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FOODS FROM GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS

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FOODS FROM GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS Wilna Jansen v Rijssen Food Control Department of Health Vrijsw_at_health.gov.za FOODS FROM GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: FOODS FROM GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS


1
FOODS FROM GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS
  • Wilna Jansen v Rijssen
  • Food Control
  • Department of Health
  • Vrijsw_at_health.gov.za

2
FOODS FROM GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS
  • Department of Health
  • www.gov.za/department/health
  • Cluster Pharmaceutical Policy and Planning
  • Food Control

3
LEGISLATION
  • Genetically Modified Organisms Act, 1997 (Act 15
    of 1997)
  • Genetically modified organisms

4
GMO ACT
  • Department of Agriculture
  • Executive Council for GMOs
  • DoA, DACST, DEAT, DoH, Do, DTI
  • Advisory Committee - experts

5
FOOD FROM GMO
  • GMO maize kernels
  • Not a GMO but obtained from GMO and containing
    GM-material maize meal
  • Not a GMO but obtained from GMO and not
    containing GMO material glucose

6
LEGISLATION
  • DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH
  • Food industry
  • (processed foods)
  • Consumers

7
LEGISLATION
  • Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act, 1972
    (Act 54 of 1972)
  • Food safety

8
FCD ACT
  • Department of Health
  • Directorate Food Control
  • Group GMO food
  • 4 professionals
  • 5 Masters degrees (Biotechnology/Microbiolog
    y/
  • Plantbiochemistry/Toxicology and Nutrition)

9
FCD ACT
  • Group GMO food
  • Confidentiality clearance
  • Ethical Boards
  • Pharmacy Council
  • SA Council for Natural Scientific Professions

10
FCD ACT
  • Roles, Functions and responsibilities of Group
    GMO food
  • GMO - Food Safety
  • GMO Food Labelling
  • GMO Food Communicate

11
FCD ACT/GMO ACT
  • FOOD SAFETY
  • Roles, Functions and responsibilities of Group
    GMO food
  • Verify compliance of applications with SA
    legislation and policies, international standards
    and guidelines
  • Risk assessments
  • Write reports
  • Advise the Director Food Control

12
FCD ACT / GMO ACT
Dept of Health Director Food Control
Dept of Agriculture Exec Council for GMOs
13
FOOD SAFETY
  • Authorities
  • Codex Alimentarius (FAO/WHO)
  • Organization for Economic and Social Development
    ( OECD ) 22 countries
  • International Life Sciences (ILSI)
  • Others

14
FOOD SAFETY
  • Codex Alimentarius (FAO/WHO)
  • International Food Safety Standards and
    Guidelines based on science
  • Facilitate trade
  • World Trade Organization

15
CODEX ALIMENTARIUS
  • General Principles for the Risk Analysis of Foods
    derived from Modern Biotechnology
  • Guidelines for the conduct of safety assessment
    of foods derived from recombinant-DNA plants
  • Micro-0rganisms (in preparation)
  • ( fish)

16
FOOD SAFETY
  • FCD Act
  • Policy Guidelines for toxicological assessments
  • OECD Guidelines for tests
  • Chemicals (pesticides)
  • Microbial pest control agents
  • Botanical pest control agents (prep)
  • GMO-foods based on CODEX (new)
  • website

17
CODEX ALIMENTARIUS
  • RISK ANALYSIS
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Management
  • Risk Communication

18
CODEX ALIMENTARIUS
  • RISK HAZARD X EXPOSURE

19
GMO SAFETY AND RISK ASSESSMENT
  • Case by case
  • Expressed substances (non-nucleic acid
    substances)
  • Compositional analysis of key components
  • Evaluation of metabolites
  • Food processing
  • Nutritional modification
  • others

20
GMO RISK MANAGEMENT
  • Legislation
  • Policies
  • Executive Council for GMO
  • Implementation

21
GMO RISK MANAGEMENT
  • Policies - DOH
  • Codex Alimentarius standards and guidelines
  • Departmental Guidelines for chemicals/pesticides
  • Full assessments of GMO and products
  • Full assessment of GMOs for food and for feed
  • Antibiotic resistant genes phased out

22
CODEX QA
  • What overarching scientific principles should be
    applied to the safety and nutritional assessment?

23
CODEX QA
  • Substantial equivalence?
  • Concept not a method
  • Well established component of Risk Assessment
  • No alternative strategies to provide a better
    assurance.

24
CODEX QA
  • Long-term effects?
  • Pre-marketing safety assessment and methodology
    used are adequate to detect and evaluate any
    possible long-term effects.

25
CODEX QA
  • Potential allergenicity?
  • Assessment of potential allergenicity to be
    conducted in all cases

26
CODEX QA
  • Risks arising from the use of antibiotic
    resistance marker genes in plants and micro-org?
  • Subject to standard safety assessment as for any
    other introduced gene product

27
ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
  • Gene transfer from plants and their food products
    to gut organisms or human cells only a rare
    possibility
  • Alternative transformation technologies encouraged

28
FAO DIRECTOR-GENERAL Dr Jacques Diouf, Manilla,
7 December 1999
  • We have no problem with GMOs as long as they are
    proven to be safe to human beings and have no
    negative impact on the environment

29
EUROPEAN UNION9 OCTOBER 2001
  • 81 research projects financed by the EU over the
    last 15 years, at a cost of 64 million on GM
    crops and products made from. Research has not
    found any new risks to human health or the
    environment beyond the usual uncertainties of
    conventional plant breeding

30
EUROPEAN UNION9 OCTOBER 2001
  • Research has not found any new risks to human
    health or the environment beyond the usual
    uncertainties of conventional plant breeding
  • Indeed, the use of more precise technology and
    greater regulatory scrutiny probably make them
    even safer than conventional plants and food

31
COMMUNICATIONFCD ACT
  • LABELLING REGULATIONS
  • A label not a warning but only a method to convey
    information and to provide a choice.

32
CONSULTATIONS Total 35
  • Port Folio 3
  • Interviews radio, TV, journals, telephone,
    others
  • Conferences 4
  • Groups 9
  • Workshop1 (71 representatives)
  • Workshops2 3 4
  • (food industry)
  • Workshop comments

33
CONSULTATIONS
  • FOOD LEGISLATION ADVISORY GROUP
  • 5 MEETING
  • FLAG sub committee

34
CODEX ALIMENTARIUS
  • Framework
  • Codex Definitions

35
DRAFT LABELLING REGULATIONS
  • Mandate from the Minister

36
DRAFT LABELLING REGULATIONS
  • Mandatory nutritional and natural toxin changes
    / allergens / genes from animals or humans
  • Voluntary Improved / enhanced characteristics
  • Voluntary Non-genetically modified

37
FOOD FROM GMO
  • GMO maize kernels
  • Not a GMO but obtained from GMO and containing
    GM-genetic material maize meal
  • Not a GMO but obtained from GMO and not
    containing GMO material glucose

38
CODEX ALIMENTARIUSLABELLING
  • PRINCIPLES
  • No food should be described or presented in a
    manner that is false, misleading or deceptive or
    is likely to create an erroneous impression
    regarding its character in any respect.
  • Must substantiate a claim

39
CODEX ALIMENTARIUSLABELLING
  • PROHIBITED CLAIMS
  • are e.g. those that
  • cannot be substantiated
  • could give rise to doubt about the safety, or
  • exploit fear in the consumer.

40
SA Labelling Regulation
  • MISLEADING
  • Analytical Methods are NOT RELIABLE
  • Few Methods validated
  • No statistically acceptable sampling methods
  • Paper trailing not reliable

41
LABELLING
  • COST
  • Verification expensive
  • 30 000 products of soybeans and maize only
  • Increase in price with 8 to 18 (Australia)

42
SA LABELLING Regulation
  • CHOICE
  • PRICE
  • Small percentage consumers read the detail on
    labels
  • Choice could decrease with increasing production
    /manufacturing of GM-food

43
SA LABELLING Regulation
  • NON GM Food
  • Identity preservation system
  • (Segregation)
  • Export channel

44
SA LABELLING Regulation
  • Recommendations
  • SABS Code of Practice IPS
  • Guidelines
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