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Understanding Ecology and Ecosystems

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Title: Understanding Ecology and Ecosystems


1
Understanding Ecology and Ecosystems
2
Next Generation Science/Common Core Standards
Addressed!
  • HS-ESS2-2 .Analyze geoscience data to make the
    claim that one change to Earths surface can
    create feedbacks that cause changes to other
    Earth systems. Clarification Statement Examples
    should include climate feedbacks, such as how an
    increase in greenhouse gases causes a rise in
    global temperatures that melts glacial ice, which
    reduces the amount of sunlight reflected from
    Earths surface, increasing surface temperatures
    and further reducing the amount of ice. Examples
    could also be taken from other system
    interactions, such as how the loss of ground
    vegetation causes an increase in water runoff and
    soil erosion how dammed rivers increase
    groundwater recharge, decrease sediment
    transport, and increase coastal erosion or how
    the loss of wetlands causes a decrease in local
    humidity that further reduces the wetland extent.
  • HS-ESS2-2. Construct an argument based on
    evidence about the simultaneous coevolution of
    Earths systems and life on Earth. Clarification
    Statement Emphasis is on the dynamic causes,
    effects, and feedbacks between the biosphere and
    Earths other systems, whereby geoscience factors
    control the evolution of life, which in turn
    continuously alters Earths surface. Examples of
    include how photosynthetic life altered the
    atmosphere through the production of oxygen,
    which in turn increased weathering rates and
    allowed for the evolution of animal life how
    microbial life on land increased the formation of
    soil, which in turn allowed for the evolution of
    land plants or how the evolution of corals
    created reefs that altered patterns of erosion
    and deposition along coastlines and provided
    habitats for the evolution of new life forms.
    Assessment Boundary Assessment does not include
    a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms
    of how the biosphere interacts with all of
    Earths other systems.

3
Learning Objectives
  • Define ecology and ecosystems.
  • Explain natural selection and succession.
  • Define homeostasis.
  • Identify communities found in nature.
  • Explain population ecology.
  • Describe food relationships found in nature.
  • Identify biomes and explain ecosystem diversity.

4
Terms
  • Dominant species
  • Ecology
  • Ecosystem
  • Ectothermic
  • Emigration
  • Endotherm
  • Food chain
  • Food web
  • Habitat
  • Abiotic factors
  • Adaptation
  • Aquatic communities
  • Biome
  • Biotic factors
  • Carnivore
  • Communities
  • Competition
  • Distribution

5
Terms
  • Herbivore
  • Homeostasis
  • Homeotherm
  • Immigration
  • Mortality
  • Natality
  • Niche
  • Omnivore
  • Poikilotherm
  • Population density
  • Population ecology
  • Predation
  • Selection
  • Species diversity
  • Succession
  • Terrestrial communities

6
What is an ecosystem?
  • Write down all of the differences you observe in
    this picture.
  • Are there a number of ecosystems and different
    organisms thriving in this ecosystem?

7
Ecology
  • The study of how organisms exist in their
    environment.
  • How nature is organized and the roles that each
    organism plays within its environment can be
    explained through the science of ecology.

8
Ecosystem
  • Where an organism lives within the environment.
  • An ecosystem can be as large as a rain forest or
    as small as a pond.
  • There are two types of factors found within an
    ecosystem, biotic and abiotic factors.

9
Biotic Factors
  • Living things found in an ecosystem. Bio- means
    life.
  • Biotic factors include plants and animals.
  • The biotic factors need the abiotic factors to
    live.

10
Abiotic Factors
  • The non-living things found in an ecosystem.
  • Abiotic factors include water and temperature.

11
Natural Selection and Succession
  • Selection and succession are examples of change
    that occur within an ecosystem.
  • Without change, ecosystems could not survive.

12
Natural Selection and Succession
  • Adaptation is an organisms ability to tolerate
    change in its environment.
  • Adaptation is necessary for survival.
  • The theory of evolution and adaptation of
    organisms is credited to Charles Darwin.

13
Selection
  • The survival of organisms that are best adapted
    to their environment.
  • Adaptation occurs because the species goes
    through change over time.
  • Many of these changes occur through genetics.

14
Succession
  • The replacement of one community by another.
  • Succession occurs naturally over time.

15
Succession
  • The rate of succession can be altered by humans,
    however.
  • For example, humans may reduce the amount of a
    specific fish species in an area by over-fishing.

16
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17
External Environment
  • All organisms must deal with changes in their
    external environment.
  • Failure to deal with these changes can cause
    elimination of the species.
  • External environmental factors such as moisture,
    temperature, and climate can affect homeostasis.

18
Homeostasis
  • The process in which organisms maintain a
    constant internal environment when the external
    environment changes.
  • An example of homeostasis in animals is sweating
    in warm temperatures and shivering in cool
    temperatures.

19
Homeostasis
  • Some animals can tolerate a variety of
    temperatures.
  • Examples of these types of animals include
    homeotherms and poikilotherms.

20
Homeotherm
  • An organism that maintains near constant internal
    temperature despite the temperature of the
    environment.
  • Humans, horses, deer, and dogs are examples of
    homeotherms.
  • Homeotherms are warm-blooded or endotherms.
  • An endotherm is an organism that can maintain a
    constant body temperature.

21
Poikilotherms
  • An organism that has a body temperature that
    equilibriates with the environment.
  • Snakes, fish and turtles are known as
    poikilotherms.
  • Poikilotherms are considered ectothermc.
  • An ectothermic organism does not have a constant
    body temperature.

22
Communities
  • Collections of organisms that live together.
  • Each organism or species of organisms is its own
    individual.
  • However, they all react and interact with each
    other.

23
Habitat
  • The physical environmental characteristics of a
    community.
  • A habitat includes biotic and abiotic factors.
  • A niche is the function of an organism within its
    community.

24
Communities
  • Communities can be found in the water and on the
    land.
  • Interaction does occur between these two types of
    communities.
  • This interaction can be good, for example some
    aquatic animals such as alligators can live on
    both the land and in the water.

25
Communities
  • Sometimes though, the interaction can be bad.
  • For example, water runoff can erode soil from the
    terrestrial community into the aquatic community.
  • This excess soil is considered pollution.

26
Aquatic Communities
  • Communities that occur in the water.
  • Aquatic plants include water chestnuts and water
    hyacinths.
  • Aquatic animals include fish, shrimp, and eels.

27
Terrestrial Communities
  • Communities found on the land.
  • Trees, soybeans, and grass are examples of plants
    found in a terrestrial community.
  • Sheep, cattle, and hogs are examples of
    terrestrial animals.

28
Dominant Species
  • Within a community one species may begin to take
    over.
  • A species that is stronger or has an advantage
    over another species and is capable of altering
    the community for other species.

29
Species Diversity
  • Refers to a variety of different types of
    organisms living in a community.
  • The greater the variety, the greater the species
    diversity.

30
Population Ecology
  • The study of how plant and animal populations
    within a community affect each other.
  • Can be affected by the attributes of density,
    age, distribution and is also affected by
    population growth, competition, and predation.

31
Population Density
  • The measure of how crowded organisms are in their
    environment.
  • Because organisms compete for resources, keeping
    a balance is important.
  • If the population is too high, some organisms
    will die.

32
Population Age
  • Three groups of ages are prereproductive,
    reproductive, and postreproductive.
  • Prereproductive organisms are young and have not
    reproduced
  • Reproductive organisms are in the process of
    reproducing,
  • Postreproductive organisms are past the stage of
    reproducing.
  • To be productive, a community should contain each
    of these three age groups.

33
Distribution
  • A description of how organisms are distributed
    within their community.

34
Population Growth
  • Determined by immigration, emigration, natality,
    and mortality.
  • Immigration is the act of an organism moving into
    a habitat.
  • Emigration is the act of an organism moving out
    of a habitat.
  • Natality is the production of new individuals in
    a habitat.
  • Mortality is the death rate in a population.

35
Competition
  • The use of the same resources by different
    organisms to live.
  • Population ecology can also be affected by
    competition.
  • All resources are limited in supply.
  • Because of this, some organisms will die or will
    be forced to move to other communities to survive.

36
Predation
  • One living organism serving as food for another
    organism.
  • The organism that consumes another is called a
    predator, the organism being consumed is called
    the prey.
  • Cannibalism, or the eating of your own kind, is
    also considered predation.

37
Food Relationships in Nature
  • All living organisms need some type of
    nourishment to live.
  • This nourishment usually comes from food.
  • A food chain is the order in which organisms
    obtain their food.

38
Food Chain
  • Each species has its own food chain.
  • Food chains intertwine to form food webs.
  • A food web is the interconnection of food chains
    within a community.

39
Food Web
  • Within a food web, animals are grouped according
    to the types of food they consume.
  • These groups include herbivores, carnivores, and
    omnivores.

40
Herbivore
  • An animal that eats only plants for food.
  • Examples of herbivores include bison and grass
    carp.

41
Carnivore
  • An animal that eats only animals for food.
  • Examples of carnivores include hawks, coyotes,
  • wolves.

42
Omnivores
  • Animals that eat both plants and animals.
  • Examples of omnivores include bears and catfish.

43
Biome
  • An area made up of a distinct combination of
    plants and animals.
  • Biomes are made up of the groups of ecosystems
    found on earth.
  • Biomes are terrestrial or aquatic in nature.

44
Types of Terrestrial Biomes
  • Tropical forests are found near the equator.
  • Temperate forests can be found in warm, semiarid,
    cold, and wet areas.
  • Grasslands and savannas are areas where grasses
    grow.
  • Tundra and taiga are cold areas found near the
    Arctic.
  • Deserts are areas with little or no rain fall.

45
Aquatic Biomes
  • Include lakes and ponds, streams, oceans, and
    wetlands and estuaries.
  • Lakes and ponds are inland areas of freshwater.
  • Streams are ecosystems made up of flowing water.
  • Oceans are large bodies of saltwater.
  • Wetlands and estuaries are areas found near
    bodies of water.

46
Review / Summary
  • Define ecology and ecosystems.
  • Explain natural selection and succession.
  • Define homeostasis.
  • Identify communities found in nature.
  • Explain population ecology.
  • Describe food relationships found in nature.
  • Identify biomes and explain ecosystem diversity.

47
The End!
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