Computer-Mediated%20Communication%20and%20Language%20Learning:%20From%20Theory%20to%20Practice - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

About This Presentation



Computer-Mediated Communication and Language Learning: From Theory to Practice ... human-to-human communication is the focus (K&W:1) ... CMC and Learning Theory ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:389
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 25
Provided by: randallwil
Learn more at:


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Computer-Mediated%20Communication%20and%20Language%20Learning:%20From%20Theory%20to%20Practice

Computer-Mediated Communication and Language
Learning From Theory to Practice
  • Randall Sadler, UIUC Betil Eröz, METU

What is CMC?
  • CALL ? self-contained, programmed applications
    (e.g., tutorials, drill, simulations,
    instructional games, standardized tests, such as
  • CMC/NBLT ? a different kind of CALL
  • computers connected in local or global networks
  • human-to-human communication is the focus (KW1)
  • A Sociocognitive Approach to CALLShifts from
    learners' interaction with computers to learners
    interaction with other humans via the computer (K
  • computer as tutor? computer as tool (Crook, 1994)

CMC and Learning Theory
  • Vygotsky (1934) claimed that all human learning,
    including language learning, is attained through
    interaction with other people.
  • Zone of Proximal Developmentlearners will
    benefit most from social interaction when the
    tasks they are engaged in cannot be accomplished
    alone, but, instead, must be achieved
    collaboratively, preferably with the aid of more
    knowledgeable teammates

CMC and Learning Theory (cont.)
  • Language is a socially constructed phenomenon
    (Hymes, 1971)
  • Communicative Competence
  • there are rules of use without which the rules
    of grammar would be useless (Hymes, 1971, p. 10).

Why CMC? Theory to Practice
  • extends interaction possibilities beyond
    classroom walls time constraints and the usual
    limited type of interlocutors of classroom pair
    and group work (Belcher,99)
  • Allows learners to engage in playful
    interaction (Belz Reinhardt, 2004)
  • enhances opportunities and motivation for
    authentic interaction and meaning negotiation
    (Kern, 1995)
  • reduces anxiety and produces more talk
    (Fanderclai, 1995 Harris, 1995 Kern, 1992
    Reid, 1994)
  • improves linguistic proficiency and increases
    self-confidence (Beauvois Eledge, 1996 Gebhard
    Nagamine, 2005).

UIUC and METU collaboration
  • Course
  • Joint course
  • Technology in ELT (METU), 8 students
  • Computer-Mediated Communication and Language
    Learning (UIUC), 10 students
  • Same class time, syllabus, schedule, and readings

ProcedureTools Explored
  • Asynchronous
  • Email
  • Message Boards
  • Wikis
  • Blogs
  • Synchronous
  • Text chat
  • Audio Telephony
  • MUDs, MOOs, WOOs
  • Video/ teleconferencing

AND what are these things???
Message Board
Blogs Student Blog for a Course
Lingua MOO Sadlers Shack
WOOs Active Worlds
Audio telephony Skype
Video Conferencing MSN Messenger
Advantages of using CMC in ELT
  • Opportunity to meet people from other cultures
    who are located thousands of miles away
  • Real and authentic communication in English
    (especially for NNSs)
  • First-hand and hands on experience with the
    technology they could use in their own classroom
    (trail and error, warm-up before using with their
  • Chance to have discussions and see different
    perspectives on the uses and applications of CMC
    in pedagogical contexts

Student responses to using CMC tools in ELT
  • As a teacher, I think having students use a MOO
    in the way we did could be very beneficial.
    Students can 1) meet people from across the globe
    while 2) still accomplishing something important
    3) in real time. Without MOOs, you could
    certainly meet people from other countries
    online, but usually just for fun things. In
    class, you can accomplish something important,
    but only with people in the same geographical
    space. With discussion boards, you can accomplish
    important things with people from other
    countries, but not in real time! (Errol, M, U.S.)
  • Each time I read the articles assigned for the
    weeks and the suggestions provided by the members
    of this forum, I feel more happy to take such a
    course which helps me to get more acquainted with
    the limitless facilities of virtual world.
    (Elcin, F, TR)

Student responses to using CMC tools in ELT
  • As language teachers, we can use MOOs to be able
    to help our students out of the class. We create
    a virtual world on the web and register all our
    students. In this world, we can add a virtual
    library, some information of useful links, some
    sample term projects, assignments, visual and
    audial elements,  etc. or anything that we cannot
    include in a traditional classroom. (Banu, F, TR)
  • Moo chatting is better than regular chatting
    room in that it's more teacher-controlled. I
    think msn or yahoo has the similiar function, but
    it will be harder for the teacher to monitor
    several groups at the same time. (Penny, F,

Potential Disadvantages
  • Message lag time in emails
  • Technical Issues
  • Busy Schedules
  • Conflicting time zones
  • Semester schedule conflicts
  • Waning enthusiasm or no enthusiasm to begin with!

Pedagogical Implications
  • Collaborative projects must activate and
    integrate prior ICT knowledge.
  • Tasks must have a concrete framework, with a
    clear purpose.
  • Tasks must be motivating and engaging.
  • Task instructions should be available to all
    students in various formats.
  • Cultural aspects of communication should be
  • Provide students with a collaboration contract.
  • Collaborative projects should include getting to
    know each other time.
  • Teachers should be actively involved and give
    regular feedback in order to maintain student

  • Comments ?
  • Questions?
  • This presentation is available at
  • http//

Some useful CMC Resources
  • Message Boards
  • Simple Machines
  • PhpBB
  • Blogs
  • Blogger
  • Xanga
  • Wordpress
  • Wikis
  • Wikipedia
  • Wikimedia software
  • Pbwiki
  • MOOs and WOOs
  • Lingua MOO
  • Active Worlds

More ResourcesAudio/Video
  • Audio/Video
  • VOIP Buster
  • Skype
  • MSN Messenger
  • Ivisit
  • Paltalk
  • Language Exchange Sites
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//
  • http//

Selected Research from the field
  • Bays, H. (1998). Framing and face in internet
    exchanges A socio-cognitive approach. Linguistik
    Online, 1.
  • Bearden, R. J. (2003). Chatting in a foreign
    language An interactional study of oral vs.
    Computer-assisted discussion in native speaker
    and non-native learner dyads. THE UNIVERSITY OF
  • Beauvois, M. H., Eledge, J. (1995 Winter 1996
    Spring). Personality types and megabytes Student
    attitudes toward computer mediated communication
    (cmc) in the language classroom. CALICO journal,
    13(23), 27-45.
  • Belz, J. A. (2002). Social dimensions of
    telecollaborative foreign language study.
    Language learning Technology, 6(1), 60-81.
  • Belz, J. A. (2005). At the intersection of
    telecollaboration and learner corpus research
    Considerations for language program direction. In
    J. A. Belz S. L. Thorne (Eds.),
    Internet-mediated intercultural foreign language
    education. Boston, MA Heinle Heinle.
  • Biesenbach-Lucas, S. (2003). Asynchronous
    discussion groups in teacher training classes
    Perceptions of native and non-native students.
    Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 7(3),
  • Blake, R. (2001). What language professionals
    need to know about technology. ADFL Bulletin,
    32(3), 93-99.
  • Bloch, J. (2004). Second language cyber rhetoric
    A study of chinese l2 writers in an online usenet
    group. Language Learning Technology, 8(3),
  • Carney, N. (2005). A critical review of
    telecollaborative projects involving japan. The
    Pennsylvania State University.
  • Chapelle, C. A. (2004). Learning through onilne
    communication Findings and implications from
    second language research. DRAFT.
  • Chen, Y. H. (2005). Computer mediated
    communication The use of cmc to develop efl
    learners communicative competence. Asian EFL
    Journal, 7(1).
  • Crook, C. (1994). Computers and the
    collaborative experience of learning. London
  • Cziko, G. A., Park, S. (2003). Internet audio
    communication for second language learning A
    comparative review of six programs. Language
    learning Technology, 7(1), 15-27.

Selected Research from the field (cont.)
  • Egbert, J., Hanson-Smith, E. (Eds.). (1999).
    Call environments Research, practice, and
    critical issues. Alexandria, Viginia Teachers of
    English to Speakers of Other Languages.
  • Gebhard, J. G., Nagamine, T. (2005). A mutual
    learning experience Collaborative journaling
    between a nonnative-speaker intern and
    native-speaker cooperating-teacher. Asian EFL
    Journal, 7(2).
  • Godwin-Jones, R. (2003). Emerging technologies
    tools for distance education Toward convergence
    and integration. Language learning Technology,
    7(3), 18-22.
  • Hampel, R. (2002). Network-based language
    teaching today Multimodality, multi-dimensionalit
    y and interaction. Paper presented at the the
    International conference on Computers in
    Education (ICCE).
  • Hampel, R., Hauck, M. (2004). Towards an
    effective use of audio conferencing in distance
    language courses. Language learning Technology,
    8(1), 66-82.
  • Kelm, O. R. (1996). The application of computer
    networking in foreign language education
    Focusing on principles of second language
    acquisition. In M. Warschauer (Ed.),
    Telecollaboration in foreign language learning
    (pp. 19-28) University of Hawaii Press.
  • Kern, R., Warschauer, M. (2000). Intoduction
    Theory and practice of network-based language
    teaching. In M. Warschauer R. Kern (Eds.),
    Networked-based language teaching Concepts and
    practice (pp. 1-19). Cambridge, UK Cambridge
    University Press.
  • Kung, S.C. (2002). Synchronous electronic
    discussions in an EFL reading class.
  • Lee, B. C. (2004). Korean efl inservice teachers'
    experiences with native-speaking teachers of efl
    using two computer-mediated communication modes
    A qualitative case study. University of Alberta.
  • Liu, Y. (2002). What does research say about the
    nature of computer-mediated communication
    Task-oriented, social-emotion-oriented, or both?
    Electronic Journal of Sociology.
  • Murray, D. E. (2000). Protean communication The
    language of computer-mediated communication.
    TESOL QUARTERLY, 34(3), 397-421.
  • O'Dowd, R. (2004). Network-based language
    teaching and the development of intercultural
    communicative competence. University
  • Smith, B., Alvarez-Torres, M. J., Zhao, Y.
    (2003). Features of cmc technologies and their
    impact on language learners' online interaction.
    Computer in Human Behavior, 19(6), 703-729.
  • Warschauer, M. (2000). On-line learning in second
    language classrooms An ethnographic study. In M.
    Warschauer R. Kern (Eds.), Network-based
    language teaching Concepts and practice (pp.
    41-58). Cambridge, UK Cambridge University
  • Warschauer, M. (2004). Technology and social
    inclusion Rethinking tje digital divide. London,
    England The MIT press.
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)