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Title: Intrusive Academic Advising: An Effective Strategy to Increase Student Success Tom Brown Innovative Educators Webinar June 22, 2010 www.tbrownassociates.com tom@tbrownassociates.com


1
Intrusive Academic AdvisingAn Effective
Strategy to Increase Student SuccessTom
BrownInnovative Educators WebinarJune 22,
2010www.tbrownassociates.comtom_at_tbrownassociate
s.com
2
Intrusive Academic Advising1. What is
it?2. Why consider using it?3. What does it
involve?4. Is it effective?5. Can it work for
your students, your work, and your
campus?
3
The context for todays workshopA continued
focus on student learning, engagement and success.
4
Shift in emphasis.
  • 1970s and 80s Access
  • 1980s and 90s Retention
  • Today Success Alfredo de los
    Santos

5
The core question is not about basic
access to higher educationIt is not
about persistenceIt is about completion of
academic credentialsthe culmination of
opportunity, guidance, choice, effort and
commitment. Paths to Degree Completion,
2/14/2006
6
A continuing shift.
  • Teaching
  • Learning
  • Student Success
  • Vincent Tinto, Syracuse University, 2007

7
The ChallengeEnhancing student persistence is
an increasing concern in higher education
8
Higher retention rates matter to policy makers,
including federal and state legislators, who have
a concern about low college graduation
rates. USA Today, 10/12/05
9
National Graduation Rates
  • n Mean
  • Two-year public 442 29.3
  • Four-year public MA 166 38.8
  • Four-year public PhD 173 48.6
  • Four-year private MA 348 55.4
  • Four-year private PhD 173 63.4
  • Overall 1661 46.2
  • Completion in 3 years for Associates 5
    years for BA/BS Source ACT Institutional Data
    File, 2008
  • www.act.org

10
Retention practices with greatest impact
  • 1. First-year programs
  • 2. Advising interventions for specific student
    populations
  • 3. Learning support Habley McClanahan,
    WWISR 2004

11
Retention practice with greatest impact
  • Two-year colleges
  • Mandatory Assessment
  • Habley McClanahan, WWISR 2004

12
Next to the quality of instruction, academic
advising is consistently the next most important
area of the college experience to
students. Five Year Trend Study- National
Student Satisfaction Report Noel Levitz 2006
13
What do students say?National Student
Satisfaction and Priorities Report 2009686,000
students1000 two and four year institutions
14
National Student Satisfaction Report
2009Four-year Private Institutions
  • Instructional effectiveness (6.34)
  • Academic advising (6.30)
  • Safety and security (6.18)
  • Student centeredness (6.18)
  • Registration effectiveness (6.18)
  • Recruitment and financial aid (6.18)
  • Campus climate (6.16)
  • Concern for the individual (6.16)
  • Campus support services (6.04)

15
National Student Satisfaction Report
2009Four-year Public Institutions
  • Academic advising (6.35)
  • Instructional effectiveness (6.33)
  • Safety and security (6.32)
  • Registration effectiveness (6.21)
  • Recruitment and financial aid (6.16)
  • Concern for the individual (6.13)
  • Campus climate (6.12)
  • Student centeredness (6.11)
  • Campus support services (6.07)

16
Community CollegeStudent Priorities 2009
  • Instructional effectiveness 6.18
  • Registration effectiveness 6.16
  • Academic Advising/Counseling 6.14
  • Concern for the individual 6.09
  • Academic services 6.05
  • Admissions and financial aid 6.03
  • Safety and security 6.02
  • Student centeredness 5.98
  • Campus climate 5.98
  • Service excellence 5.64
  • Campus Support Services 5.48

17
National Adult Student Priorities
Report Noel-Levitz, 2008.
  • Instructional effectiveness
  • Academic Advising/Counseling
  • Registration Effectiveness
  • Campus Climate
  • Service excellence

18
TRIAD FOR STUDENT SUCCESS
Comprehensive Support Programs
High Quality Teaching
Developmental Academic Advising
19
The context for todays workshopDoes academic
advising matter to student success?
20
Research has shown that advising improves student
retention rates through the establishment of
relationships with faculty or staff members who
help students to clarify their academic and
career goals. Noel Levitz 2006
21
Quality interaction with faculty seems to be more
important that any other single college factor in
determining minority student persistence. Levin
and Levin, 1991
22
Academic advisors have long known what presidents
and policy makers are learning there is a wealth
of important research which has found a
significant correlation between quality academic
advising, student satisfaction, and enhanced
persistence. John Gardner Tom Kerr, 1995
23
Making the Most of CollegeGood advising may be
the single most underestimated characteristic of
a successful college experience. Richard
Light, 2001
24
For community college students, frequent
interaction with faculty and advisers outside of
class all had a positive impact on preventing
students from dropping out. Regina Deil
Amen Chronicle of Higher Education 8/17/05
25
There is a relationship between advising and
retention. (n1594)Agree/strongly
agree 86Disagree 4 Brown Survey,
2001-2008
26
Academic advising is the only structured activity
on campus in which all students have the
opportunity for on-going one-to-one interaction
with a concerned representative of the
institution. Wes Habley, ACT
27
Redefining academic advising From an event
to a process that is integrally linked to
student engagement and learning. Much more
than a service that supports registration.
28
How does XYZ Tech define advising?
  • The advising staff offers support to all XYZ Tech
    students in the selection of the liberal
    education courses required for their
    degrees.
  • XYZ Tech Undergraduate Bulletin 2008 (pg. 96)

29
How does Local CC define advising?
  • Students meet with academic advisors to choose a
    major, select courses, review degree
    requirements. Local CC 2007-2008
    Academic Bulletin (Pg. 21)

30
Academic Advising is a systematic process
based on a close advisor student relationship
intended to aid students in achieving their
personal, educational, and career
goals.focuses on helping students to acquire
skills and attitudes that promote their
intellectual and personal development. assists
students to make full use of campus and community
resources in the process. Developmental
Academic Advising Winston, Miller, Ender,
Grites Associates. 1984
31
Is academic advising on your campus a
process?If not, why? How might this be
changed?What can you do to help make this
happen?
32
Academic Advising assists students to make full
use of campus and community resources
33
Academic Advising
Counseling
Registration
Financial Aid
Orientation
Career Center
TRIO/SSS
MulticulturalAffairs
Faculty
Assessment
Learning Center
34
Retention
Counseling
Registration
Financial Aid
Orientation
Career Center
Academic Advising
TRIO/SSS
MulticulturalAffairs
Faculty
Assessment
Learning Center
The Hub of the Campus Wheel W. Habley
35
Attributes of an environment that supports
student successIntentional Structured Proact
ive Tinto, 2007
36
What happens to students after they enroll
frequently has a more powerful impact on whether
they stay and achieve their goals or leave.
Tinto 1987, 1993
37
Why do students leave college?
  • Isolation
  • Inability to connect with significant members of
    the campus community.

38
The more interaction students have with faculty
and staff, the more likely they are to learn
effectively and persist toward achievement of
their educational goals.
39
Transforming Students Through Validation
  • Success appears to be contingent on whether
    faculty and staff can validate students in an
    academic or interpersonal way.
  • Rendon, 1994

40
Why do students leave college?
  • Incongruence
  • What I experienced is not what I expected.

41
Academic advisors can mediate the gap between
student experiences and their expectations. Hab
ley
42
Some Institutions seem to be more effective than
others in helping students from a wide range of
abilities and backgrounds succeed Pa
scarelli Terenzini, 2005
43
College being more proactiveCollege Move to
Organize Retention Efforts
  • More students participating in orientation
  • 70 collect midyear grades for first-year
    students
  • Even more flag courses with high rates of Ds, Fs,
    and withdrawals
  • Half offer some form of Supplemental Instruction
  • 80 require first-year students to meet with an
    advisor at least once a term
  • Chronicle of Higher Education 10/25/2009

44
Intrusive Academic Advising
  • What is intrusive academic advising??

45
Aggressive Academic Advising?
46
Invasive Academic Advising?
47
Intrusive Advising?
48
Intrusive Advising?
49
Active Outreach Advising??
50
Origins of Intrusive Advising
  • Reduction of Attrition Through Intrusive
    Advising
  • Robert Glennen Dan Baxley
  • NASPA Journal, v22 n3 p10-14 Win 1985

51
The intrusive model of advising is
action-oriented in involving and motivating
students to seek help when needed. Utilizing the
good qualities of prescriptive advising
(expertise, awareness of student needs,
structured programs) and of developmental
advising (relationship to a student's total
needs), intrusive advising is a direct response
to an identified academic crisis with a specific
program of action. Earl, 1987
52
The theoretical framework of intrusive advising
is based on three postulates
  1. Advisors can be trained to identify students who
    need and can benefit from this kind of
    intervention.
  2. Students DO respond to direct contact in which a
    problem in their academic life is identified and
    a resource or assistance is offered.

53
The theoretical framework of intrusive advising
is based on three postulates
  • Deficiencies in the necessary "fit" of a student
    to his/her academic environment are treatable.
  • Students can be taught and can learn the skills
    needed to be successful.

54
Guiding Principles of Intrusive Advising
  • Academic and social integration are keys to
    persistence.
  • Motivation is not the cause but rather the result
    of intrusive intervention activities.
  • Sharon Holmes, 2000

55
There are some distinct advantages of an
intrusive mode of advising.
  • A direct contact is established with an advisor
    who deals openly with the student's academic
    situation when the student has maximum motivation
    to accept assistance.
  • Earl, 1987

56
  • The Intrusive Advising model is valuable because
    it assumes that some students will not take the
    initiative in resolving academic concerns,
    therefore, assigned counselors operate
    intrusively.
  • Holmes, 2000

57
At-risk students have difficulty
  • ?Recognizing that a problem exists
  • ?Asking for help once they realize that they have
    a problem
  • ?Asking for help in time for the assistance to
    be of benefit Levin Levin, 1991

58
Advantages of intrusive advising
  1. the student is intrusively placed in a position
    where s/he must do academic planning within the
    parameters of self-motivation.
  2. structured advising programs are enhanced by a
    student's involvement in contract modules.

59
Intrusive advising has been shown to improve the
effectiveness of advising, enhance student
academic skills and increase retention.
Earl, 1987
60
Studies have shown that probationary students
have higher GPAs when intrusive advising is used.
Heisserer Parette, 2002
61
There is compelling evidence regarding the
importance students place on the value of
intrusive advising relationships in the context
of their ability to persist. DeAnna
Burt, 2009
62
Intrusive Advising
  • Intrusive advising does not mean hand holding
    or parenting. Rather, it does mean active
    concern and a willingness to assist students to
    explore programs and services to improve their
    skills and motivate them to persist toward their
    goals.

63
Intrusive Advising
  • Intrusive advising means taking a personal
    interest in students and approaching them with an
    open caring attitude.
  • A personal relationship with a concerned member
    of the campus community can reduce the
    psychological distance that hinders academic
    integration.

64
The intrusive model is proactive and seeks to
address problems as they emerge, rather than
being reactive. Essentially, advisors reach out
to help students instead of waiting for students
to seek help. University of Minnesota General
College
65
Active Outreach AdvisingPeople AND Programs
66
Intrusive Advising Strategies
  • Assessment and placement
  • Mandated orientation programs
  • Required advising meetings
  • Learning communities
  • First-year seminar courses
  • Early alert systems

67
Required Advising Meetings
  • Structured content
  • What should be discussed and when?
  • What would be discussed at a first advising
    meeting?
  • At a meeting three weeks into the first term?
  • At a meeting following midterms?
  • Prior to registration for the following term?
  • At the first meeting of the following term?

68
Early alert systems
  • Identify students who are having difficulty and
    also provide recommended sources of assistance.
  • These were originally sent to faculty through
    campus mail, but they are increasingly available
    in web-based formats.

69
Intrusive Advising Strategies
  • Midterm grades/progress reports
  • Supplemental Instruction
  • Peer Support/Study groups
  • Clear statements of responsibilities
  • Advising contracts
  • Mentor/Peer mentor programs
  • Others??

70
Mentor Program
  • The value of the mentoring relationship seems to
    be long lasting. We have found that our mentees
    from two or three semesters ago are still our
    students. We still hear from them. It has worked
    beautifully.
  • Gale Lammers, Phillips CC (Ark.)

71
FYE Peer Mentors
  • Attend FYE classes
  • Monitor student progress
  • Provide study skills assistance
  • Organize study groups
  • Connects to campus resources
  • Support faculty to motivate students toward
    academic goals

72
Midterm Semester Evaluations (MSEs) target low
SES and first year students and is one of the
most successful initiatives at CSU San Marcos
pertaining to identifying and assisting at-risk
students before they find themselves in
difficulty. Parisa Soltani, 2007
73
Supplemental Instruction
Professor
Supplemental Instruction Study Groups
A
B
C
D
Tutor A
Tutor B
Tutor C
Tutor D
Course Chemistry I
http//web2.umkc.edu/cad/SI/
74
Your turn to teach
  • What are some examples of activities on your
    campus that could be called intrusive or active
    outreach advising?

75
Why Intrusive Advising Works
  • Students who know that an advisor will contact
    them are motivated to keep up with their work.
    (Heisserer Parette, 2002)
  • Intrusive advising helps students make
    connections to campus services.
  • Referrals to sources of assistance informs
    students that some one cares about them.
  • Earl, 1998 Backus, 1989 Holmes,
    2000

76
Academic Advising A Shared Responsibility
77
Student ResponsibilitiesOhio University
  • Contact your advisor and every instructor
    regularly.
  • Read email and Blackboard postings carefully and
    follow instructions.
  • Utilize instructor and advisor office hours.
  • Make appointments in advance and keep them.
  • Follow-up on advice and referrals

78
In loco parentis has been replaced by the
philosophy that students are responsible for
their own survival and relate to their
experiences in the same way that other adults
relate to their environments
79
While functioning relatively well for many
services, it is not functioning well in the
campus environment for the delivery of academic
assistance services. Earl, 1987
80
A Shared Responsibility A Model
81
Changing Environment Changing Students1st
Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th, 5th, 6th Year
Need for Information
Changing Needs for Advising
Need for Consultation
  • Creamer, 2000

82
Changing Environment Changing Students1st
Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th, 5th, 6th Year
Need for Information
Changing Needs for Advising
Need for Consultation
Moving In Moving Through Moving On
  • Creamer, 2000 Lynch, 1989

83
Changing Environment Changing Students1st
Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th, 5th, 6th Year
Need for Information
Changing Needs for Advising
Need for Consultation
Moving In Moving Through Moving On I
I/S I/S S/I
S I Faculty, advisors, etc. S Student
  • Lynch, 1989 Creamer, 2000 Brown, 2006

84
Changing Environment Changing Students1st
Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th, 5th, 6th Year
Need for Information
Changing Needs for Advising
Need for Consultation
Moving In Moving Through Moving On I
I/S I/S S/I
S I Faculty, advisors, etc. S Student
  • PRESCRIPTIVE
    DEVELOPMENTAL
  • Lynch, 1989 Brown Rivas, 1994 Creamer, 2000
    Brown, 2006

85
The question students should seek to answer
through advising...
  • NOT.
  • What courses do I need to take?

86
The questions students should seek to answer
through advising...
  • How do I want to live my life?
  • What can I do in college to help move me toward
    this vision of my future?

87
Big enough questionsWhat is it you plan to
dowith your one wild and precious life? The
Summer Day Mary Oliver
88
HIERARCHY OF ADVISING
Life goals, values, abilities, interests,
limitations.
Career/vocational opportunities
Academic Programs/Field of Study
Course selection
Class scheduling Terry OBannion, 1972, 1994
89
Student Expectation of Advisors
  • Availability/Accessibility
  • Knowledge
  • Care and Concern

90
Why do students leave college?
  • Isolation
  • Inability to connect with significant members of
    the campus community.

91
Caring
  • Early and frequent contact
  • Comprehensive orientation
  • Intrusive advising

Buyer Connolly, 2006
92
Cultivating Intrusive/Proactive Academic Advising
  • Take photos of students and post in their
    advising folders.
  • Follow up personally on early alerts.
  • Postcard, email, and/or text reminders of
    important deadlines, meetings, etc.
  • Attend co-curricular activities.
  • Explore opportunities for residence hall
    advising.
  • Jennifer Varney, 2007

93
Using Active Outreach Advising with Specific
Student Cohorts
94
Adult students often recycle through
developmental issues faced by younger students.
Chickering and Reisser, 1993
95
Active Outreach Strategies
  • Assign an adult student advocate to identify
    issues, mediate problems, etc.
  • Facilitate formation of support groups and peer
    mentoring
  • Interactive on-line advising system (Santa Fe CC,
    Florida)
  • Proactive advising system (Friends University,
    KS)
  • Others ??

96
40 of first-generation students leave
college without a degree.they are more likely to
come from low income families. US
Department of Education, 2005
97
Active Outreach Strategies
  • First-year programs summer bridge, orientation
    programs, FYE courses, Freshman Interest groups
    (FIGs)
  • Learning communities
  • Integrated courses clusters (e.g., Psych course
    linked with English and tutoring or SI)
  • Others?

98
Students with disabilities are far less likely to
finish high school or college, far more likely to
be unemployed, and, when they find work, to be
paid less than minimum wage. Johnson, 2006
99
Active Outreach Strategies
  • Encourage full participation
  • Encourage appropriate disclosure
  • Connect with campus and community resources
  • Be willing to act as an advocate.
  • Others?

100
Undecided StudentsUndecidedness has been linked
to low achievement, lack of involvement and
attrition. Peterson McDonough
101
Undecided but dont know it
  • 13 of
  • first-year students expect to change their
    major.
  • 12.6 of first-year students expect to
    change their career choice. 2008 CIRP Survey

102
You are not alone
  • Sources of Support
  • Academic advisor
  • Faculty and department chairs
  • Career Services
  • Counseling Center
  • Internship,s work experience, job shadowing

103
An Advising Model for Undecided StudentsPeggy
King, 2008
  • Help students analyze and understand their
    situation.
  • Support them to develop a plan for exploration
  • Refer students to key resources (e.g., Career
    Services, academic departments, faculty,
    internships)

104
An Advising Model for Undecided StudentsPeggy
King, 2008
  • Assist students to develop action plans
  • Support students while they are engaged in
    exploration and decision making.
  • Follow-up

105
LGBT Students31 of LGBT students left college
for a semester or longer and 33 dropped out
altogether (Hardesty, 1994)
106
Active Outreach Strategies
  • First-year Transition Programs
  • Mentoring
  • Creating Safe Zones and developing Allies
  • Links to Career Development
  • Jennifer Joslin, 2007

107
Multicultural StudentsStudents of color base
their decisions on whether or not to persist on
the quality of their interactions with
faculty. Cabrera, Terenzini, et.
al. Journal of Higher Education, 1999
108
  • Some minority students and first-year students
    have not established behavioral patterns that
    would motivate them to seek assistance
  • Sharon Holmes, 2000

109
Active Outreach Strategies
  • Peer mentoring programs
  • Faculty and staff mentor programs
  • Active outreach to connect with campus and
    community resources
  • Intrusive academic advising program

110
First-year StudentsMany students who leave
college do so as the result of experiences they
have during the first six weeks. Astin,
Tinto, Crockett
111
National Drop Out RatesFreshman to Sophomore Year
  • n Mean
  • Two-year public 824 46.3
  • Four-year public MA 220 30.0
  • Four-year public PhD 227 27.1
  • Four-year private MA 502 27.7
  • Four-year private PhD 220 19.6 Overall
    2582 32.7 Source ACT Institutional Data
    File, 2008
  • www.act.org

112
Students need the support of advising programs
and academic advisors as they make three critical
transitions
  • Moving into college
  • Moving through college
  • Moving on from college

113
Students need the support of advising programs
and academic advisors as they make three critical
transitions
  • Moving into college
  • Moving through college
  • Moving on from college

114
Helping students move into college is far and
away the most important task for academic
advisors. Professor Arthur
Chickering, 1994
115
Students usually have a realistic understanding
about the demands of academic work and what is
required to be successful in their classes.
(n 1587) Strongly agree/agree 13
Disagree/strongly disagree 69
Brown Survey of Faculty, 2001-2008
116
Do students understand what is required to be
successful in college?
  • Most of them dont have a clue! They see college
    work as an extension of high school, and for most
    of them high school involved little effort.
    Brown Advising Survey, 2001-2008

117
58 reported A/A- as their average high school
grade.
  • 93 earned a B average or higher.
  • 65 expect to earn at least a B average in
    college.
  • 2008 CIRP Survey Public Universities

118
Do students understand what is required to be
successful?
  • How many hours did you study during a typical
    week in your last year of high school?
  • 36 More than 10 hours
  • 51 Five hours or less
  • 44 Less than two hours a week!!
    CIRP Freshmen Survey Public
    Universities, 2008

119
In 1961, the average student spent 40 hours a
week engaged in her/his studiesattending class
and studying. By 2003, this had declined by
nearly one-third Philip Babcock Mindy Marks
National Bureau of Economic Research
Chronicle of Higher Education 6/21/2010 27 hours
weekly.
120
  • Academic services may be available, but if we
    wait for students to come for assistance,
    attrition may be the result. Students
    inexperienced in the ways of collegeand
    certainly most first-year studentsneed to be
    reached out to with intrusive programs and
    services.
  • Levitz and Noel, 1989(!!)

121
Students on Probation
122
Factors contributing to academic difficulty
  • Peer culture
  • Academic major/program
  • Lack of interaction with faculty
  • Organization and time management
  • Inadequate investment of time
  • Self-efficacy and perceived lack of control
  • Pascarelli Terenzini, 2005

123
Helping students get back on track
  • Assess GPA deficit
  • Help develop a plan to return to good
    standing--concrete, tangible, doable
  • Reflect on factors contributing to unsuccessful
    academic performance
  • Accept responsibility for choices
  • Examine and reassess academic, career, and
    personal goals
  • Acknowledge that the past does not necessarily
    equal the future

124
Programs vary widely
  • Required weekly workshops
  • Regular meetings with advisor and/or mentor
  • Group activities/Study groups
  • Tutorial Services
  • Supplemental Instruction
  • Contracts for Academic Success

125
PROBATION CONTRACTSExamples
  • Abiline Christian University
  • http//www.acu.edu/academics/cas/documents/Probati
    on_Contract.pdf
  • Morehead State University
  • http//www.moreheadstate.edu/files/units/acs/proba
    tion/Academic_Probation_Contract_Fall_2009.pdf
  • University of North Carolina Chapel Hill
  • http//studentsuccess.unc.edu/docs/updated20contr
    act.pdf
  • Rio Hondo Community College
  • http//www.oncourseworkshop.com/Getting20On20Cou
    rse008.htm

126
Active outreach to students
  • Advisors should be available
  • at times when,
  • and in places where,
  • students make educational decisions
  • Habley

127
Why reach out?
  • An academic advisor is unlike any role model the
    new student has encountered.
  • Students receive advice from all sorts of people
    and much of that advice is inaccurate,
    incomplete, or inappropriately value laden.

128
Why reach out?
  • The use of technology may supplant rather than
    support the advising process.
  • The first six weeks of transition are critical to
    the institutions retention efforts.
  • It is easier to anticipate a problem than it is
    to solve one.

129
Academic advising is the only structured activity
on campus in which all students have the
opportunity for on-going one-to-one interaction
with a concerned representative of the
institution. Wes Habley, ACT
130
We should not assume that effective advisors will
simply emerge without structured pre-service and
in-service professional development programs.
131
Many key competencies are developed after
educators arrive on campus. Therefore, colleges
must assume the responsibility for teaching and
developing their own educators to enhance student
learning inside and outside the classroom by
providing professional development
programs. Brown Ward, 2007
132
Faculty members are left to sink or swim when it
comes to effective student advisingthey are
blamed for something they lack the professional
training to do. Dr. Yolanda Moses President,
AAHE Faculty Advising Examined, 2003
133
When I first began to advise, I had adequate
preparation and training. (n1570)
Strongly agree/agree 30Disagree/strongly
disagree 53 Brown Survey of Faculty,
2001-2008
134
Strategy for Success
  • Professional development for faculty in
    pedagogies and practices aimed at improving
    retention and success. Bunker Hill CC

135
Derek Bok stresses the importance of ensuring
that adjunct faculty are also properly trained in
order for the university to attain its
educational goals Our Underachieving
Colleges Derek Bok, 2006
136
There are within each of us the seeds of who we
might become. Thich Nhat Hanh

137
Comments? Questions? Challenges? Succ
esses?
138
Intrusive Academic AdvisingAn Effective
Strategy to Increase Student SuccessTom
BrownInnovative Educators WebinarJune 22.
2010www.tbrownassociates.comtom_at_tbrownassociate
s.com
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