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Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW)

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Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) Thinking about groups, collaboration, and communication – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW)


1
Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW)
  • Thinking about groups, collaboration, and
    communication

2
Project Part 3
  • See me if you need resources for your evaluation
  • Room, equipment, etc.
  • Presentation
  • In-class on April 24 29
  • 15 minutes total hard limit
  • Formal and professional
  • Upload slides on Wiki
  • Sign up on Wiki for time slot

3
Presentation
  • Parts
  • Motivation
  • Requirements
  • learning from users
  • Design
  • learning from prototyping
  • Evaluation
  • Conclusions
  • QA
  • Include all parts, but focus on evaluation in
    particular

4
CSCW
  • Study of how people work together and how
    technology affects this
  • Support the social processes of work, often among
    geographically separated people
  • HCI so far CSCW
  • Individual use ?
  • Psychology ?

5
Examples
  • The system becomes the moderator between people
  • There are now many collaborations, like
  • Scientists collaborating on a technical issue
  • Authors editing a document together
  • Programmers debugging a system concurrently
  • Workers collaborating over a shared video
    conferencing application
  • Buyers and sellers meeting on eBay

6
CS C W?
  • The Second C
  • Group work not always cooperative or
    collaborative
  • The W
  • Not just about work anymore
  • Support the social processes of a group of people
    communicating or collaborating on anything

7
Examples
  • Awareness of people in your family, community,
    physical space...
  • Mobile communication
  • Online discussions, blogs
  • Sharing photos, stories, experiences
  • Recommender systems
  • Playing games

8
Groupware
  • Software specifically designed
  • to support group working or playing
  • with cooperative requirements in mind
  • Groupware can be classified by
  • when and where the participants are working
  • the function it performs for cooperative work
  • Specific and difficult problems with groupware
    implementation and evaluation

9
The Time/Space Matrix
  • Classify groupware by
  • when the participants are working, at the same
    time or not
  • where the participants are working, at the same
    place or not
  • Common names for axes time synchronous/asynch
    ronous place co-located/remote

10
Applied to traditional technology
Different time
Same time
face-to-faceconversation, whiteboard
sameplace
post-it note
differentplace
phone call
letter
11
Applied to computer technology
Time
Synchronous
Asynchronous
Co-located
Place
Remote
12
A More-fleshed Out Taxonomy
A typical space/time matrix (after Baecker,
Grudin, Buxton, Greenberg, 1995, p.742)
13
Styles of Groupware Systems
  • Computer-mediated communication
  • Meeting and decision support systems
  • Shared applications and tools

14
Computer-mediated Communication (CMC) Aids
  • Examples
  • Email, Chat, virtual worlds
  • Desktop videoconferencing
  • Video/Audio chat
  • Blogs

15
CMC applications
  • Support a wide range of communication needs
  • Allow large number of people to quickly and
    easily communicate
  • Can be combined with other activities and systems
  • Lead to many new social conventions and issues

16
Social implications
  • Less rich channels fewer details, higher
    likelihood of misunderstanding
  • More anonymous
  • More autonomy, more ability to control message
  • Can be less intrusive
  • Ill IM you before I stop by your office

17
Food for thought
  • Why arent videophones or video conferencing more
    popular?
  • How and when do you use Instant Messaging? How
    does this differ from email?
  • What communication technology do you still want?

18
Meeting and Decision Support Systems
  • Examples
  • Corporate decision-support conference room
  • Provides ways of rationalizing decisions, voting,
    presenting cases, etc.
  • Concurrency control is important
  • Shared computer classroom/cluster
  • Group discussion/design aid tools

19
Shared Applications and Tools
  • Shared editors, design tools, etc.
  • Want to avoid locking and allow multiple people
    to concurrently work on document
  • Requires some form of contention resolution
  • How do you show what others are doing?

20
Social Issues
  • People bring in different perspectives and views
    to a collaboration environment
  • Goal of CSCW systems is often to establish some
    common ground and to facilitate understanding and
    interaction

21
Turn Taking
  • There are many subtle social conventions about
    turn taking in an interaction
  • Personal space, closeness
  • Eye contact
  • Gestures
  • Body language
  • Conversation cues
  • How is turn taking handled in IM?

22
Geography, Position
  • In group dynamics, the physical layout of
    individuals matters a lot
  • Power positions
  • How can you tell power in a videoconference?

23
Awareness
  • What is happening?
  • Who is there? e.g. IM buddy list
  • What has happened and why?
  • How do you use awareness in IM?
  • What other systems have awareness?

24
Groupware implementation
  • Often more complicated
  • feedback and network delays
  • architectures for groupware
  • feedthrough and network traffic
  • robustness and scaling

25
Feedback and network delays
  • At least 2 network messages four context
    switches
  • With protocols 4 or more network messages

26
Types of architecture
  • centralized single copy of application and data
  • client-server simplest case
  • replicated copy on each workstation
  • also called peer-to-peer
  • local feedback
  • race conditions

27
Feedthrough traffic
  • Need to inform all other clients of changes
  • Few networks support broadcast messages, so n
    participants ? n1 network messages!
  • Solution increase granularity
  • reduce frequency of feedback
  • but poor feedthrough ? loss of shared context
  • Trade-off timeliness vs. network traffic

28
Evaluation
  • Evaluating the usability and utility of CSCW
    tools is quite challenging
  • Need more participants
  • Logistically difficult
  • Apples - oranges
  • Often use field studies and ethnographic
    evaluations to assist
  • Groupware and Social Dynamics Eight Challenges
    for Developers
  • By Jonathan Grudin (now at Microsoft)
  • http//www.ics.uci.edu/grudin/Papers/CACM94/cacm9
    4.html

29
Groupware Challenges (Grudin)
  • Who does work vs. who gets benefit
  • The system may require extra effort for people
    not really receiving benefit
  • Critical mass
  • Need enough people before system is successful

30
More Grudin challenges
  • Social, political, and motivational factors
  • Outside factors can affect system success
  • No standard procedures
  • Many procedures and exceptions when it comes to
    groups interacting

31
More Grudin challenges
  • Infrequent features
  • How often do we actually use groupware anyway?
  • Solution add groupware features to existing
    individual software
  • Evaluation is longer, more complicated, less
    precise

32
Recommendations
  • Add group features to existing apps
  • Benefit all group members
  • Start with niches were application is highly
    needed
  • Consider evaluation and adoption early
  • Expect and plan for development and evaluation to
    take longer

33
Lets consider Facebook
  • Is it groupware?
  • What general types of group features does it
    have?
  • How does it differ from blogs? Flickr? Personal
    web pages?
  • What features do you think they should add?
  • Why do you think it is so successful?
  • What social issues (good and bad) are occurring
    because of Facebook?
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