Voluntary Certifications in Agriculture For Better Food Quality, Safety, Sustainability and Marketing" Good Agricultural Practices and Food Safety Practices - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Voluntary Certifications in Agriculture For Better Food Quality, Safety, Sustainability and Marketing" Good Agricultural Practices and Food Safety Practices

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Title: Voluntary Certifications in Agriculture For Better Food Quality, Safety, Sustainability and Marketing" Good Agricultural Practices and Food Safety Practices


1
Voluntary Certifications in Agriculture For
Better Food Quality, Safety, Sustainability and
Marketing"Good Agricultural Practices and
Food Safety Practices
  • Dr. Hari Prakash
  • Joint Adviser
  • Quality Council Of India
  • National Accreditation Board for Certification
    Bodies

2
It covers
  • Distribution of Agriculture Crops in India,
    Production, export.
  • What is the need of Good Agri. Practices
  • Good Transportation, processing and packaging
    practices
  • Management of Crop cultivation
  • Certification Process steps
  • Quality Control
  • Who require certification
  • Benefits of certification in Marketing
  • About QCI

3
Production Export
  • China and India are the two largest crop
    producers of and account for 40 of global
    bio-diversity. However, China has established
    itself as the major exporter of traditional crops
    in the world market, with exports to major
    countries , as against limited export by India.
    India needs to organize itself well to achieve a
    significant share in this growing market segment.

4
Issues
  • Poor Cultivation Practices indiscriminate use
    of
  • poor quality water, compost, pesticides,
    harvesting
  • Poor Handling Thrashing, cleaning, packing,
    storage, and transportation
  • Market Yards Space Shortage, poor handling ,
    poor house keeping, poor hygiene
  • Processing Space shortage, manual handling,
    poor hygiene, poor packaging material

5
Contamination
  • Biological Microbial, bacterial, viral
  • Chemical Residues, heavy metals,
  • Physical Metals, Glass, bird droppings,
    rodents/ animals feces

6
Sources of Contamination
Air
Soil
Packaging Material
Food
Ingredients
Irrigation
Animals, insects, rodents
Processing equipments
Handlers, Transport
7
Quality Demands from Global Markets
  • Purity Requirements Centre-stage
  • Sourcing Practices Transparent, Healthy
    Sustainable
  • Consistency in Nutritional Profile
  • Quantification of Protein/ Minerals/Active in
    gradients
  • Chromatographic Fingerprinting
  • Residual Pesticides
  • Trace metals
  • Aflatoxins Ochratoxins

8
The Cost of Poor Quality
High Largely Intangible
Gestation Periods Variable Prolonged
Multi-factorial Stress on Resource
Specificity of Habitat
  • Valeriana wallichii High altitude species- 2
    years Gestation
  • Average Yield of Dry Roots 633 mg per plant
  • 15,79,778 Plants needed to Provide 1.00 MT of
    Raw material
  • Quantum of Loss if Rejected on Quality
    Grounds????

9
Obvious Need GAP
  • A Quality Management System integrating
  • Quality (of end-produce)
  • Sustainability (of resource)
  • Food Safety
  • Nutritional Value
  • Economic Benefits /social benefits(to the
    Producers/ Collectors)
  • A Quality Management System Applicable for Wild
    Cultivated Sources
  • Specific For Agriculture Sector
  • Prevailing QMS/ FSMS/ HACCP/Certification
    Processes have limitations for Agriculture
  • Holistic Quality Management (HQM) as Against
    Total Quality Management (TQM), Gobal GAP,
    India GAP,

10
The Genesis of GAP Food Safety
  • WHO Guidelines for Good Agricultural Food
    Safety 1962
  • India Specific Guidelines by Food Safety
    Standards Authority of India (FSSAI)
  • India GAP and India HACCP
  • Collaboration with QCI Development Adaptation
    of Standards for GAP HACCP
  • Current Status
  • Consultations completed on India GAP Guiglines
  • Work Started on India HACCP guidelines
  • Certification Scheme Launch may be with in 6
    months.

11
Criteria for Good Agricultural Practices
  • Site Selection meteorological data
  • Soil Conditions
  • Seeds Propagation Materials
  • Crop Management
  • Harvest Post Harvest Management
  • Identification Traceability
  • Personnel and Equipment
  • Workers Health, Safety Welfare
  • Record keeping
  • Self- Assessment/ Internal Audits

12
GAP
  • Use good Seed ( no infections, weed free)
  • Good soil and water (no marshland, old garbage
    dumps, no urban sludge, no contaminated/ effluent
    water),
  • Away from polluting industry, highway,
  • Use recommended pest control , additives and in
    time
  • Good cleanliness/ hygiene of farm, processing
    area, storage, equipments,
  • Healthy and hygienic handlers
  • Safe packaging material ( no contaminated/
    chemical packing material)
  • Safe transport, handling, storage,
  • Safe marketing and handing over

13
Soil, water, pest control
  • Crop should not be grown in soil contaminated
    with sludge, heavy metals, residues, plant
    protection products or other chemicals etc.
  • It is permissible to use farm yard manure and
    farm organic residue which has been thoroughly
    decomposed to meet harm-free sanitary standards.
    It is prohibited to use urban household garbage,
    industrial and hospital wastes or night soil as
    manures fertilizer.
  • Use safe water maintain good drainage.
  • Use Safe and optimum Pesticides such a way that
    no residual toxicity in the raw material will be
    present at detectable level.
  • Any chemicals used in the growth or protection
    of the crop should be kept to a bare minimum.

14
Harvesting and Primary Processing
15
Harvesting, Threshing, Storage
  • Harvesting should be done at appropriate
    harvesting time.
  • Implements and mmachinery used for harvesting
    should be clean free of contamination
  • kept in a dry place free of insects, rodents and
    livestock.
  • During harvesting, efforts should be made, as far
    as possible, to remove foreign objects, in
    particular weeds and toxic substances .
  • Threshing yards or sites should be clean and have
    the facilities for protection against dust, rain,
    rodents, insects and livestock.
  • Storage Distribution Be aware of the potential
    for cross-contamination Separate dry wet
    produce and place water-repellant barriers
    between mixed loads

16
Threshing of Seeds
Trampling
Beating
17
Good Field Collection Practices
  • Permission to collect
  • Collection permits (from Govt or landowners) must
    be obtained.
  • Compliance to international, national and local
    regulations for collection.
  • Technical Planning
  • Population density of target species
  • Essential information of target species
    (taxonomy distribution phenology genetic
    diversity reproductive biology ethnobotany)
  • Collection site information
  • Familiarity of collection team
  • Social impact

18
Processing
19
Personnel and Equipment
20
  • All personnel involved in the production should
    have a basic understanding of agronomy or crop
    husbandry, and
  • should have received training in production
    techniques, safety and hygiene, use of pesticides
    and protection techniques.
  • Personnel involved in processing, packaging and
    inspection should receive medical check-ups at
    regular intervals.
  • Persons suffering from infectious diseases, skin
    disease or open wounds should not be allowed to
    perform functions which involve direct contact
    with plant material.
  • Specific persons should be designated by the
    manufacturer to be responsible for inspecting
    environmental sanitation and personnel hygiene.

21
Packaging, Transportation and Storage
22
Packing , Transportation
  • Packing Facilities Packing surfaces equipment
    minimize injury to produce maximize
    accessibility for cleaning Establish routine
    cleaning sanitizing programs Remove as much
    dirt as possible for containers, trailers or bins
    before use Establish maintain pest control
    program Prevent birds or other vectors from
    contaminating equipment, areas, storage Store
    unformed or empty containers off the floor or
    bare soil
  • Transportation Inspect vehicles for cleanliness,
    odors, dirt debris before loading Ensure that
    transporters, distributors retailers maintain
    lot identification trace back systems

23
  • Inspection is necessary before packaging to
    eliminate substandard products and foreign
    objects. Packaging should be done in accordance
    with standard operational regulations and records
    should be kept of batch packaging, including the
    product name, specifications, origin, batch
    number, weight, packaging assignment number and
    packaging date.
  • The packaging material should be clean, dry,
    non-polluted, undamaged and in conformity with
    the quality requirements for the medicinal plant
    material.
  • The product name, specifications, origin, batch
    number, packaging date and manufacturer should be
    indicated on each package of material, and there
    should also be a label indicating quality
    approval.

24
Food Safety HAZARD ANALYSISCRITCAL CONTROL
POINTS ( HACCP)
Is a scientific and rational approach to food
safety which analyzes potential hazards,
determines the critical control points in a food
process and develops monitoring procedures to
determine if the hazards identified are being
effectively controlled
25
7 PRINCIPLES
  1. Conduct a Hazard Analysis
  2. Identify Critical Control Points
  3. Establish Critical Limits
  4. Establish CCP Monitoring
  5. Establish Corrective Actions
  6. Establish Verification Procedures
  7. Establish Record Keeping

26
Hazards
  • Bacterial contamination
  • Survival of bacterial contaminants
  • Contamination- Biological- Physical-
    Chemical
  • Cross Contamination
  • Look for things that would make food unsafe
  • Could people get sick?
  • Hazards could make people ill

27
Critical Control Points
  • Focus on Foodborne Disease Risk Factors
  • What do you absolutely have to do correctly to
    make the food safe?
  • If this step is not done right, people could get
    sick
  • Focus on Foodborne Disease Risk Factors1.
    Time/Temperature - Cooking - Cooling -
    Holding - Reheating2. Employee
    Health/Habits3. Cross Contamination

28
Critical Control Point Guidelines
  • At this step of preparation, can- food become
    contaminated?- contaminated increase?-
    contaminants survive?
  • Can this hazard be prevented through corrective
    action(s)?
  • Can this hazard be prevented, eliminated, or
    reduced by steps taken later in the preparation
    process?
  • Can you monitor the critical control point (CCP)?
  • How will you measure the CCP?
  • Can you document the CCP?

29
Critical Limits
  • Each standard should be something that can be
    immediately monitored - by measurement or
    observation standards (critical limits) for
    CCPs must be as specific as possible. -
    TEMPERATURE - TIME
  • - darkness
  • - RH - pH

30
Monitoring Procedures
  • Each standard should state specifically1.
    WHAT is to be monitored.2. WHO is going to
    monitor it.3. HOW will they monitor the CCP.4.
    WHEN will they monitor it.

31
Corrective Actions
  • A corresponding corrective action must be
    established for each critical limit.
  • - Reject product - Evaluate
    product - Adjust temperature - Move
    product - Cover product

32
Corrective Actions
  • A corresponding corrective action must be
    established for each critical limit.- Evaluate
    procedure- Wash, rinse, sanitize- Redo-
    Discard product

33
VerificationAn evaluation of the HACCP system
should be implemented when
  • A product change occurs in - Formulation -
    Production - Distribution
  • A specified length of time has passes
  • New food safety information becomes available
  • Product linked to a food borne disease outbreak

34
Verification
  • Identification of Potential Deficiencies
  • HACCP Records
  • - sourced from , field
    history - Temperature logs - Deviations
    from critical limits - Flow diagrams
  • Test Results From Sample Monitoring
  • Manufacturer/Supplier Recommendation
  • Third Party Audit Reports

35
Record KeepingDocument measurements to show
critical limits are being met
  • Time/temperature logs curve
  • Checklists
  • Audit Forms
  • Certification records
  • Customize Record Keeping Forms to Meet YOUR
    Operational Needs
  • Build on what you already have!

36
Quality Control
37
  • Quality control departments should be set up by
    manufacturers to oversee the supervisory
    management and quality control of the entire
    production process of ISM plant material. Such
    department should be supplied with staff, sites,
    instruments and equipment c
  • Developing training programmes and supervising
    their implementation
  • Preparing and managing quality control
    documentation, and managing all kinds of original
    records concerning production, packaging and
    inspection, etc.

38
Documentation
39
  • There should be detailed records kept of the
    entire production process for each kind with
    photographs or pictures when necessary. The
    records should include
  • a) The origin of seeds and propagation material
  • b) Production techniques and processes
  • The planting time, quantity and area of
    medicinal plants the growth of seedlings,
    transplantation, the kind of fertilizer used, and
    the time, amount and method of its use the type
    of pesticide used, the amount, time and method of
    its use.

40
What is the purpose of Voluntary Certification
  • VC will benefit the Farmers, producer/collector/g
    roup of producers/collectors, societies, traders,
    processors, Food operators, pharmaceutical
    industry and foods consumers due to the assured
    quality of the raw material, plants, fruits,
    herbs.
  • To follow the principle of "maximizing
    sustainable output", so as to ensure safe and
    sustainable availability of the Agriculture
    produce.

41
ADDITIONAL BENEFITS
  • Reduced risk of recall/rejection.
  • Better quality , low risk
  • Increased buyer confidence in Indian agri.
    Produce
  • Sustainable production
  • Environment protection, optimum resource
    utilization
  • Assured Legal compliance

42
Certification Process At A Glance
  • Scheme Ownership
  • National Medicinal Plants Board, Department of
    AYUSH, Government of India
  • Custodian of the Scheme
  • Quality Council of India
  • Voluntary Scheme to Start with
  • Certification through 3rd Party/ Independent
    Evaluation
  • The Certification Body
  • A Legal Entity in India
  • Accredited by NABCB (QCI)

43
Certification Process At A Glance
  • Individual/ Corporate Entity or A Group
  • Production/ Collection Clusters Can be Covered
  • Product Certification through Process Evaluation
  • One Lot of production (under GAP) or Collection
    (Under GFCP)
  • Option for Continuous Certification Under
    Consideration
  • Site Audit/ Evaluation
  • Single-time Audit
  • Linked to Harvesting Cycle
  • Option for Preparatory Evaluation/ Advisory Audit
  • Individual Assessments when Inter-cropping
    Protocols are deployed for Two Medicinal Plants
    Concurrently
  • Process Designed to Promote the Concept
  • Adequate Consideration to Certification Costs

44
.
Registration of Application
Renewal of certificate
Evaluation(s) at the site
Market sampling
Certification process
Testing of sample(s)
  • .

Periodic Surveillance Evaluation
Grant of Certificate
45
Voluntary Certification
Standard Owner ( FSSAI, NMPB)
Accreditation Body(QCI)
Certification Body
The organization
The customer
46
WHY VOLUNTARY STANDARDS?
  • Largely retailer driven need to protect
    themselves against liability vendor approval
  • Competition in the market need to differentiate
    oneself Me Too factor
  • Demanding consumers enhance confidence
  • Regulators taking cognizance demonstration of
    legal compliance
  • Concerns in developing countries SPS committee
    - represent barriers to trade market driven
    no role for govts
  • Indian food/ feed industry to prepare for both

47
DOMESTIC SCENE
  • Old history
  • Agmark - 1935
  • ISI mark on a number of products since 1955
    biscuits, salt, coffee, alcoholic drinks -
    compulsory by law on packaged water, infant milk
    foods etc. under PFA Act
  • ISO 9000 certification since 1987
  • ISO 22000 certification since 2005
  • No of certification bodies in India

48
INTERNATIONAL SCENE
  • ISO 9001/ISO 22000/ HACCP/ GMP(feed)
  • Number of retail driven initiatives in Europe/USA
  • SQF Safe Quality Food, Global food safety and
    quality certification and management system,
    division of the Food Marketing Institute (FMI)
    with HO at Washington DC, USA
  • BRC (British Retail Consortium) Global Food
    Standard, Retailers, Trade Associations and
    Inspection Bodies
  • International Food Standard (IFS) Standard for
    Auditing Food Suppliers, German and French
    Retailers ad Italian Retail Associations
  • Global Food safety Initiative (GFSI)
  • GlobalGap for fresh Fruit Vegetables
    production FV sector also - MoU with QCI
    National interpretation being prepared for Crops
    entry level standard FSSAI interest

49
HACCP
  • Codex Alimentarius Commission Recommended
    International Code Of Practice General Principles
    of Food Hygiene
  • HACCP
  • Mother standard for all HACCP standards around
    the world - Guideline standard not certifiable
  • Converted into certifiable requirement standard
    by many countries/scheme owners
  • None in India FSSAI initiative likely also
    GMP/GHP drafts made by QCI

50
IMPLICATIONS
  • Common to both regimes - Requirements
    (Regulations/standards) prescribed to be
    complied with need for checking compliance
  • Checking compliance to prescribed standards
    conformity assessment inspection, testing,
    certification
  • Confidence in conformity assessment
  • International acceptability for facilitating
    trade - Need for recognition of
    inspection/testing/ certification across borders
  • Accomplished through accreditation

51
ABOUT QCI
  • Established in 1997 by a Cabinet decision in
    partnership with CII, FICCI, ASSOCHAM
  • Autonomous body regd as society - Chairman
    appointed by PM (Ratan Tata, Venu Srinivasan, Dr.
    R.A.Mashelkar)
  • Provide accreditation structure in the country
  • Spread quality movement in India assigned
    National Quality Campaign funded by Govt
  • Provide right and unbiased information on quality
    related standards
  • Represent Indias interest in international fora
  • Help establish brand equity of Indian products
    and services

52
STRUCTURE OF QCI
  • National Accreditation Board for Certification
    Bodies (NABCB) inspection/certification bodies
  • National Accreditation Board for Testing and
    Calibration Laboratories (NABL) currently
    society under DST testing/calibration/medical
    labs
  • National Accreditation Board for Education and
    Training (NABET) auditors/consultants/training
    programmes
  • National Accreditation Board for Hospitals
    Healthcare providers (NABH) hospitals, blood
    banks,
  • National Board for Quality Promotion (NBQP)
  • Quality Information and Enquiry Service

53
INTERNATIONAL RECOGNITION
  • Accreditation Bodies to comply with ISO 17011
    Peer Assessment signatory to MRAs
  • NABCB - Signed PAC MLA for QMS Aug 2002IAF
    MLA for QMS Sept 2002 - Signed PAC MLA for EMS
    July 2007- IAF MLA for EMS Oct 2007
  • NABCB accreditation equivalent worldwide and
    certificates with NABCB logo acceptable
    internationally
  • No equivalence yet in FSMS/HACCP certification
  • NABL signatory to ILAC/APLAC MRAs for Testing
    and Calibration Labs since 2000 APLAC MRA for
    medical labs Dec 2008
  • Sum up India has world class accreditation
    infrastructure

54
BENEFITS OF ACCREDITATION
  • Recognition of certification/inspection/ testing
    by Indian conformity assessment bodies in other
    countries certificates/test reports issued by
    accredited CABs accepted worldwide
  • Regulators relying on accreditation G-to-G MRAs
  • Reduces risk for government, business and
    customers
  • ensures through regular surveillance that
    Conformity assessment bodies are both independent
    and competent
  • Lower cost of accreditation in turn lower cost
    of certification/inspection/testing for industry
    enhances competitiveness

55
CHOOSING CB
  • Caution
  • ABs not members of IAF in the market
  • ABs not internationally equivalent Dubai,
    Pakistan etc
  • Avoid CBs accredited by such ABs
  • Insist on ABs logo on your certificate makes
    sure not only accredited but for your sector also
  • Go for NABCB accreditation govt bodies making
    it a condition

56
Thank You
  • Quality Council of India
  • National Accreditation Board for Certification
    Bodies
  • 2nd Floor, Institution of Engineers Building,
  • 2, Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi
    110002,INDIA
  • Tel 91-11-23379321/9260/0567/8057
  • Fax 91-11-23379621
  • Email qci03_at_qcin.org Website www.qcin.org
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