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Good Agricultural Practices Approach GAP

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Different scopes of GAP ... Target farmer incentives and disencentives when designing GAP programmes ... Most GAP pay for themselves, though not all ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Good Agricultural Practices Approach GAP


1
  • Good Agricultural Practices Approach (GAP)
  • A Working Concept
  • By Anne-Sophie Poisot, FAO/AGD
  • FAO Workshop on Good Agricultural Practices,
    27-29 October 2004, Rome

2
1. Big challenges for agriculture ?
  • Improve food security, livelihoods
  • Satisfy increasing demands for safe and
    nutritious food and other products
  • Conserve the natural resource base
  • Commitments
  • WSSD and SARD - economic, social and
    environmental sustainability
  • World Food Summit Plan of Action, MDGs

3
The million dollar question is
  • How to make agricultural systems
  • in developing countries
  • more sustainable, in a globalizing world where
    food supply chains
  • are ever more competitive ?

4
Developments in Ag. Sector
  • Demand by consumers, retailers, processors
  • Food safety, quality, nutrition
  • Environmental impact of agriculture
  • Supply by farmers who adopt practices
  • Improve livelihoods
  • Support by governments and institutions
  • Sustainable agriculture policies
  • Research, extension, education, credit,
    infrastructure

5
GAP What is new under the sun ?
  • For decades extension and research guidelines on
    good practices
  • More recent trend GAP in food markets - growing
    number of GAP codes standards - privatization
    of standards
  • Renewed attention as entry point for food safety
    quality in food chain

6
Simple assumption
  • Good production practices at farm level can make
    a huge difference!

7
Can codes support sustainable ag.?
  • Private certification and standards (e.g. EUREP,
    retail)
  • Competitive advantage - not all farmers can meet
  • Focus more on impact on product than on
    sustainability
  • Public legislation and policies (e.g.
    extension, research)
  • Society-driven broader sustainability
    priorities
  • Local, small farmer-adapted
  • But lack financial resources
  • Fair trade, organic
  • A mix of both
  • Provide capacity building. Environmental and
    social aspects
  • But market share may be limited in longer term

8
Any problem?
  • Too many standards and codes, confusing
  • Opportunities, but hard for small farmers to
    meet private export standards (cost,
    investments, paperwork) and certification fees
  • Farmers dont always get a price premium
  • Different scopes of GAP
  • Are food safety/quality and food
    security/sustainability GAPs compatible or
    contradictory?

9
Farmers incentives to adopt?
  • Economic price premium, market access access to
    inputs stabilize yield, increase productivity,
    reduce losses, increase farm asset value...
  • Regulatory/Legal ascertain property rights to
    scare resources reduce liability...
  • Human/social capital expand skill sets, reduce
    community tensions...

10
which means
  • that farmers have many incentives to apply GAPs
    whether or not that gives them access to
    segregated markets or price premiums

11
2. And FAO? Development of a GAP Approach in FAO
  • Identification of Preliminary Principles of GAP
    and electronic discussions in context of SARD
  • Request for guidance at COAG 2003
  • GAP Expert Consultation, Nov 2003, Rome

12
a. Global Principles of GAP
  • Form 11 components of ag. practices
  • Identify hazards to be avoided
  • Identify outcomes to be promoted
  • Provide a basis for the development
  • of codes of practice for individual
  • production systems

13
The 11 components
  • Soil
  • Water
  • Crop and fodder production
  • Crop protection
  • Animal feed and livestock production
  • Animal health
  • Animal welfare
  • Harvest and on-farm processing and storage
  • Energy and waste management
  • Human welfare, health and safety
  • Wildlife and landscape

14
b. FAO dos and donts on GAP (COAG 2003)
  • COAG GOOD, GO AHEAD but
  • DONTs
  • No new intergovernmental standard or
    certification, no barriers to trade voluntary
    practices
  • No undue demands on resource-poor producers
  • Consistent with existing regulations (Codex,
    IPPC, OIE)
  • DOs
  • Share lessons through multi-stakeholder processes
    and capacity building
  • Consider different commodities, agro-ecosystems,
    and scale resources of farmers

15
c. Expert Consultation definition of a GAP
approach
  • addressing economic, environmental and social
    sustainability inclusive of food safety and
    quality
  • focused on primary production (whilst considering
    the supply chain and institutional context)
  • taking account voluntary and regulatory aspects
  • within a given incentive and agro-ecology context
  • Focus on a GAP Approach and not the creation of
    a FAO international Super-GAP

16
Meanwhile, in the field
  • Many projects related to GAP are implemented by
    different units Eastern Africa (AGAP), Latin
    America, Thailand, China (ESNS and RLC), Burkina
    Faso (AGD/AGS/AGPC), Asia region (AGE, AGSF),
    Brazil and West Africa (AGPC) etc, etc, etc
  • With different entry points food safety and
    quality, sustainable production systems, meat and
    milk production, certification and value-chains,
    participatory extension etc, etc, etc

17
3. Lessons learnt - Strategy
  • Be strategic some crops have more impacts and
    potential than others
  • Focus on improvement better, not best
    agricultural practices encourage innovation, not
    compliance
  • Focus on the most serious impacts soil erosion,
    effluents, habitat conversion. 8-10 activities
    cause most environmental impacts
  • Be open not enough effort made to collect/adapt
    lessons from around the world

18
Lessons learnt - Stakeholders
  • Work with producers, consumers, markets and
    governments, and use carrots and sticks
  • Need to work with drivers of change
  • Farmers and communities create most GAPs
  • 400 buyers are key, more than millions of
    consumers need to engage industry

19
Lessons learnt - Incentives
  • Target farmer incentives and disencentives when
    designing GAP programmes
  • GAPs increase product quality and reduces risk
    GAP can work without market incentives
  • Most GAP pay for themselves, though not all
  • Different agro-ecologies, institutional and
    market contexts different GAP priorities

20
4. Possible Joint Action Areas - Global -
  • Provide information on GAP schemes who, what,
    how, incentives, cost, benefits
  • GAP comparative database http//www.fao.org/prods/
    gap/database/index.html
  • GAP website http//www.fao.org/prods/GAP/gapindex_
    en.htm
  • Define global principles of GAP
  • 11 components need more work ?

21
Possible Joint Action Areas- Local -
  • Support local translation of principles into
    appropriate practices and indicators
  • FAO may bring
  • 1- Knowledge range (on policies, practices,
    impacts)
  • 2- Facilitate multistakeholder negotiations on
    GAPs for a commodity/farming system
  • 3- Capacity building trainer of trainers
    farmers

22
Where could a GAP approach be most useful ?
  • From the top when private company wants to
    improve its GAP standards in a meaningful way
  • From the bottom help farmer groups integrate
    markets (technical advice on practices and
    managerial advice on commercialization)
  • Support level help interested govnt understand
    implications, define policies and build capacity

23
Conclusion key words !
  • GAP Old wine in new bottles ? Orworking better
    together? Its about INTEGRATION
  • Win-win situations for consumers, markets and
    farmers. Its about NEGOTIATION
  • Ultimately, a matter of policy choice for govts,
    minimizing trade-offs. Its about SELECTION
  • Practical, flexible approaches in GAP worskhop
    Its about IMPLEMENTATION

24
  • have a fruitful workshop !
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