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Community Ecology

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Community Ecology Ecology The scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environments (abiotic and biotic). 1. Abiotic: non-living factors ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Community Ecology


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CommunityEcology
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Ecology
  • The scientific study of the interactions between
    organisms and their environments (abiotic and
    biotic).
  • 1. Abiotic non-living factors
  • (temperature, light, water, and nutrients)
  • 2. Biotic living factors
  • (other plants and animals)

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Hierarchy of Organization
  • Biological organization
  • Based on structural levels from Least to Most
    Inclusive.
  • 1. Atoms
  • 2. Molecules
  • 3. Organelles
  • 4. Cells
  • 5. Tissues
  • 6. Organs
  • 7. organs systems The Realm Of Ecology

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Organization of Living Things
  • Atoms
  • Molecules
  • Organelles
  • Cells
  • Tissue
  • Organs
  • Organ Systems

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8. Organisms
  • Individuals (species) composed of many
    specialized cells.

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9. Populations
  • Localized groups of organisms belonging to the
    same species.
  • Groups of individuals of the same species living
    together.

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10. Community
  • Populations of organisms living together in the
    same environment.
  • Four properties
  • 1. Diversity
  • 2. Prevalent form of vegetation
  • 3. Stability (resist change)
  • 4. Trophic structure (feeding structure)

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11. Ecosystem
  • Dynamic system of organisms interacting with each
    other (biotic) and the inanimate environment
    (abiotic).

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12. Biomes
  • Broad geographic region with a characteristic
    array of organisms.
  • Examples
  • 1. Tropical rain forest
  • 2. Desert
  • 3. Chaparral
  • 4. Estuaries
  • 5. Coral reefs

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13. Biosphere
  • Entire surface of the earth and its organisms.

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Habitat
  • The place or region where an organism lives.

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Ecological Niche
  • An organisms habitat, role, resource
    requirements, and tolerance ranges for each
    abiotic condition.

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Competition
  • A form of interaction in which two or more
    individuals or species utilize the same limited
    resources.
  • Two examples
  • 1. Intraspecific competition
  • 2. Interspecific competition

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1. Intraspecific Competition
  • Competition within a species for the same limited
    resources in the same habitat.

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2. Interspecific Competition
  • Competition between two or more species for the
    same limited resources in the same habitat.

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Competitive Exclusion Principle
  • States the following
  • 1. The concept that two species cannot continue
    to occupy the same environmental niche.
  • 2. They would compete for the same limited
    resources.
  • 3. One species will use the resources more
    efficiently and have a reproductive advantage
    that will eventually lead to elimination of the
    other species.

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Symbiosis
  • A form of interspecific interaction in which a
    host species and symbiont maintain a close
    association.
  • Example
  • 1. Predation

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1. Predation
  • Where one organism (the predator) acquires its
    needed resources by eating another organism (the
    prey).
  • Predator/prey relationship.
  • Example lynx and snowshoe hare

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Question
  • How do some organisms avoid becoming prey?
  • Answers
  • 1. Camouflage
  • 2. Aposematic
  • 3. Mimicry

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1. Camouflage
  • Cryptic coloration
  • a. Hides from predators.
  • b. Example English Peppered Moth

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2. Aposematic
  • Bright colors
  • a. Advertises noxious trait
  • b. Example poison dart frog, Monarch Butterfly

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3. Mimicry
  • Two examples
  • 1. Mullerian Mimicry when two unpalatable
    species mimic each other in the same habitat.
  • 2. Batesian Mimicry palatable species mimic
    unpalatable species.

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Keystone Predator
  • A predator the maintains species diversity in a
    community.
  • Reduces the density of the strongest competitors
    in a community.
  • Example
  • 1. Red-tailed hawk
  • 2. Coyote
  • 3. Harvester ant

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Symbiotic Relationships
  • Help structure communities.
  • Three examples
  • 1. Parasitism
  • 2. Commensalism
  • 3. Mutualism

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1. Parasitism
  • Symbiotic relationship which benefits one
    organism and harms the other.
  • Example
  • 1. Tick on a coyote
  • 2. Tapeworm in a dog
  • 3. Flea on a cat

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2. Commensalism
  • Symbiotic relationship which benefits one
    organism while the other is unaffected.
  • Example
  • 1. Cattle egrets and cattle in field

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3. Mutualism
  • Symbiotic relationship which benefits both
    organisms.
  • Examples
  • 1. Acacia ants and acacia tree
  • 2. Termites and gut protozoa
  • 3. Legumes and nitrogen-fixing bacteria

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Ecological Succession
  • Transition in species composition over ecological
    time.
  • Three examples
  • 1. Primary Succession
  • 2. Secondary Succession
  • 3. Climax Community

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1. Primary Succession
  • Occurs in areas where no community existed before
    (first succession).
  • Example
  • 1. New volcanic islands - lichens

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2. Secondary Succession
  • Occurs in disturbed habitats where some soil, and
    perhaps some organisms, still remain after the
    disturbance.
  • Example
  • 1. Fires
  • 2. Floods
  • 3. Drought

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3. Climax Community
  • Community that remains essentially the same over
    long periods of time.
  • It is the final stage of ecological succession.

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Trophic Structure
  • The different feeding relationships that
    determine the route of energy flow and the
    pattern of chemical cycling.
  • According to the rules of ten, approximately
    10 of the potential energy stored in the bonds
    of organic molecules at one trophic level fuels
    the growth and development of organisms at the
    next trophic level.

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Trophic Structure
  • Five examples
  • 1. Primary Producers
  • 2. Primary Consumers
  • 3. Secondary Consumers
  • 4. Tertiary Consumers
  • 5. Decomposers and Detrivores

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1. Primary Producers
  • Autotrophs which make up the trophic level of
    an ecosystem that ultimately supports all other
    levels.
  • Examples
  • 1. Mostly photosynthetic organisms

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2. Primary Consumers
  • Herbivores organisms in the trophic level of an
    ecosystem that eat plants or algae.
  • Examples
  • 1. Grasshopper
  • 2. Mouse

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3. Secondary Consumers
  • The trophic level of an ecosystem consisting of
    carnivores that eat herbivores.
  • Examples
  • 1. Snake
  • 2. Green sunfish

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4. Tertiary Consumers
  • The trophic level of an ecosystem consisting
    carnivores that eat other carnivores.
  • Examples
  • 1. Hawks
  • 2. Mountain lions

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5. Decomposers and Detrivores
  • Heterotrophs that get their nutrition by breaking
    down the organic compounds found in waste organic
    matter and dead organisms.

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5. Decomposers and Detrivores
  • Examples
  • A. Decomposers 1. Bacteria
  • 2. Fungi
  • B. Detrivores 1. Worms
  • 2. Nematodes
  • 3. Insects
  • 4. Lobsters
  • 5. Shrimp
  • 6. Condors

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Trophic Structure
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Food Chain
  • The transfer of food from trophic level to
    trophic level.
  • Example of a food chain
  • 1. Primary producer phytoplankton
  • 2. Primary consumer zooplankton
  • 3. Secondary consumer fish
  • 4. Tertiary consumer fisherman
  • 5. Quaternary consumer shark

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Food Web
  • The map of all interconnections between food
    chains for an ecosystem.

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Biomass
  • The amount or mass of organic material in an
    ecosystem.

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Primary Productivity
  • Is the rate where solar energy is converted to
    the chemical energy of organic (glucose)
    compounds by autotrophs (plants).
  • Net primary production equals photosynthesis -
    cellular respiration

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Tropical Rain Forest
  • Occur in equatorial areas
  • High abundance of yearly rain
  • (gt250 cm a year in some areas)
  • Has the highest number of different species per
    square mile.

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Tropical Rain Forest
  • Human impacts a great concern
  • 1. Clear cutting for wood and farmland.
  • 2. May cause large scale changes in world
    climate.
  • 3. There will be a large scale loss of species.

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Negative Impacts to Ecosystems
  • 1. Clear-cutting of forest upsets chemical
    cycling.
  • 2. Eutrophication increased mineral input
    which chokes aquatic life.
  • 3. Environmental disasters Valdez Oil Spill
  • 4. Pollution water, air (acid rain), pesticides
    and herbicides.
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