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Computer-Mediated Communication

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Title: Title of Your Presentation Author: etwilson Last modified by: Randall Sadler Created Date: 8/12/2004 9:25:58 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Computer-Mediated Communication


1
Computer-Mediated Communication
  • How is it actually being used in the classroom?
  • Randall Sadler

2
Why is this important?
  • Some might argue that an increased use of CMC
    might lead to greater communicative competence,
    thus avoiding things like this..
  • Clearly, a respectable hotel!
  • But what about people who WANT to leave their
    values in the car?????

3
CALL versus CMC
  • CALL ? self-contained, programmed applications
    (e.g., tutorials, drill, simulations,
    instructional games, standardized tests, such as
    TOEFL, TSE) e.g. Rosetta Stone
  • CMC ? a different kind of CALL
  • computers connected in local or global networks
  • human-to-human communication is the focus (KW1)
  • computer as tutor? computer as tool (Crook, 1994)

4
Why use CMC?
  • Experiential Social Learning (Dewey, 1916),
    (Kilpatrick , 1918)
  • Zone of Proximal Development (Vygotsky, 1934)
  • Constructivist Theory (Piaget, 1967)
  • Interaction Hypothesis (Long Robinson,1998)
  • Negotiation Model (Doughty, 2000)

5
Also...
  • extends interaction possibilities beyond
    classroom walls time constraints and the usual
    limited type of interlocutors of classroom pair
    and group work (Belcher,99)
  • Allows learners to engage in playful
    interaction (Belz Reinhardt, 2004)
  • enhances opportunities and motivation for
    authentic interaction and meaning negotiation
    (Kern, 1995)

6
And dont forget
  • reduces anxiety and produces more talk
    (Fanderclai, 1995 Harris, 1995 Kern, 1992
    Reid, 1994, Smith 2003)
  • improves linguistic proficiency and increases
    self-confidence (Beauvois Eledge, 1996 Gebhard
    Nagamine, 2005).
  • Simulations... allow students to be immersed
    and actively involved in an environment that is
    not otherwise accessible (González-Lloret, 2003,
    citing 3 others)

7
CMC is.
  • Cutting edge technology
  • New
  • Groundbreaking
  • will change the world.
  • OF THE 1970s!
  • (yes, I made up the quotesbut Im sure somebody
    said that!)

8
  • PLATO Notes, 1973, one of the 1st online message
    boards.
  • By 1976, included
  • Personal Notes (e-mail),
  • Talkomatic (chat rooms),
  • Term-Talk (instant messaging),
  • monitor mode (remote screen sharing)
  • and emoticons.

9
  • Online (interterminal) games70s 80s,
  • Empire (multiplayer Star Trek game),
  • Airfight (just like Microsoft Flight
    Simulator),
  • dnd and Rogue. Moria, Dry Gulch.
  • Avatar (one of the first MUDs).

10
The point is
  • This is NOT new technology.
  • It has matured for decades,
  • has great potential,
  • butare teachers really using it?

11
Research Questions to put it simply
  • What CMC tools are teachers using at home?
  • What CMC tools are they using in their teaching?
  • How are they having their students use CMC for
    language learning?

12
Data Collection
  • Stratified Sample of TESOL membership
  • Survey mailed to 400 current members
  • 50 U.S.
  • 50 International
  • Data collection ongoing..and ongoing

13
Results Respondents (N95)
14
International Participants
15
Age (mean32.8, Median40, mode37)
16
Males vs. Females A breakdown
17
Highest Degree Earned
18
Years of Teaching Experience Mean12.3
19
Current Teaching Level total 142??
20
Computer Access
  • Home
  • Computer Equipment
  • Internet Access
  • Work
  • Computer Equipment
  • Internet Access

21
Home computers
22
Home Internet
23
Self Ratings Home Tech (by )
I pay a hefty monthly fee to have a high speed
internet connection. Where I live, the only high
speed choice is through cable. No competition
stinks! (US) In Cameroon only the rich can
afford home internet. However those facilities
are found in business places and we do use them.
A few city schools have multimedia centers with
these facilities.
24
Office Computers (total 95)
25
Office Internet
26
Ratings Office Tech (by )
  • We've recently been given 'tablets and wireless
    connection (UK)
  • Teachers do not have offices but a staffroom for
    all where we can have a break between classes so
    that room is not designed for any kind of work.
    There is however a multimedia room, with 20
    computers but no internet connection. The
    material is used to initiate students to
    computers. Most of the times, there are about 3
    or 4 on the same computer. Our school principal
    is the only one to access to the internet
    connection. (Mali)
  • Many sites are blocked because they are web chat.
    Would love to have access to whole internet (US)

27
CMC Use
  1. Teacher Personal Use
  2. Teacher use for Teaching
  3. How teachers have their students use CMC

28
Teacher Personal Use ()

  Daily Weekly Monthly Rarely Never ???
Word processing 72 23 4 1 0 0
Surf Net 91 6 2 1 0 0
Research 66 29 4 1 0 0
E-mail 95 3 1 0 0 0
29
Teacher Classroom Use ()
  Daily Weekly Monthly Rarely Never ?
Word processing 59 27 8 2 4 0
PowerPoint 12 19 34 23 14 0
Surf Net 47 31 12 7 3 0
Research 40 30 12 6 3 0
E-mail 54 23 11 8 4 0
30
Teacher Classroom Use ()
  Daily Weekly Monthly Rarely Never ???
Word processing 59 ?13 27 8 2 4 0
PowerPoint 12 19 34 23 14 0
Surf Net 47 ?44 31 12 7 3 0
Research 40 ?26 30 12 6 3 0
E-mail 54 ?43 23 11 8 4 0
31
Personal Use part 2 ()
Daily Weekly Monthly Rarely Never ???
Text Chat 27 17 12 25 19 0
Audio Chat 12 20 10 22 32 3
Video Chat 9 9 11 23 44 4
Forums 5 16 26 28 25 1
MOOs, etc. 0 1 1 7 38 52
Blogs 10 10 17 15 41 6
Wikis 14 24 20 19 19 3
Soc Networking 14 12 18 19 30 8
Vitual Worlds 3 1 7 7 55 27
Use in a lang class 21 30 12 22 14 0
Use to improve L2 21 20 25 17 16 0
32
Classroom Use, part 2 ()
  Daily Weekly Monthly Rarely Never ???
Text Chat 3 7 10 17 60 2
Audio Chat 2 2 7 16 69 30
Video Chat 1 2 8 10 75 3
Forums 2 6 17 25 46 3
MOOs, etc. 0 1 4 5 44 46
Blogs 1 6 13 12 62 6
Wikis 8 20 17 13 38 4
Soc Networking 1 3 5 12 72 7
Virtual Worlds 0 2 1 12 68 17
Use in a lang class 28 32 16 8 16 0
Use to improve L2 16 23 16 18 27 0
33
Teacher Classroom Use, part 2
  • There ARE some positives!
  • Some students would contact me in the
    facebookand I think this is a good way for them
    to practice writing messages. (Taiwan)
  • I use it mainly for research in the classroom.
    (US)
  • I plan to use blogs in the future. (Italy)
  • the internet is indispensible to me in teaching.
    (US)
  • The use of some of these (text chat, audio chat,
    forums) is typical only in my graduate classes,
    in which we use virtual classrooms like wiziq.
    This takes place once a year (1 out of 3 terms).
    During the term, the frequency of use has a
    weekly basis. (Venezuela)

  Daily Weekly Monthly Rarely Never ??
Text Chat 3 7 10 17 60 ?41 2
Audio Chat 2 2 7 16 69 ?37 30
Video Chat 1 2 8 10 75 ?31 3
Forums 2 6 17 25 46 ?21 3
MOOs, etc. 0 1 4 5 44 ?3 46
Blogs 1 6 13 12 62 ?21 6
Wikis 8 20 17 13 38 ?19 4
Soc Networking 1 3 5 12 72 ?42 7
Virtual Worlds 0 2 1 12 68 ?13 17
Use in a lang class 28 32 16 8 16 ?2 0
Use to improve L2 16 23 16 18 27 ?11 0
34
Teacher Classroom Use, part 2
  • And some negatives as well
  • sometimes , we run our of computer because of
    constant beakdowns or lack of electricity or
    viruses because somme sutdents in opening their
    inboxes bring viruses (Mali)
  • Where we work, we are not supposed to e-mail
    students. (Peru)
  • I would love for them to chat, but it is not
    possible on our system. (US)
  • we are only starting using computer technologies
    for teaching in our country and there is very few
    computers and computer labsand the connections
    are very poor and the universities have no money
    to pay for different Internet programms
    (Ukraine)
  • When more technoloies are applied, I have to
    memorize a lot of usage process. Sometimes it is
    a challenge to me! (?)

  Daily Weekly Monthly Rarely Never ??
Text Chat 3 7 10 17 60 ?41 2
Audio Chat 2 2 7 16 69 ?37 30
Video Chat 1 2 8 10 75 ?31 3
Forums 2 6 17 25 46 ?21 3
MOOs, etc. 0 1 4 5 44 ?3 46
Blogs 1 6 13 12 62 ?21 6
Wikis 8 20 17 13 38 ?19 4
Soc Networking 1 3 5 12 72 ?42 7
Virtual Worlds 0 2 1 12 68 ?13 17
Use in a lang class 28 32 16 8 16 ?2 0
Use to improve L2 16 23 16 18 27 ?11 0
35
How Ts ask Students to use ()
  Daily Weekly Monthly Rarely Never ???
Word processing 21 39 22 7 11 0
PowerPoint 3 12 31 26 28 0
Surf Net 17 31 35 10 7 0
Research 17 32 31 15 5 0
E-mail 23 29 27 9 12 0
36
How Ts ask Students to use ()
  • Some of these things are DEFINATELY against our
    county policy for saftey reasons!
  • I ask my students to use the Internet at home and
    then we discauu what they read or watched or
    studeid in class
  • We don't allow audio, video and text chat because
    it slows down our system too much.
  • We have forums on Moodle and use them a lot. I
    also set up a wiki for an international exchange.
  • I have students in some classes use blogs and
    wikis daily for projects that might continue for
    several weeks, but we also go for periods of
    weeks not using them at all.
  • My students do many of these, but not for
    language learning.

Daily Weekly Monthly Rarely Never ???
Text Chat 7 5 10 17 61 0
Audio Chat 4 7 8 12 69 0
Video Chat 4 2 7 15 72 0
Forums 4 10 8 18 56 5
MOOs, etc. 1 0 5 6 48 40
Blogs 4 8 7 16 58 7
Wikis 5 12 22 16 41 7
Soc Networking 6 2 5 11 70 6
Vitual Worlds 1 5 2 10 67 15
Use in a lang class 21 33 21 14 10 1
Use to improve L2 20 23 21 21 10 5
37
But what about traditional CALL?
  • And what exactly ARE they using?
  • DynEd
  • Proprietary program, Efekta TOEFL Tense Buster
    Cambridge Exam prep other UK based programs
  • eslstation.net
  • Connected Speech
  • BABLEFISH
  • Transparent language
  • Hot Potatoes Exercises
  • specally on biology programms related to medical
    grounds
  • Let's Do Business
  • English DisYahooligans read.think.write.org
  • Edusoft, Connected Speech
  • English Discoveries Focus on Grammar

38
So, what does this mean???
How important a role does CALL play in your class this year? How important a role does CALL play in your class this year? How important a role does CALL play in your class this year? How important a role does CALL play in your class this year? How important a role does CALL play in your class this year?
Extremely very important somewhat not
5 16 21 15 44
  • In short, the teachers who participated in this
    survey generally place very low importance on
    either CALL or CMC in their classrooms
  • After all, on average 74 of them rarely or
    never have their students use CMC for language
    learning!
  • Or do they value it after all?

How important a role does CMC play in your class this year? How important a role does CMC play in your class this year? How important a role does CMC play in your class this year? How important a role does CMC play in your class this year? How important a role does CMC play in your class this year?
Extremely very important somewhat not
10 18 19 17 36
39
Conclusions
  • Tools with clear practical benefits (e.g. Wikis)
    are being used.
  • In many locations economic challenges are
    preventing the use of CMC.
  • However, in other nations CMC use is still
    problematic due to technical restrictions

40
Thanks!!! rsadler_at_illinois.edu
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