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Mechanisms for Product Quality and Food Safety: Certification Systems


Mechanisms for Product Quality and Food Safety: Certification Systems Jerry Jing E. Pacturan Organic Certification Center of the Philippines, Inc. www ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Mechanisms for Product Quality and Food Safety: Certification Systems

Mechanisms for Product Quality and Food Safety
Certification Systems
Jerry Jing E. Pacturan Organic Certification
Center of the Philippines, Inc. Philippine Development
Assistance Programme, Inc.
Outline of Presentation
  • Background
  • -Drivers for quality food safety
    -Why certification
    programs exist
    -What is
    Basic types of certification
  • Overview of Voluntary Certification Systems
  • -Environmental certification
  • -Social certification
  • -Food safety good practice certification
  • -Certification for intrinsic food quality
  • Organic Certification

Drivers for product quality and food safety
  • Consumer demands
  • Environmental concerns
  • Health concerns
  • Social concerns
  • Government requirements for international trading

Why certification programs exist?
  • It brings opportunities to producers/farmers
  • (e.g., market access, protection of local
    resources, improvement of workers health
    living conditions of rural communities.)
  • Growing market/consumer awareness of the social
    environmental problems associated with food
    production, processing trade
  • Safe and quality products ensure consumer health

What is Certification?
  • It is a procedure for verifying that products
    conform to certain standards, either
    mandatory/compulsory or voluntarily.
  • In the case of organic products, it is primarily
    the acknowledgement that such products have been
    produced according to the applicable organic
    production standards.

Basic types of certification
  • Mandatory or Compulsory (public)
  • When products are sold to mainstream domestic
    market or exported, national governments
    exporting countries normally require standards
    certification as part of food safety regulations
    (e.g., MRLs on pesticides use,Product
  • Voluntary (private)
  • Decision to adhere to standards apply for
    certification is mainly a decision of the
    producing group for environmental, social,
    cultural, food safety purposes.

Voluntary Certification Systems (for
agriculture and food products)
  • Environmental certification
  • Organic agriculture
  • ISO 14001 certification
  • Social certification
  • Fair trade
  • Social Accountability 8000 (SA8000)
  • Food safety and good practice certification
  • Good agricultural practices (GAP)
  • Good manufacturing practice (GMP)
  • Certification for intrinsic quality (cultural)
  • Geographical indications (GI)
  • Halal

ISO 14001 (International Standards
  • ISO is a private intl network of national
    standard institutes working with governments,
    industry consumer representatives
  • ISO 14001 is designed to help environmental mgt
    systems of organizations both in public private
    sectors based on government environmental
  • Granted either b y governmental or private
    certification agencies
  • ISO logo cant be use on products companies can
    however indicate in their promotional campaign
    they are ISO certified
  • Certification quite expensive and theres no
    price premium for products

  • Based on the fair remuneration of producers.
    Products have premium price which enables
    producers to support themselves invest in
    community development
  • Producers comply with standards notably labor
    rights, environmental and social requirements
  • Standard setting certification under the
    control of Fairtrade Labeling Organizations
    Intl. or FLO
  • Once certified, regular inspections are done
    annually to check compliance and use of fair
    trade premium
  • Key constraint FLO certifies if it finds market
    for the fair-trade labeled products, usually in
    fair trade shops

SA 8000
  • Social Accountability Intl is an NGO that
    promotes SA8000
  • A voluntary private workplace certification
    program aimed at creating better working
  • Based on intl. workplace norms including social
    justice, worker rights working conditions
  • Some very large firms exporting banana,
    pineapple, tobacco, wine, canned fruits
    processed coffee are SA8000 certified
  • Certification mark is not used on product labels
    but companies may use it for promotional
  • No price premium for products of certified

  • GAP are practices that address environmental,
    economic social sustainability for on-farm
    processes, and result in safe and quality food
    and non-food agricultural products
  • Developed by the food industry, producer
    organizations, governments NGOs, aiming to
    codify agricultural practices at farm level
  • GAP benefits are
  • -food quality safety improvement
  • -facilitating market access
  • -reduction in non-compliance risks re.
    permitted pesticides, MRLs other contamination
  • Main challenges
  • -increase in production cost like
    recordkeeping, residue testing certification
  • -Inadequate access to information and
    support services

  • International Food Standards (IFS) certification
    developed by German retailers in 2002 and later
    joined by French food retailers
  • Safe Quality Food (SQF) codes developed by the
    Western Australian Department of Agriculture in
  • British Retail Consortium (BRC) standards were
    developed to comply with the UK Food Safety Act
  • ISO 22000 harmonizes the requirements of national
    food safety management systems worldwide on a
    non-governmental, voluntary basis

  • A private voluntary standard that has been
    registered by a producers group or local
    government authority through national agencies
    in-charge of intellectual property
  • GIs are seal of quality which helps to promote
    know-how, tradition, diversity and quality for
    raw produce and processed foods
  • Product comes from a determined geographic area
  • An appropriate marketing tool for regional
    international trade of characteristic local
  • Existing Asian GIs Vietnams Bien Thuan Dragon
    Fruit Phu Quoc Fish Sauce Thailands Doi Tung
    Coffee Chinas Longjing Tea

  • Halal is an Arabic word that means lawful and
    refers to things or actions permitted by Islamic
  • Covers food non-food in food it is used to
    describe something that a Muslim is allowed to
    eat, drink or use
  • All inputs, products, tools, machinery, labour
    used in production, processing, storage
    distribution are separated from anything that is
  • Halal market is estimated at US150 billion
  • Standards differ from country to country
    Malaysian certification becoming an international
  • Certificate granted by Islamic centers but
    proliferation of many local certifying
    authorities raises concern about enforcement

Organic Certification
  • What is organic agriculture?
  • A production system that sustains the health of
    soils, ecosystems and people.
  • It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity
    and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather
    than the use of inputs with adverse effects.
  • It combines tradition, innovation and science to
    benefit the shared environment and promote fair
    relationships and a good quality of life for all
    involved. (IFOAM 2008,

Organic Certification
  • Principle of Health
  • sustain and enhance the health of soil, plant,
    animal, human and planet as one and indivisible
  • Principle of Ecology
  • based on living ecological systems and cycles,
    work with them, emulate them and help sustain
  • Principle of Fairness
  • build on relationships that ensure fairness with
    regard to the common environment and life
  • Principle of Care
  • managed in a precautionary and responsible manner
    to protect the health and well-being of current
    and future generations and the environment

Organic Certification
Is there a need for organic certification? When
organic farmers and traders are operating in an
anonymous market, certification is developed to
show and guarantee to consumers that a product
has been produced in consistency with organic
standards. For small farmers/producers - when
there is surplus scale that that warrants new
markets, certification becomes important.
Organic Certification
Balance of interests
  • CONSUMER requires healthy and environmentally
    sound products and is willing to pay premium

  • FARMER/PROCESSOR is producing according to
    certain standards (may be putting higher labour,
    etc.) is getting access to premium price markets

Organic Certification
  • What is organic certification
  • A procedure by which a third party gives written
    assurance that a product, process or service is
    in conformity with certain standards
  • Intended to assure quality and prevent fraud
  • A marketing initiative aimed at regulating and
    facilitating the sale of organic products to

Organic Certification
  • What is a Certification Body
  • The organization performing the certification
  • Might do the actual inspection or contract the
    inspection to an inspector or inspector body
  • Certification decision is based on the inspection
    report, compliance with the standards, farm
    documentation and possibly complemented by other
    information sources as provided by the applicant

Organic Certification
  • Government
  • Europe (EU regulation EEC2092/91)
  • Japan (JAS)
  • Canada
  • Australia
  • Thailand
  • India
  • China
  • Private Initiative
  • IFOAM (
  • Assurance system is based on IFOAM norms
    (includes the IFOAM basic standard and IFOAM
    accreditation criteria)
  • CertAll

Organic Certification
  • Levels or Types of Certification
  • First Party Verification
  • The producer with installed internal control
    system claims that the farm is organic
  • The system exist in areas or communities where
    the producer and consumer know each other
  • Farm or processing activity is open for consumer
  • Example is the Participatory Guarantee System

Organic Certification
  • Levels or Types of Certification
  • Second Party Verification
  • Occurs when the consumer verifies the production
    system and farmer/processor adheres to the
    standard set by the consumers
  • Consumers inspect the farms before a marketing
    agreement and activity takes place
  • This type of guarantee system sits in a situation
    where there exist an organized consumer and
    producer group
  • Example is the Community Supported Agriculture

Organic Certification
  • Levels or Types of Certification
  • Third Party Certification
  • Is done by a third party without direct interest
    in the economic relationship between the supplier
    and the buyer
  • The certification is the formal and documented
    procedure by which a third party assures that the
    organic production standards are followed

Organic Certification
  • Third Party Certification
  • For two basic types of clients
  • Individual farm or processing enterprise
  • Group certification through the installation of
    the Internal Control System (ICS)
  • ICS is part of the documented quality assurance
    system that allows the external certification
    body to delegate the periodical inspection of
    individual group members to an identified body or
    unit within the certified operator

Organic Certification
  • Certification Requirement/Processes
  • Study the organic standards
  • Compliance to the standards
  • Documentation and record keeping (day to day
    farming and marketing records and other
  • Planning written annual production plan
  • Application
  • Inspection
  • Fees (need for costing and scale for cost

Organic Certification
Shipping transporter
Those shaded in blue needs organic agriculture
Certification Process for Individual Farm or
Organic Certification
  • Inspector inspects the farm/processing plant
  • Farm walk
  • Check inputs and its sources
  • Check documentation
  • Exit meeting
  • Applicant apply for certification
  • Fill out forms and sign contracts

Certification Comm. assigns inspector
Inspection report to be submitted to
Certification Committee
Certification Committee deliberation
Release of Certification Decision
Certification Process for Smallholder Group
Organic Certification
  • Applicant apply for certification
  • Fill out forms and sign contracts
  • Inspector inspects the internal control system of
    the organization
  • Farm walk (random sampling)
  • Check inputs and its sources
  • Check documentation
  • Exit meeting

Certification Comm. assigns inspector
Inspection report to be submitted to
Certification Committee
Certification Committee deliberation
Release of Certification Decision
OCCP Certification Costs
  • Validity Cost of Certification
  • Validity of certificate 12 months subject for
  • For local certification
  • Application fee Php 2,000.00 (about US42)
  • Minimum certification fee
  • Php 20,000 producer (US420)
  • Php 20,000 processor (US420)
  • Php 40,000 production processing (US840)
  • Php 25,000 group certification (US520)
  • Inspection fee is Php 5,000 per day (US104)
  • For foreign certification (in partnership with
    CERES of Germany)
  • Application fee Euro 100
  • Minimum certification fee
  • Euro 1,000.00 for individual farms/processors
  • Euro 1,200 for group certification
  • Inspection fee is Euro 100 per day

About OCCP
  • Independent, Non-stock, membership based,
    standard setting and organic certification body
  • Trained by Bio-Swiss, Bio-Inspecta, Fibl and
  • Accredited by the DA-BAFPS in December 2004.
  • Currently with 19 inspectors (8 passed the
    international inspectors training)

About OCCP
  • IFOAM member
  • Philippine Fair Trade Forum (PFTF) Member
  • Accreditation to Korea
  • Member of Certification Alliance
  • International Certifying Body Partners
  • -CERES GmbH (Germany)
  • -ICEA (Italy)
  • -ACT (Thailand)

About OCCP
Research, Policy and Advocacy - Technical
and social research - Local and national
policy on organic agriculture - Advocacy and
promotion of certified organic products
Organic Certification Program - Organic Standard
Development - Organic Farm certification -
Organic Livestock certification - Organic
Processing certification - Smallholder group
About OCCP
  • Products that were certified by OCCP
  • Rice - Garlic
  • Fruits - Lemongrass oil
  • Virgin coconut oil - Cooking oil
  • Coconut vinegar - Herbal plants
  • Henna - Wild herbal plants
  • Vegetables - Coconut

Thank you !!! Maraming salamat po!!!