A New Agenda for Computing Professionals Ben Shneiderman (ben@cs.umd.edu) Founding Director (1983-2000), Human-Computer Interaction Lab Professor, Department of Computer Science Member, Institutes for Advanced Computer Studies - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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A New Agenda for Computing Professionals Ben Shneiderman (ben@cs.umd.edu) Founding Director (1983-2000), Human-Computer Interaction Lab Professor, Department of Computer Science Member, Institutes for Advanced Computer Studies

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Title: A New Agenda for Computing Professionals Ben Shneiderman (ben@cs.umd.edu) Founding Director (1983-2000), Human-Computer Interaction Lab Professor, Department of Computer Science Member, Institutes for Advanced Computer Studies


1
A New Agenda for Computing ProfessionalsBen
Shneiderman (ben_at_cs.umd.edu)Founding Director
(1983-2000), Human-Computer Interaction Lab
Professor, Department of Computer
ScienceMember, Institutes for Advanced Computer
Studies Systems Research
2
Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory
Interdisciplinary research community -
Computer Science Psychology - Information
Studies Education www.cs.umd.edu/hcil
3
Scientific Approach (beyond user friendly)
  • Specify users and tasks
  • Predict and measure (theory-driven,
    hypothesis-testing)
  • time to learn
  • speed of performance
  • rate of human errors
  • human retention over time
  • Assess subjective satisfaction
    (Questionnaire for User Interface Satisfaction)
  • Accommodate individual differences
  • Consider social, organizational cultural
    context

4
Design Issues
  • Input devices strategies
  • Keyboards, pointing devices, voice
  • Direct manipulation
  • Menus, forms, commands
  • Output devices formats
  • Screens, windows, color, sound
  • Text, tables, graphics
  • Instructions, messages, help
  • Collaboration communities
  • Manuals, tutorials, training

www.awl.com/DTUI usableweb.com hcibib.org
useit.com
5
U.S. Library of Congress
  • Scholars, Journalists, Citizens
  • Teachers, Students

6
Visible Human Explorer (NLM)
  • Doctors
  • Surgeons
  • Researchers
  • Students

7
NASA Environmental Data
  • Scientists
  • Farmers
  • Land planners
  • Students

8
U.S. Bureau of Census
  • Economists, Policy makers, Journalists
  • Teachers, Students

9
Treemap - Stock market, clustered by industry
10
(No Transcript)
11
Four challenges
  • 1) Prevent future terror
  • 2) Strengthen communities - increase
    vigilance - enable rapid response - support
    communities in coping
  • 3) Broaden participation universal usability
  • 4) Reduce inequities by international development
  • http//www.hcibib.org/preventterror/
    /communities/
    /participation/
    /development/

12
Preventing future terror
  • National ID systems authenticate, monitor, deter
  • Monitor selected email, financial transactions,
    and travel patterns
  • Improve transportation security air, train,
    ships, roads
  • Protect public utilities nuclear, water,
    electric
  • Attack terrorist sources
  • Eliminate root causes of terror

13
Study the process of terror
  • Recruitment
  • Training
  • Decision-making strategies
  • Choice of targets
  • Travel plans
  • Border crossing
  • Gaining identity
  • Local preparations
  • Implementation

14
10 Questions for ID System Developers
  • How do you
  • collect, verify and update the data?  what data?
    (signature, photo, thumbprint, eyescan) 
  • validate new applications and lost cards?
    (are expired cards destroyed?) 
  • conducts verifications?  (you need terminals
    everywhere)  
  • respond when a false ID is detected?  

15
10 Questions for ID System Developers
  • verify security (prevent hacker destruction),
            privacy (keep data in control)
             reliability (limit cope with
    software /hardware/network/powe
    r failures?) 
  • hire, train, and manage employees
    to continually improve quality 

16
10 Questions for ID System Developers
  • handle inquiries from police, immigration,
    intelligence, and other government agencies? 
  • ensure appropriate management and judicial
    oversight?
  • measure costs, benefits, effectiveness?

17
Special classes of users
  • frequent travelers who agree to closer monitoring
    of their behavior in exchange for faster
    processing
  • non-citizen visitors whose background is checked
    more carefully
  • airline/airport/trucking/port personnel

18
Opportunities to increase rights
  • Should citizens be able to view
  • their records to verify contents
  • the log of usage
  • government inquiries
  • What form of citizen or judicial oversight?

19
Cautions for ID system proponents
  • Are identification systems a good investment?
  • Are other approaches more effective?
  • How easy are they to compromise?
  • What are the worst case risks?
  • Do they generate a false sense of security

20
Four challenges
  • 1) Prevent future terror
  • 2) Strengthen communities - increase
    vigilance - enable rapid response - support
    communities in coping
  • 3) Broaden participation universal usability
  • 4) Reduce inequities by international development
  • http//www.hcibib.org/preventterror/
    /communities/
    /participation/
    /development/

21
Social Support Concepts
  • Online communities
  • E-commerce customer service consumer
    conversations
  • Medical support groups information exchange
  • Educational discussions teamwork
  • Neighborhood forums political organizing
  • Technologies
  • Synchronous text Instant messaging, chat rooms
  • Asynchronous text Listservs, bulletin boards,
    newsgroups
  • Audio,video, virtual realities

22
Social Support Goals
  • Supporting Sociability
  • People Target a population
  • Purposes Clearly state focus
  • Policies Make expectations explicit
  • behavior, privacy, moderation, joining rules
  • Designing Usability
  • Users Know the users
  • Tasks Understand frequencies and sequences
  • Systems Choose seamless combinations of tools

Online Communities Supporting Sociability,
Designing Usability Jenny Preece, John Wiley
Sons, June 2000
23
Social Support Trust
  • Invite participation by ensuring trust
  • Disclose patterns of past performance
  • Provide references from past and current users
  • Get certifications from third parties
  • Make policies for privacy security easy to find
    read
  • Accelerate action by clarifying responsibility
  • Clarify each participant's responsibilities
  • Provide clear guarantees with compensation
  • Describe dispute resolution and mediation
    services

Communications of the ACM, Dec. 2000, Special
Issue on Trust
24
Restore social capital
  • Decline in community groups since 1965
  • Less volunteerism, reciprocity, honesty, trust,
    philantropy
  • More commuting, women working, TV watching,
    solitary activities
  • Generational change
  • Potential remedies
  • Youth and school projects
  • Workplace changes
  • Urban and metropolitan design
  • Religion
  • Arts culture
  • Politics government

Bowling Alone Robert Putnam, 2000
25
Four challenges
  • 1) Prevent future terror
  • 2) Strengthen communities - increase
    vigilance - enable rapid response - support
    communities in coping
  • 3) Broaden participation universal usability
  • 4) Reduce inequities by international development
  • http//www.hcibib.org/preventterror/
    /communities/
    /participation/
    /development/

26
Broad participation
  • Universal usability increases participation
  • Involvement and contribution generate pride
  • Responsibility and participation increase
    protectiveness

27
Universal Usability
  • Technology variety Support broad range of
    hardware, software, and network access
  • User diversity Accommodate users with
    different skills, knowledge, age, gender,
    literacy, culture, income, disabilities,
    disabling conditions (mobility, injury, noise,
    light)...
  • Gaps in user knowledge Bridge the gap
    between what users know and what they need to
    know

Communications of the ACM, May 2000
28
  • Technology variety Support broad range of
    hardware, software, and network access

Device Independence Input keyboard,
speech,... Output visual, auditory,...
Conversion Text-speech Speech-text,...
1 to 100 range in processor speeds 286 486
Pentium
1 to 100 range in screen sizes Palm
devices Laptops Large Desktop or Wall
Display 30,000 480,000
3,840,000 pixels
Software Versions Compatibility File
conversion Multiple platforms
29
  • User diversity Accommodate different users

Language Culture Western, Eastern,
developing... Personality Introvert vs
extravert Thinking vs feeling Risk aversion
Locus of control Planful vs playful
Disabilities Visual, auditory, motoric,
cognitiveDisabling conditions Mobility,
injury, noise, sunlight
Age Young to old Gender Male or
Female Income Impoverished to wealthy
Skills Computer newbie to hacker Knowledge
Domain novice to expert
30
Gaps in User Knowledge
  • Bridge the gap between what users know and what
    they need to know

Online Learning (evolutionary, phased)
Introductory tutorials Getting started manuals,
Cue cards Walkthroughs/Demos
Minimalist/Active
Design Layered Level-structured
Task-oriented
Training Fade-able scaffolding Training
wheels Minimalist
Online help Context sensitive, tables of
contents, Indexes, Keyword search, FAQs,
Newsgroups, Chat rooms Online communities
Customer service Email Phone Help desks
31
ACM Code of Ethics
  • In a fair society, all individuals would have
    equal opportunity to participate in, or benefit
    from, the use of computer resources regardless of
    race, sex, religion, age, disability, national
    origin or other such similar factors.

32
Four challenges
  • 1) Prevent future terror
  • 2) Strengthen communities - increase
    vigilance - enable rapid response - support
    communities in coping
  • 3) Broaden participation universal usability
  • 4) Reduce inequities by international development
  • http//www.hcibib.org/preventterror/
    /communities/
    /participation/
    /development/

33
Information Technology Development
  • Support development agencies
  • Disaster relief
  • Agricultural specialists farm workers
  • Hospitals, clinics, doctors
  • Roads, irrigation, water, sewage, electricity,
  • Education training
  • Entrepreneurship business development
  • Promote democratic principles
  • Civil rights, voting judicial processes
  • Free press open markets
  • Competent responsive governments

34
Rodrigo Baggio in Brazil
35
Thomas Jefferson
  • I feel... an ardent desire to see knowledge
    so disseminated through the mass of mankind that
    it may...reach even the extremes of society
    beggars and kings.
  • -- Reply to American Philosophical Society,
    1808

36
Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory 19th
Annual Symposium May 30-31, 2002
www.cs.umd.edu/hcil
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