    experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined

The technical term for photographic memory is
Eidetic Imagery portrays the most interesting and
meaningful parts of the scene most accurately, as
compared with a photograph which renders
everything in complete detail.
possessed by about 5 of children. very rare
past adolescence.
To produce an eidetic image, a person must
study a scene for some time actively
concentrate on this scene images fade quickly
when the attention is diverted to something else.
Improve Your Memory
  • Study repeatedly to boost recall
  • Spend more time rehearsing or actively thinking
    about the material (SQ3R)
  • (study, question, read, recite, review)
  • Make material personally meaningful
  • Use mnemonic devices
  • associate with peg words- something already
  • make up story
  • chunk-acronyms

Improve Your Memory
  • Activate retrieval cues- mentally recreate
    situation and mood
  • Recall events while they are fresh- write down
    before interference
  • Minimize interference
  • Test your own knowledge
  • rehearse
  • determine what you do not yet know

MNEMONICS Method of Loci (low-sye) Imagine a
familiar sequence of places (bed, desk,
chair)to remember a grocery list, imagine tuna
on the bed, shampoo spilled on the desk, and eggs
open on the chair. Natural Language Mediators
make up a story using your list.(i..e.) The cat
discovers Im out of tuna so she interrupts me
while Im using shampoo and meows to egg me on.
OR The teacher who used rhymes to remember (i
before e except after c) (thirty days hath
September.) Remembering Names You might
visualize Bobs face in a big O or Ann, you
might visualize Queen Ann sitting on a
throne. PEG System Memorize a list of items
and each time you have to organize a list, use a
picture to illustrate the list in your mind.
  • Cognition
  • mental activity associated with processing,
    understanding, and communicating information
  • Cognitive Psychology
  • the study of these mental activities
  • concept formation
  • problem solving
  • decision making
  • judgement formation
  • study of both logical and illogical thinking

  • Concept
  • mental grouping of similar objects, events, or
  • address
  • country, city, street, house
  • zip codes
  • Prototype
  • the best example of a category
  • matching new items to the prototype provides a
    quick and easy method for including items in a
    category (as when comparing feathered creatures
    to a prototypical bird, such as a robin.)

Problem Solving
Good problem solvers are skilled at (a)
identifying the problem, and (b) selecting a
  • Algorithm
  • methodical, logical rule or procedure that
    guarantees solving a particular problem
  • contrasts with the usually speedier but also
    more error-prone use of heuristics

TWO strategy methods
  • Heuristic
  • rule-of-thumb strategy that often allows us to
    make judgements and solve problems efficiently
  • usually speedier than algorithms
  • more error-prone than algorithms
  • sometimes were unaware of using heuristics

  • Representativeness Heuristic
  • rule of thumb for judging the likelihood of
    things in terms of how well they seem to
    represent, or match, particular prototypes
  • may lead one to ignore other relevant information
  • Availability Heuristic
  • estimating the likelihood of events based on
    their availability in memory
  • if instances come readily to mind (perhaps
    because of their vividness), we presume such
    events are common
  • Example airplane crash

  • Some Useful Heuristic Strategies
  • Working backwards (works well with mazes and
    certain math problems where the initial
    conditions are vague)
  • Searching for analogies (works well if the
    problem is similar to one you have faced
  • Breaking problem in to smaller pieces (allows the
    completion of smaller, manageable units)

  • Insight
  • sudden and often novel realization of the
    solution to a problem
  • contrasts with strategy-based solutions
  • Confirmation Bias
  • tendency to search for information that confirms
    ones preconceptions
  • Fixation
  • inability to see a problem from a new perspective
  • impediment to problem solving

Thinking- Insight
  • Wolfgang Kohlers experiment on insight by a
    chimpanzee by solving complex problems.

Kohler suspended fruit out of reach of the chimp.
Sulton, the brightest chimp first attacked the
fruit with sticks in trial and error fashion.
He then sat down, scratched his head, and begin
to pile boxes. He then climbed on top of them
with a stick to knock down his prize.
Obstacles to Problem Solving
  • Mental Set
  • tendency to approach a problem in a particular
  • especially a way that has been successful in the
    past but may or may not be helpful in solving a
    new problem
  • Functional Fixedness
  • tendency to think of things only in terms of
    their usual functions
  • impediment to problem solving

Self Imposed Limitations Low self-esteem Lack of
Knowledge Fatigue Lack of Interest Drugs
  • Overconfidence
  • tendency to be more confident than correct
  • tendency to overestimate the accuracy of ones
    beliefs and judgements
  • Framing
  • the way an issue is posed
  • how an issue is framed can significantly affect
    decisions and judgements
  • Example What is the best way to market ground
    beef- As 25 fat or 75 lean?

  • Belief Bias
  • the tendency for ones preexisting beliefs to
    distort logical reasoning
  • sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem
    valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid
  • Belief Perseverance
  • clinging to ones initial conceptions after the
    basis on which they were formed has been
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • designing and programming computer systems
  • to do intelligent things
  • to simulate human thought processes
  • intuitive reasoning
  • learning
  • understanding language

  • Language
  • our spoken, written, or gestured works and the
    way we combine them to communicate meaning
  • Phoneme
  • in a spoken language, the smallest distinctive
    sound unit
  • Morpheme
  • in a language, the smallest unit that carries
  • may be a word or a part of a word (such as a
  • Grammar
  • a system of rules in a language that enables us
    to communicate with and understand others

  • Semantics
  • the set of rules by which we derive meaning from
    morphemes, words, and sentences in a given
  • also, the study of meaning
  • Syntax
  • the rules for combining words into grammatically
    sensible sentences in a given language

language not merely by imitating but also by
inborn program of steps to acquire vocabulary and
grammar in their environment.
Noam CHOMSKY, psycholinguist children born with
mental structure, allows vocabulary grammar of
their environment LAD Language Acquisition
device HUMAN GENOME PROJECT language is
genetic Brocas area (ch.2)
Professor emeritus, linguistics, MIT
We are all born to recognize speech sounds from
all the worlds languages
Babbling Stage beginning at 3 to 4 months the
stage of speech development in which the infant
spontaneously utters various sounds at first
unrelated to the household language One-Word
Stage (mama) from about age 1 to 2 the stage
in speech development during which a child speaks
mostly in single words Two-Word Stage (mommy
milk) beginning about age 2 the stage in
speech development during which a child speaks
mostly two-word statements start to acquire
grammar Telegraphic Speech (ball hit mary
cry) early speech stage in which the child
speaks like a telegram go car using mostly
nouns and verbs and omitting auxiliary
words acquire rules of grammar
also called naming stage
Starting at age 2, children also acquire use of
MORPHEMES, showing tense (walks, walked,
walking) overgeneralization or
overregularization (ie. hitted, breaked) use
words with abstract meanings (dream, forget,
pretend, believe) use words that refer to
emotions (happy, sad, angry)
After cognitive advances in later childhood, they
understand highly abstract words (truth,
justice, idea)
  • New language learning gets harder with age

  • Linguistic Relativity (or Linguistic Determinism)
  • Whorfs hypothesis that language determines the
    way we think

What is Intelligence?
is a very general mental capability that, among
other things, involves the ability to reason,
plan, solve problems, think abstractly,
comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly, and
learn from experience.
  • Intelligence
  • capacity for goal-directed and adaptive behavior
  • involves certain abilities
  • profit from experience
  • solve problems
  • reason effectively
  • ability to learn from experience, solve
    problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new

What is Intelligence?
  • Reification
  • viewing an abstract, immaterial concept as if it
    were a concrete thing.
  • reasoning error
  • To reify is to invent a concept, give it a name,
    and then convince ourselves that such a thing
    objectively exists in the world.
  • One SHOULD say she has a score on the
    intelligence test of 120 NOT.she has an IQ of

  • Binet IQ test
  • Terman Stanford-Binet IQ test (adapted)
  • Spearman g and s (developed Factor Analysis)
  • Thurston Primary Mental Abilities
  • Guilford Operations, Contents, Products
  • Gardner 9 Multiple Intelligences
  • Jansen social intelligence
  • Cattell fluid v. crystalized intelligence
  • Goleman emotional intelligence
  • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

Origins of Intelligence Testing
  • Intelligence Test
  • a method of assessing an individuals mental
    aptitudes and comparing them to those of others,
    using numerical scores

ALFRED BINET (1857-1911) French
Psychologist ?Received his law degree in
1878 ?Subsequently studied natural sciences at
the Sorbonne ?Self-taught in psychology
Origins of Intelligence
Lewis Madison Terman (1877-1956)? Cognitive
Psychologist ?Central Normal College (B.S., B.P.,
B. A., 1894, 1898) ?Indiana University at
Bloomington (B.A., M.A., 1903) ?Clark University
(PH.D. in Psychology, 1905)
  • Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
  • the widely used American revision of Binets
    original intelligence test
  • revised by Terman at Stanford University

Purpose to identify students needing special
attention in school outside of a regular
classroom (developed in France by Binet)
Origins of Intelligence Testing
  • Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
  • defined originally the ratio of mental age (ma)
    to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100
  • IQ ma/ca x 100
  • on contemporary tests, the average performance
    for a given age is assigned a score of 100
  • Mental Age
  • --a measure of intelligence test performance
    devised by Binet
  • --chronological age that most typically
    corresponds to a given level of performance
  • --child who does as well as the average
    8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8
  • --used in years and months

Are There Multiple Intelligences?
  • Factor Analysis (FACTOR THEORIES)
  • statistical procedure that identifies clusters of
    related items (called factors) on a test
  • used to identify different dimensions of
    performance that underlie ones total score
  • General Intelligence (g)
  • factor that SPEARMAN and others believed
    underlies specific mental abilities
  • measured by every task on an intelligence test
  • performance of any intellectual act requires
    some combination of "g (general intelligence),
    which is available to the same individual to the
    same degree for all intellectual acts, and of "s"
    (specific factors) which are specific to that act
    and which varies in strength from one act to

  • In 1938, Louis L. Thurstone, an early researcher,
    rejected the g theory". He analyzed the scores
    of many research participants on 56 separate
    tests, Thurston identified SEVEN primary mental
  • verbal comprehension,
  • numerical ability,
  • spatial relations,
  • perceptual speed,
  • word fluency,
  • memory, and
  • Reasoning
  • CONCLUSION all intellectual activities involve
    one or more of these primary mental abilities.
  • He and his wife, Thelma G. Thurstone, developed
    their Primary Mental Abilities Tests to measure
    these seven abilities.

In J.P. Guilford's Structure of Intellect (SI)
theory, intelligence is viewed as comprising
operations, contents, and products.
OPERATIONS (5) (cognition, memory, divergent
production, convergent production, evaluation)
PRODUCTS (6) (units, classes, relations, systems,
transformations, and implications CONTENTS (5)
(visual, auditory, symbolic, semantic,
behavioral). Since each of these dimensions is
independent, there are theoretically 150
different components of intelligence.
Howard Earl Gardner (1943- ) MULTIPLE
INTELLIGENCES His work has been marked by a
desire not to just describe the world but to help
to create the conditions to change it. He
initially formulated a list of seven
intelligences and later added two more
Linguistic intelligence involves sensitivity to
spoken and written language, the ability to learn
languages, and the capacity to use language to
accomplish certain goals. . . . Writers, poets,
lawyers and speakers are seen as having high
linguistic intelligence. Logical-mathematical
intelligence consists of the capacity to analyze
problems logically, carry out mathematical
operations, and investigate issues
scientifically. . . . . . detect patterns, reason
deductively and think logically. . . . scientific
and mathematical thinking. Musical intelligence
involves skill in the performance, composition,
and appreciation of musical patterns. . . . the
capacity to recognize and compose musical
pitches, tones, and rhythms. . . Spatial
intelligence involves the potential to recognize
and use the patterns of wide space and more
confined areas. 
Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence entails the
potential of using one's whole body or parts of
the body to solve problems. . . . the ability to
use mental abilities to coordinate bodily
movements. Interpersonal intelligence is
concerned with the capacity to understand the
intentions, motivations and desires of other
people. . . . allows people to work effectively
with others. Educators, salespeople, religious
and political leaders and counselors all need a
well-developed interpersonal intelligence. Intrape
rsonal intelligence entails the capacity to
understand oneself, to appreciate one's feelings,
fears and motivations. . . . . ability to use
such information to regulate our
lives. Naturalist intelligence enables human
beings to recognize, categorize and draw upon
certain features of the environment. It 'combines
a description of the core ability with a
characterization of the role that many cultures
value' Existential intelligence, a concern
with 'ultimate issues', is, thus, the next
possibility that Howard Gardner considers - and
he argues that it 'scores reasonably well on the
criteria. The final, and obvious, candidate for
inclusion in Howard Gardner's list is moral
  • Intelligence depends on situation in which it
    occurs--how information is processed
  • STERNBERG Triarchial Theory
  • didnt think Gardners view went far enough
  • Practical (Contextual) -- learning within the
    environment in which you live (practical
  • Analytical (Componential) -- problem solving
    thinking abstractly (information processing
  • Creative (Experiential) -- the ability to create
    new ideas (insight intelligence)

Arthur JENSEN Social Class difference
1998, found convincing evidence for potent
environmental effects on black IQs in a rural
Georgia county where black SES was exceedingly
low even relative to other blacks in the
US. Older black siblings systematically scored
worse on an IQ test than their younger sibs,
indicating some environmental insult that
accumulated over time. juvenile delinquents and
adult criminals have lower IQ's, on average, than
those of their own full siblings with whom they
were reared correlation between IQ and socially
undesirable behavior is not just mediated by
differences in social class and cultural
  • Social Intelligence
  • the know-how involved in comprehending social
    situations and managing oneself successfully

Social Stratification in U.S.
1 of population
Upper-upper (Inherited wealth, Old money, blood
relations) Lower-upper (CEOs, investors,
entrepreneurs, achievement) Upper-middle
(managers, professionals, owners of medium size
businesses) Middle-middle (semiprofessionals,
craftspeople, foremen, non-retail salespeople,
clerical, farms, small-town doctors lawyers,
teachers, police, clergy) Lower-middle or
Working-class (low-skill manual, clerical, retail
sales, roofers, truck drivers, unstable
employment, below average income) Upper-lower or
Working-poor (lowest-paid manual, retail, service
workers, below poverty line) Lower-lower or
Underclass (unemployed, part-time menial jobs,
public assistance, single mothers, generational
Some people in the lower-upper class may have
more money than the upper-upper class, but they
will not be accepted into the exclusive social
14 of population
30 of population
30 of population
13 of population
12 of population
Raymond CATTELL (1905-1998) general
intelligence ..conglomeration of /- 100
abilities working together in various ways in
different people to bring out different
intelligences. fluid intelligence (information
that fades with age) ability to think and act
quickly, solve novel problems, and encode
short-term memories crystalized intelligence
(procedural information that never goes away)
stems from learning and acculturation, reflected
in tests of knowledge, general information, use
of language (vocabulary) and a wide variety of
acquired skills
student of Spearman University College, London,
B.S, chemistry (1921-1924) King?s College,
Ph.D., psychology (1924-1929) University
College, London, MA,education (1932) honorary
doctor of science (1939)
What about Emotional Intelligence?
EI is a type of social intelligence that
involves the ability to monitor one's own and
others' emotions, discriminate among them, and
to use the information to guide one's thinking
and actions. (Mayer Salovey, 1993 433)
GOLEMAN Need both EQ and IQ to be successful.
Dr. Golemans 1995 book, Emotional Intelligence,
argues that human competencies like
self-awareness, self-discipline, persistence and
empathy are of greater consequence than IQ in
much of life, that we ignore the decline in these
competencies at our peril, and that children can
and should be taught these abilities.
Emotional Intelligence has 5 domains Self-awarene
ssObserving yourself and recognizing a feeling
as it happens. Managing emotionsHandling
feelings so that they are appropriate realizing
what is behind a feeling finding ways to handle
fears and anxieties, anger, and
sadness. Motivating oneselfChanneling emotions
in the service of a goal emotional self control
delaying gratification and stifling
impulses. EmpathySensitivity to others' feelings
and concerns and taking their perspective
appreciating the differences in how people feel
about things. Handling relationshipsManaging
emotions in others social competence and social
Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobsen (1968) asked
psychology students to run rats through a maze.
Some of the students were told their rats were
bright others were told their rats were
dull. Incredibly, the rats that were believed
to be bright performed better than the dull
rats. Expectations influenced performance.
Rosenthal and Jacobsen wondered if teachers
expectations could influence student performance.
They designed an experiment where they told
grade school teachers that 20 of their students
had been given a special test. Some of the
students were identified as spurters, who would
blossom academically during the coming
year. Actually, the test revealed nothing and the
students had been randomly assigned by the design
Results Those children whom the teachers
expected to do well, did so. The teachers saw
the spurters as more curious and having more
potential. They saw the children as happier,
more interesting, better adjusted. When the
spurters were given an IQ test a year later, the
experimental group made substantial gains in IQ
The idea that students perform better when they
are expected to is called the Pygmaleon Effect,
the Rosenthal Effect, or the Teacher-Expectancy
Effect. It is a type of Self-Fulfilling Prophecy,
as students with negative expectations
internalize the label and those with positive
labels succeed.
Brain Function and Intelligence
Is intelligence neurologically measureable?
  • Processing speed Earl Hunt (1983) found that
    verbal intelligence scores are predictable from
    the speed with which people retrieve information
    from memory.
  • Perceptual speed Those who perceive quickly
    tend to score somewhat higher on intelligence
    tests, particularly test based on perceptual
    rather than verbal problem solving.
  • Neurological speed Evoked brain responses tend
    to be slightly faster when people with high
    rather than low intelligence scores perform a
    simple task.

  • The Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale
    (MEIS) developed by Mayer, Salovey and Caruso
    (2000), assess the test-takers ability to
  • Perceive emotions by recognizing emotions
    conveyed by various faces, musical excerpts,
    graphic designs, and stories.
  • Understand emotions by recognizing how emotions
    change over time and apprehending how emotions
  • Regulate emotions by rating alternative
    strategies that one could use when facing various
    real-life dilemmas.

Page 427
Assessing Intelligence
  • Aptitude Test
  • a test designed to predict a persons future
  • aptitude is the capacity to learn
  • Achievement Test
  • a test designed to assess what a person has
  • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
  • most widely used intelligence test
  • subtests
  • verbal
  • performance (nonverbal)

WISC--Wechsler Intelligence Scale for
Children WPPEI--Wechsler Preschool Primary
Scale of Intelligence
Assessing Intelligence- Sample Items from the WAIS
Assessing Intelligence
  • Standardization
  • defining meaningful scores by comparison with the
    performance of a pretested standardization
  • Normal Curve
  • the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes
    the distribution of many physical and
    psychological attributes
  • most scores fall near the average, and fewer and
    fewer scores lie near the extremes

Flynn Effect American philosophy professor
James Flynn discovered a remarkable trend
Average IQ scores in every industrialized
country on the planet had been increasing
steadily for decades. Despite concerns about the
dumbing-down of society - the failing schools,
the garbage on TV, the decline of reading - the
overall population was getting smarter. Our
brains are getting better at problem-solving.
The Normal Curve
  • Reliability
  • the extent to which a test yields consistent
  • assessed by consistency of scores on
  • two halves of the test
  • alternate forms of the test
  • retesting the same individual
  • Validity
  • the extent to which a test measures or predicts
    what it is suppose to
  • Content Validity
  • the extent to which a test samples the behavior
    that is of interest or knowledge about subject
  • Face Validity or Predictive Validity or
    Criterion-Related Validity
  • A test measures what it is supposed to measure.
  • assessed by computing the correlation between
    test scores and the criterion behavior
  • driving test that samples driving tasks or a unit
    exam in biology
  • Criterion Validity
  • behavior (such as college grades) that a test
    (such as the SAT) is designed to predict.
  • measures against a specific learning goal.
  • the measure used in defining whether the test has
    predictive validity
  • applicants for flight school have to pass a
    certain standard

Assessing Intelligence
  • Split-Half Reliabilty
  • exam split into 2 halves and scores compared.
  • if your teacher checks to see if students are odd
    and even numbered correct
  • Test-Retest Reliability
  • individuals taking a test more than once tend to
    get similar scores.
  • Taking ACT or SAT more than once and getting
    similar scores

The Dynamics of Intelligence
Profound Below 20
1-2 Require
constant aid and supervision.
Genetic Influences
  • The most genetically similar people have the most
    similar scores

Genetic Influences
  • Heritability
  • the proportion of variation among individuals
    that we can attribute to genes
  • variability depends on range of populations and
    environments studied

Genetic Influences
Autism moderately rare condition typically
appears during the first three years of life
neurological disorder (CNS injuries) affects
the functioning of the developing brain,
resulting in sometimes profound communicative,
social interaction and cognitive deficits. hard
to relate to outside world four times more
prevalent in boys than girls estimated to occur
in as many as 1 in 150 individuals and is on the
  • Savant Syndrome
  • condition in which a person otherwise limited in
    mental ability has an amazing specific skill
  • computation
  • drawing

autistic savant Although there is a strong
association with autism, it is certainly not the
case that all savants are autistic. estimated
that about 50 of the cases of savant syndrome
are autistic other 50 have developmental
disabilities and CNS injuries.
  • Studies of intelligence and creativity suggest
    that a certain level of aptitude is necessary but
    not sufficient for creativity. Studies of
    creative people suggest 5 other components of
  • Expertise is a well-developed base of knowledge.
  • Imaginative thinking skills provide the ability
    to see things in new ways, to recognize patterns,
    to make connections.
  • A venturesome personality tolerates ambiguity and
    risk, perseveres in overcoming obstacles and
    seeks new experiences.

4) Intrinsic motivation--people are most creative
when they feel motivated primarily by the
interest, enjoyment, satisfaction, and challenge
of the work itself. 5) A creative environment
sparks, supports, and refines creative ideas.
Group Differences
  • Stereotype Threat
  • A self-confirming concern that one will be
    evaluated based on a negative stereotype

Why do intelligent people fail?
  • Lack of motivation
  • Lack of impulse control
  • Lack of perseverance and preservation.
  • Using the wrong abilities.
  • Inability to translate thought into action
  • Lack of product orientation
  • Inability to complete tasks
  • Failure to initiate
  • Fear of failure
  • Procrastination

Why do intelligent people fail?
11) Misattribution of blame 12) Excessive
self-pity 13) Excessive dependency 14) Wallowing
in personal difficulties 15) Distractability 16)
Spreading oneself too thin 17) Inability to delay
gratification 18) Inability to see the forest for
the trees 19) Lack of balance between critical
thinking and creative thinking 20) Too little or
too much self-confidence
Questions still needing to be answered
  • Genetic factors contribute substantially to
    individual differences but the pathway by which
    genes produce their effects is still unknown.
    Moreover, the impact of genetic differences
    increases with age, but we dont know why.
  • Environmental factors also make a significant
    contribution to the development of intelligence.
    Schooling is important but we dont know what
    aspects of schooling are critical
  • The effect of nutrition is unclear. Obviously,
    severe nutrition has negative effects but the
    notion that particular micronutrients may
    increase intelligence has not been convincingly

Questions still needing to be answered
4) Measures of information-processing speed
correlate with intelligence scores but there is
no easy theoretical interpretation of these
findings. 5) Mean scores on intelligence tests
are rising steadily, going up a full standard
deviation in the last half century. No one is
certain why this is happening or what it
means. 6) The difference between intelligence
scores of blacks and whites does not result from
any obvious biases in test construction. Nor does
it reflect differences in socioeconomic status.
There is no support for genetic
interpretation. 7) Standardized tests do not
sample all forms of intelligence. (creativity,
wisdom, practical sense, social sensibility)
What is Intelligence?
  • Reification
  • viewing an abstract, immaterial concept as if it
    were a concrete thing.
  • reasoning error
  • To reify is to invent a concept, give it a name,
    and then convince ourselves that such a thing
    objectively exists in the world.
  • One SHOULD say she has a score on the
    intelligence test of 120 NOT.she has an IQ of
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