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PRINCIPLES OF ECOLOGY

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CHAPTER 2 PRINCIPLES OF ECOLOGY ORGANISMS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS Main Idea for Ch. 2.1: Biotic and abiotic factors interact in complex ways in communities and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PRINCIPLES OF ECOLOGY


1
CHAPTER 2
  • PRINCIPLES OF ECOLOGY

2
ORGANISMS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS
  • Main Idea for Ch. 2.1
  • Biotic and abiotic factors interact in complex
    ways in communities and ecosystems.
  • Discussion
  • Who or what do you depend
    on?

3
  • ECOLOGY
  • Ecology is the scientific area in which the
    relationships among living organisms and the
    interactions the organisms have with their
    environments are studied.
  • Scientists who study ecology are called
    ecologists.
  • Ecologists perform tests in the environment where
    organisms live to find out why they die or live,
    grow in number or decrease, live in water or near
    the water, etc.
  • Ecologists use models so they can test in a lab
    things that are happening in the environment.
  • Models help scientists control the variables and
    study them one at a time.
  • EX more or less water, more or less light,
    temperature changes, etc.
  • Helps scientists completely understand the
    effects taking place in the environment.

4
  • Discussion
  • Which task would be completed by an ecologist?
  • Survey and classify mollusk fossils
  • Inoculate cattle against infection
  • Test the effect of cyanide on algae
  • Explore the medicinal uses of nectar
  • What are some locations where you might find
    ecologists collecting data, and what tools might
    they use in these locations?
  • What types of organisms have you ever observed or
    collected that live near your home?
  • What are some interesting characteristics of
    these organisms?

5
  • THE BIOSPHERE
  • Biosphere is the portion of Earth that supports
    life.
  • The prefix bio means life.
  • Includes surface of earth, atmosphere, oceans,
    lakes, and extends down several kilometers below
    the surface to any location that includes life.
  • EX
  • Rainforest Desert
    Marine Life
  • Ecologists study these organisms, their
    adaptations, and the factors in their
    environments.
  • These factors are divided into 2 large groups.
  • Living factors biotic
  • Nonliving factor - abiotic

6
  • BIOTIC FACTORS
  • Anything living in an organisms environment are
    called biotic factors.
  • The interactions among organisms are necessary
    for the health of all species in the same
    geographic location.
  • What are some of the biotic factors in this
    picture and how do they relate to one another.

7
  • ABIOTIC FACTORS
  • Nonliving factors in an organisms environment
    are called abiotic factors.
  • Abiotic factors include
  • Temperature
  • Air
  • Water
  • Sunlight
  • Soil types
  • Rainfall
  • Nutrients
  • Organisms depend on abiotic factors to survive.
  • Organisms have adaptations to live with certain
    abiotic factors. If the abiotic factors change
    organisms need to change or they will die.
  • Argument Oxygen is the only abiotic factor that
    allows you to survive in this classroom. So, as
    long as there is enough oxygen, all of you will
    survive.

8
  • LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION
  • Levels of organization increase in complexity as
    the numbers and interactions between organisms
    increase.
  • Levels of organization are
  • Organism
  • Population
  • Biological community
  • Ecosystem
  • Biome
  • Biosphere

9
  • ORGANISMS, POPULATIONS, AND BIOLOGICAL
    COMMUNITIES
  • Organism is one individual
  • Population is a single species that share the
    same geographic location at the same time.
  • Individual organisms in the population
    compete for the same resources. If the
    resources are high, the population
    will grow. If not, the population will decrease.
    Eventually the population s will match the
    resources for the area.
  • Biological community is a group of interacting
    populations that occupy the same geographic area
    at the same time.
  • Different populations may or may not compete
    for resources.

10
  • ECOSYSTEMS, BIOMES AND THE BIOSPHERE
  • Ecosystem is a biological community
    including the abiotic factors that affect it.
  • Ecosystems can be large or small
  • Biome is a large group of ecosystems that share
    the same climate and have similar types of
    communities.
  • Biosphere contains all of the biomes on Earth and
    is the highest level of organization.

11
  • ECOSYSTEM INTERACTIONS
  • Survival of the different populations increases
    if they use the resources in different ways.
  • EX birds use different areas of the tree to
    build nests.
  • Habitat is an area where an organism lives.
  • EX deer covering 5 sq. miles to find food.
  • Niche is the role or position that an organism
    has in its environment (habitat).
  • EX food, shelter, and reproduction
  • Discussion
  • What is an example of a habitat and an
    individuals niche in that habitat?

12
  • COMMUNITY INTERACTIONS
  • Interactions in the community include competition
    for basic needs like food, shelter, mates, and
    how organisms depend on each other for survival.

13
  • COMPETITION
  • Competition occurs when more than 1 organism uses
    the resource at the same time.
  • The organism that out competes the other one is
    the one that survives.
  • PREDATION
  • Predation is when one organism pursues and eats
    another organism for food.
  • Predator is the organism that is
    doing the pursuing.
  • Prey is the organism that is caught and ate.
  • EX mallard duck eating water bug.

14
  • SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIPS
  • Symbiosis is the close relationship that exists
    when 2 or more species live together.
  • There are 3 different types of symbiosis
  • Mutualism
  • Both organisms receive a benefit
  • EX flowers and bees
  • Commensalism
  • One organism receives a benefit the other one
    is not hurt or harmed
  • EX clownfish and sea anemones
  • Parasitism
  • One organism receives the benefit the other one
    is hurt or dies.
  • EX Fleas, ticks, tapeworms, etc.

15
  • Section 2.2
  • FLOW OF ENERGY IN AN ECOSYSTEM
  • Autotrophs capture energy, making it available
    for all members of a food web.
  • The sun is the original source of energy!

16
  • ENERGY IN AN ECOSYSTEM
  • Organisms differ in how they obtain energy. They
    are either autotrophs or heterotrophs.
  • AUTOTROPHS
  • Autotrophs are organisms that collect energy from
    sunlight or inorganic substances to produce food.
  • EX plants, bacteria
  • Autotrophs are the foundation for all organisms
    in an ecosystem
  • Autotrophs are also called producers
  • Discussion What is the process by which
    autotrophs convert light energy into chemical
    energy?

17
  • HETEROTROPHS
  • Heterotroph is an organism that gets energy by
    consuming other organisms.
  • Heterotrophs are also called consumers.
  • Different types of consumers
  • Herbivore only eats plants, EX rabbit, cow
  • Carnivores only eat meat, EX wolves, lions
  • Omnivores eat both meat plants, EX humans,
    bears
  • Detritivores - eat fragments of dead matter in
    an ecosystem and return nutrients back to the
    soil, air, and water where the nutrient can be
    recycled by other organisms. EX worms
  • Decomposers (similar to detritivores) break
    down dead organisms by releasing digestive
    enzymes. EX fungi (mushrooms), bacteria

18
  • MODELS OF ENERGY FLOW
  • Ecologists use food chains food webs to model
    the energy flow through an ecosystem.
  • A trophic level is a step in a food chain or web.
  • Autotrophs make up the first trophic level in all
    ecosystems.
  • Heterotrophs make up the remaining levels.

19
  • FOOD CHAINS
  • Food chain is a simple model that show how energy
    flows through an ecosystem.
  • In a food chain the energy ONLY
    flows in one direction, up the
    tropic levels.
  • The arrows show what direction
    the energy flows, which usually
    starts with the autotrophs
    and moves to the
    heterotrophs.
  • Some of the energy is not
    transferred from one trophic level
    to the next because it is used
    by the organism for new cells tissues.

20
  • FOOD WEBS
  • A food web is a model representing the many
    interconnected food chains and pathways in which
    energy flows through a group of organisms.

http//www.goldridge08.com/foodchain.htm
21
  • ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS
  • An ecological pyramid is a diagram that shows the
    relative amounts of energy biomass or numbers or
    organisms at each trophic level in an ecosystem.
  • Energy pyramid only 10 of the energy is
    transferred to the next level.
  • The organism uses 90 of the energy for
    bodily processes or released
    as heat.
  • Biomass pyramid shows the amount of total mass of
    living matter at each trophic level
  • Pyramid of numbers shows the number
    of organisms at each trophic level

22
  • SECTION 2.3
  • CYCLING OF MATTER
  • Essential nutrients are cycled through
    biogeochemical processes.
  • Discussion
  • What would happen if matter was bound in living
    matter and never recycled?

23
  • CYCLES IN THE BIOSPHERE
  • Energy is transformed into usable forms to
    support life of an ecosystem.
  • Constant supply needed so matter needs to be
    recycled.
  • Matter is anything that takes up space and has
    mass.
  • Nutrient is a chemical substance that an organism
    must obtain from its environment to sustain life
    and to undergo life processes.
  • Biogeochemical cycle is the exchange of matter
    through the biosphere.
  • Bio means life, geo means earth, chemical
  • Producers (plants) use air, soil and water to
    convert them into usable nutrients. Consumers
    eat the plants the nutrients are passed to
    them. Decomposers will return the nutrients to
    be recycled.

24
  • WATER CYCLE
  • Water is constantly evaporating off of bodies of
    water go up into the atmosphere in the form of
    water vapor.
  • 90 of all evaporation occurs over the ocean,
    lakes and rivers.
  • 10 evaporates from plants through a process
    called transpiration.
  • Water vapor creates clouds then precipitation.
  • Ends up on the surface is soaked up by plants
    or remains underground. Can fall in lakes or
    streams return to ocean

25
  • THE WATER CYCLE - CONTINUED
  • Organisms cannot live without water.
  • 3 of all water on Earth is fresh. 69 of all
    fresh water is either frozen in glaciers or
    underground.

26
  • THE CARBON AND OXYGEN CYCLES
  • All living things are composed of molecules that
    contain carbon, such as protein, carbohydrates
    and fats.
  • Carbon and oxygen make up molecules essential for
    life, including carbon dioxide and simple sugars.
  • In photosynthesis, plants and algae, will convert
    carbon dioxide water into carbohydrates
    oxygen for the atmosphere.
  • These carbohydrates are used as a source of
    energy for all organisms in the food web.
  • Carbon dioxide is recycled back into the
    atmosphere through cellular respiration. (You do
    cellular respiration)
  • Carbon can be stored for long periods of time as
    fossil fuels released when burned, adding
    carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.

27
  • Discussion
  • Based on your understanding of the carbon cycle,
    predict what might happen if large areas of
    tropical rain forest continue to be cleared.
  • How do you interact in the carbon cycle?

28
  • THE NITROGEN CYCLE
  • Nitrogen is an element.
  • Largest amount found in atmosphere.
  • Cant be used by plants and animals in this form
  • Nitrogen fixation occurs when bacteria convert
    the nitrogen gas to nitrates.
  • Enters food web when plants absorb nitrogen
    compounds from the soil convert them into
    protein.
  • Nitrogen is often a limiting nutrient for the
    growth of producers.
  • Decomposers will return nitrogen in protein back
    into ammonia.
  • Denitrification occurs when bacteria convert the
    nitrogen compounds back into nitrogen gas
    returning it to the atmosphere.

29
  • NITROGREN CYCLE

30
  • THE PHOSPHORUS CYCLE
  • Phosphorus essential for growth development of
    organisms.
  • Short term cycle
  • Soil ?producers ?consumers
  • Decomposers return phosphorus to soil
  • Long term cycle
  • Stored in sedimentary rocks
  • Released through weathering
    or erosion
  • Phosphorus is a limiting nutrient.
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