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21st Century Skills: Distilling Information through Summarization


21st Century Skills: Distilling Information through Summarization Wormeli, 2011 Highly Recommended for Summarization Ideas Buehl, Doug. Classroom Strategies for ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 21st Century Skills: Distilling Information through Summarization

21st Century Skills Distilling Information
through Summarization
Wormeli, 2011
For further conversation about any of these
  • Rick Wormeli
  • rwormeli_at_cox.net
  • 703-620-2447
  • Herndon, Virginia, USA
  • (Eastern Standard Time Zone)

  • Todays students require ample opportunities
    to wrestle with ideas, not have those ideas spoon
    fed to them. They should feel safe and invited
    to experiment and fail in class or at home as
    they learn new material. Unfortunately, many
    students consider academic struggle as being weak
    when it could be used as a launching pad for more
    effective learning instead.
  • Lets make it okay to fail in the pursuit of
    learning, and lets model it. Set up real
    situations in which we do not know answers or how
    to solve problems, then find the answer or solve
    the problem constructively so students see what
    it looks like to not know something yet remain a
    respected individual in the community. Many
    students do not push themselves to explore
    different talents or new thinking because they
    are focused on protecting their reputations as
    the persons who always get the right answers.
    What potential is lost because a student needs to
    protect his personal status quo?

The Gettysburg Address
Four score and seven years ago our fathers
brought forth on this continent, a new nation,
conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the
proposition that all men are created equal. Now
we are engaged in a great civil war, testing
whether that nation, or any nation so conceived
and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on
a great battle-field of that war. We have come to
dedicate a portion of that field, as a final
resting place for those who here gave their lives
that that nation might live. It is altogether
fitting and proper that we should do this. But
in a larger sense, we can not dedicate -- we can
not consecrate -- we can not hallow -- this
ground. The brave men, living and dead, who
struggled here, have consecrated it, far above
our poor power to add or detract
  • With hocked gems financing him,
  • Our hero bravely defied all scornful laughter
  • That tried to prevent his scheme.
  • Your eyes deceive, he had said
  • An egg, not a table
  • Correctly typifies this unexplored planet.
  • Now three sturdy sisters sought proof,
  • Forging along sometimes through calm vastness
  • Yet more often over turbulent peaks and valleys.
  • Days became weeks,
  • As many doubters spread
  • Fearful rumors about the edge.
  • At last from nowhere
  • Welcome winged creatures appeared
  • Signifying momentous success.
  • -- Dooling and Lachman (1971)
  • pp. 216-222

  • Students must have a frame of reference to
    understand the metaphor
  • He flozzled his Website.
  • -- Is this a good or a bad thing? We dont
  • He flozzled his Website, and the fallout was
  • Activate or create the prior knowledge needed
    to make sense of instructional metaphors!

Creating Background Where There is None
  • Tell the story of the Code of Hammurabi before
    discussing the Magna Charta.
  • Before studying the detailed rules of baseball,
    play baseball.
  • Before reading about how microscopes work, play
    with micros copes.
  • Before reading the Gettysburg Address, inform
    students that Lincoln was dedicating a cemetery.

Creating Background Where There is None
  • Before reading a book about a military campaign
    or a murder mystery with references to chess,
    play Chess with a student in front of the class,
    or teach them the basic rules, get enough boards,
    and ask the class to play.
  • In math, we might remind students of previous
    patterns as they learn new ones. Before teaching
    students factorization, we ask them to review
    what they know about prime numbers.
  • In English class, ask students, How is this
    storys protagonist moving in a different
    direction than the last storys protagonist?
  • In science, ask students, Weve seen how
    photosynthesis reduces carbon dioxide to sugars
    and oxidizes water into oxygen, so what do you
    think the reverse of this process called,
    respiration, does?

The way the brain learns How many teachers
sequence their lessons for learning
Learning Potential
Beginning Middle End
Lesson Sequence
The Primacy-Recency Effect
Sprengers Suggestions for Long Term Retention
  • Reach
  • Reflect
  • Recode
  • Reinforce
  • Rehearse
  • Review
  • Retrieve
  • (from Sprengers How to Teach So Students
  • ASCD, 2005)

  • Summarization is restating the essence of text
    or an experience in as few words as possible or
    in a new yet efficient, manner.

Remember Whos Doing the Learning
  • Whoever responds to students/classmates is doing
    the learning. Make sure the majority of the time
    its the students responding and summarizing, not
    the teacher.
  • Teachers ask 80 questions each hour on average,
    while students ask only two during that same
    hour. (Hollas) Students learn more when they ask
    the questions. Find ways to make question-asking
    so compelling and habitual they cant escape it.

Prime the brain prior to asking students to do
any learning experience.
  • Priming means we show students
  • What they will get out of the experience (the
  • What they will encounter as they go through the
    experience (itinerary, structure)

Avoid Confabulation The brain seeks wholeness.
It will fill in the holes in partial learning
with made-up learning and experiences, and it
will convince itself that this was the original
learning all along. To prevent this
Deal with Misconceptions!
Students should summarize material they already
understand, not material they are coming to know.

Recall Success with Individual, Unrelated Items
Age of Student of Unconnected, Individual Items Successfully Recalled (plus or minus 2, Wolfe, 2001)
5 2
7 3
11 5
15 7
Summarization Tips
  • Create or activate personal background.
  • Prime the brain.
  • Plan according to the Primacy-Recency Effect.
  • Use varied summary formats written, artistic,
    oral, physical, musical.
  • Use summary experiences before, during, and after
  • Teach students to recognize familiar text
    structures .
  • Teach students to recognize familiar writing
  • Use analogies.
  • Chunk text and experiences.

Reading MathAdapted from Literacy Strategies
for Improving Mathematics Instruction, Joan M.
Kenney, ASCD, 2005
  • Math books have more concepts per sentence and
    paragraph than any other type of text.
  • There is little redundancy in math text.
  • Words as well as numbers and other symbols are
    used throughout text.
  • Eyes travel in different patterns than
    traditional left-to-right.
  • There are often have distracting sidebars.

Reading Math
  • In most text, theres a topic sentence or key
    idea followed by detailed supports. In math, we
    get the details first, then the topic sentence --
    the key idea is given in the form of a question
    or task at the end. Students have to read the
    text again after seeing this key idea and figure
    out what material in the text is important and

Reading Math the Little Words are Huge
  • Of/Off Percent of something, the percent
    off something
  • The, is, a , are, can , sum, less, more, on ,
    who, find, one, ones, tenths, and, or, number,
    numeral, how, many, how many, what, fewer,
    around, write, it , each, which, do all, same,
    different, exercise, here there, has, have, of,

Word MorphologyTeach Prefixes, Roots, and
  • Mal badly, poor
  • Meta beyond, after, change
  • Mis incorrect, bad
  • Mono one
  • Multi many
  • Neo new
  • Non not
  • Ob, of, op, oc toward, against
  • Oct eight

Paleo ancient Para beside, almost   Penta
five   Per throughout, completely   Peri
around   Poly many   Post after   Pre
before   Pseudo false
Reading Notations
  • P I agree with this.
  • X I disagree with this.
  • ?? I dont understand this.
  • !! Wow! (Elicits a strong emotion)
  • CL General Claim
  • EV Evidence for the Claim
  • (These can be numbered to indicate their
    sequence, too EV1, EV2, EV3)

Journalistic vs. Encyclopedic Writing
  • The breathing of Benbows pit is deafening,
    like up-close jet engines mixed with a cosmic
    belch. Each new breath from the volcano heaves
    the air so violently my ears pop in the changing
    pressure then the temperature momentarily
    soars. Somewhere not too far below, red-hot,
    pumpkin size globs of ejected lava are flying
    through the air.
  • -- National Geographic, November 2000, p. 54

A volcano is a vent in the Earth from which
molten rock (magma) and gas erupt. The molten
rock that erupts from the volcano (lava) forms a
hill or mountain around the vent. Lava may
flowout as viscous liquid, or it may explode
from the vent as solid or liquid particles
-- Global Encyclopedia, Vol. 19
T-U-V, p. 627
Chronological Order
  • Definition and Key words This involves putting
    facts, events, a concepts into sequence using
    time references to order them. Signal words
    include on (date), now, before, since, when, not
    long after, and gradually.
  • Astronomy came a long way in the 1500s and
    1600s. In 1531, Halleys Comet appeared and
    caused great panic. Just twelve years later,
    however, Copernicus realized that the sun was the
    center of the solar system, not the Earth, and
    astronomy became a way to understand the natural
    world, not something to fear. In the early part
    of the next century, Galileo made the first
    observations with a new instrument the
    telescope. A generation later, Sir Issac Newton
    invented the reflecting telescope, a close cousin
    to what we use today. Halleys Comet returned in
    1682 and it was treated as a scientific wonder,
    studied by Edmund Halley.

Compare and Contrast
  • Defintion and Key words Explains similarities
    and differences. Signal words include however, as
    well as, not only, but, while, unless, yet, on
    the other hand, either/or, although, similarly,
    and unlike.
  • Middle school gives students more autonomy
    than elementary school. While students are asked
    to be responsible for their learning in both
    levels, middle school students have more pressure
    to follow through on assignments on their own,
    rather than rely on adults. In addition,
    narrative forms are used to teach most literacy
    skills in elementary school. On the other hand,
    expository writing is the way most information is
    given in middle school.

Cause and Effect
  • Definition and Key words Shows how something
    happens through the impact of something else.
    Signal words include because, therefore, as a
    result, so that, accordingly, thus, consequently,
    this led to, and nevertheless.
  • Drug abusers often start in upper elementary
    school. They experiment with a parents beer and
    hard liquor and they enjoy the buzz they receive.
    They keep doing this and it starts taking more
    and more of the alcohol to get the same level of
    buzz. As a result, the child turns to other
    forms of stimulation including marijuana. Since
    these are the initial steps that usually lead to
    more hardcore drugs such as Angel Dust (PCP),
    heroin, and crack cocaine, marijuana and alcohol
    are known as gateway drugs. Because of their
    addictive nature, these gateway drugs lead many
    youngsters who use them to the world of hardcore

Problem and Solution
  • Definition and Key words Explains how a
    difficult situation, puzzle, or conflict
    develops, then what was done to solve it. Signal
    words are the same as Cause and Effect above.
  • The carrying capacity of a habitat refers to
    the amount of plant and animal life its resources
    can hold. For example, if there are only 80
    pounds of food available and there are animals
    that together need more than 80 pounds of food to
    survive, one or more animals will die the
    habitat cant carry them. Humans have reduced
    many habitats carrying capacity by imposing
    limiting factors that reduce its carrying
    capacity such as housing developments, road
    construction, dams, pollution, fires, and acid
    rain. So that they can maintain full carrying
    capacity in forest habitats, Congress has enacted
    legislation that protects endangered habitats
    from human development or impact. As a result,
    these areas have high carrying capacities and an
    abundance of plant and animal life.

Proposition and Support
  • Defintion and Key words The author makes a
    general statement followed by two or more
    supporting details. Key words include In
    addition, also, as well as, first, second,
    finally, in sum, in support of, therefore, in
  • There are several reasons that teachers should
    create prior knowledge in students before
    teaching important concepts. First, very little
    goes into long-term memory unless its attached
    to something already in storage. Second, new
    learning doesnt have the meaning necessary for
    long-term retention unless the student can see
    the context in which it fits. Finally, the brain
    likes familiarity. It finds concepts with which
    it is familiar compelling. In sum, students
    learn better when the teacher helps students to
    create personal backgrounds with new topics prior
    to learning about them.

Claim and Evidence
  • Defintion and Key words The author makes a
    general statement followed by two or more
    supporting details. Key words include In
    addition, also, as well as, first, second,
    finally, in sum, in support of, therefore, in
  • There are several reasons that teachers should
    create prior knowledge in students before
    teaching important concepts. First, very little
    goes into long-term memory unless its attached
    to something already in storage. Second, new
    learning doesnt have the meaning necessary for
    long-term retention unless the student can see
    the context in which it fits. Finally, the brain
    likes familiarity. It finds concepts with which
    it is familiar compelling. In sum, students
    learn better when the teacher helps students to
    create personal backgrounds with new topics prior
    to learning about them.

  • Definition and Key words Focuses on listing
    facts, characteristics, or features. Signal words
    include to begin with, secondly, then, most
    important, in fact, for example, several,
    numerous, first, next finally, also, for
    instance, and in addition.
  • The moon is our closest neighbor. Its 250,000
    miles away. Its gravity is only 1/6 that of
    Earth. This means a boy weighing 120 pounds in
    Virginia would weigh only 20 pounds on the moon.
    In addition, there is no atmosphere on the moon.
    The footprints left by astronauts back in 1969
    are still there, as crisply formed as they were
    on the day they were made. The lack of
    atmosphere also means there is no water on the
    moon, an important problem when traveling there.

Text StructuresTaking Notes with
Concept 1
Concept 2
Components of Blood Content Matrix
Red Cells White Cells Plasma
Purpose Amount Size Shape Nucleus ? Where
The students rough draft
Red blood cells carry oxygen and nutrients
around the body. They are small and indented in
the middle, like little Cheerios. There are 5
million per cc of blood. There is no nucleus in
mature red blood cells. They are formed in the
bone marrow and spleen.
T-List or T-Chart Wilsons 14 Points
Main Ideas
1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3
Reasons President Wilson Designed the Plan for
Peace Three Immediate Effects on U.S.
Allies Three Structures/Protocols created by
the Plans
Cornell Note-Taking Format
  • Reduce Record
  • Summarize in
  • short phrases
  • or essential
  • questions next
  • to each block
  • of notes.
  • Review -- Summarize (paragraph-style) your
    points or responses to the questions. Reflect
    and comment on what you learned.

Write your notes on this side.
Somebody Wanted But SoFiction
  • Somebody (characters)
  • wanted (plot-motivation),
  • but (conflict),
  • so (resolution) .

Something HappenedAnd ThenNon-fiction
  Something (independent variable) happened
(change in that independent variable), and
(effect on the dependent variable), then
(conclusion) .
Narrowing the Topic
The Civil War
Is the topic narrow enough to be focused, but
broad enough to have plenty to write about?
Battles of the Civil War
Is the topic narrow enough to be focused, but
broad enough to have plenty to write about?
Battles of Gettysburg
Famous People
Is the topic narrow enough to be focused, but
broad enough to have plenty to write about?
What was the Fish hook strategy used at the
Battle of Gettysburg?
Yeah. Thats it.
When we summarize, we
  • Delete some elements
  • Keep some elements
  • Substitute for some elements.
  • DKS
  • Ask students to memorize these three actions.

TaRGeTS (Based on Rules-Based Summaries, 1968)
  • T - Trivia (Remove trivial material)
  • R - Redundancies (Remove redundant
  • information)
  • G - Generalize (Replace specifics/lists
    with general terms and phrases)
  • TS - Determine the Topic Sentence

Topic Sentence
  • TS subject authors claim about subject
  • Subject Dogs
  • Claim Make great pets
  • TS Dogs make great pets.

Writing Concisely
  • Avoid Redundancies and Saying the Same thing in
    different ways ?
  • more additions, absolutely certain/essential/nece
    ssary, advance forward, 200 a.m. in the morning,
    baby puppy/kitten, blended together, brief
    moment, deliberate lie, foreign imports,
    necessary requirement, old antique, orbiting
    satellite, preliminary draft, proceed ahead,
    raise up, refer back, repeat over, tiny particle,
    true facts, unexpected surprise, violent
    explosion, visible to the eye, while at the same
  • Cut to the Chase
  • A small number of people three people
  • His whole speech bothered me. His speech
    bothered me.
  • -- William Brohaughs book, Write Tight, 1993,
    Writers Digest Books

More Summarization Tips
  • Use reading notations.
  • Allow students to mark consumable and
    non-consumable text.
  • Emphasize opinion free summaries no
  • Teach students to evaluate their own
  • Set length limit of 10 to 25 original text,
  • lt 1 for longer text.
  • Encourage two or more readings or exposures.

Evaluating our Summaries
  • Does it convey the information accurately?
  • Is it too narrow or too broad? Does it convey
    all of the important elements? Does it convey too
  • Are the ideas in the right sequence?
  • Would someone else using this summary gain all
    they needed to know to understand the subject?
  • Did I leave out my opinion and just report an
    undistorted essence of the original content?
  • Did I use my own words and style?

Help with Paraphrasing
  • Build students vocabulary and verbal dexterity.
    Post word banks. Use vocabulary immersion.
  • Provide repeated experiences with varied sentence
    combinations and word play.
  • Use repeated think-alouds of a paraphraser at
    work from both teacher and students.
  • Provide ample opportunities to assess
    paraphrasings of original text or experience.
  • Allow students to copy models -- Theyll outgrow
  • Take a page from the active listening lessons --
    So what youre saying is
  • Provide repeated experiences with encapsulation
    such as creating newspaper headlines.
  • Play renaming and clue games such as Password,
    Taboo, and 25,000 Pyramid.

Word MorphologyTeach Prefixes, Roots, and
  • Mal badly, poor
  • Meta beyond, after, change
  • Mis incorrect, bad
  • Mono one
  • Multi many
  • Neo new
  • Non not
  • Ob, of, op, oc toward, against
  • Oct eight

Paleo ancient Para beside, almost   Penta
five   Per throughout, completely   Peri
around   Poly many   Post after   Pre
before   Pseudo false
  • 3 Identify three characteristics of Renaissance
  • that differed from art of the Middle Ages
  • 2 List two important scientific debates that
  • during the Renaissance
  • 1 Provide one good reason why rebirth is an
  • appropriate term to describe the
  • 3 List three applications for slope,
  • knowledge in the professional world
  • 2 Identify two skills students must have in
    order to
  • determine slope and y-intercept from a set
    of points
  • on a plane
  • 1 If (x1, y1) are the coordinates of a point W
    in a
  • plane, and (x2, y2) are the coordinates of
    a different
  • point Y, then the slope of line WY is what?

  • 3 Identify at least three differences
  • between acids and bases
  • 2 List two uses of acids and two uses
  • of bases
  • 1 State one reason why knowledge of
  • acids and bases is important to
  • citizens in our community

Unique Summarization Formats/Products
  • A soap opera about valence among chemical
  • A Wanted Dead or Alive poster about
    Preposition Pete (He was last seen in the
    OverHillnDale Saloon, at the table, in the
    dark, under close scrutiny of other scalawags)
  • Compose a ballad about the cautious Massasoit
    tribe coming to dinner with Governor Bradford and
    his colony in 1621.
  • Interpret the Internet for Amazonian inhabitants
    that have never lived with electricity, let alone
    a computer.
  • Argue for and against Democracy as a healthy way
    to build a country Provide at least two
    arguments for each position.
  • Classify the Greek gods and goddesses according
    to three different criteria.
  • Predict the limiting factors for this habitat
    twenty-five years from now.
  • Retell a fairytale of your choosing with one of
    the following concepts as its central theme
  • Courage is not the absence of fear, but the
    judgment that something else is more important
    than that fear. -- Ambrose Redmoon
  • A setback is preparation for a comeback.
  • The one who never makes mistakes takes his
    orders from one who does.

Unique Summarization Formats/Products
  • A comic strip about the mantissa (the
    decimal-fraction part of a logarithm)
  • A mysterious yet accurate archeological map
    concerning the quadratic formula
  • A field guide to the asymptotes of a hyperbola
    (the diagonals of the rectangle formed by the
    lines x a, x a, y b and y -b in the
    hyperbola x squared over a squared y squared
    over b squared)
  • A coloring book about Amendments 1, 2, 3, 4, and
    10 to the Constitution
  • A rap song that expresses the order of
    Presidential succession
  • A grocery list for Taiga biomes
  • A mural that accurately expresses the checks and
    balances nature of our Federal governments
    three branches judicial, legislative, and
  • A sculpture or mobile that teaches observers
    about latitude and longitude
  • A pop-up book on liquid and dry measures

  • Endless List of Writing Possibilities Please
    Add Your Own!
  • Correspondence Museum Map and Tour Guides Oral
  • Books Magazines Radio Plays
  • Newspapers Scripts Historical Fiction
  • Commercials Picture Books Journal/Diaries
  • Science Fiction Mystery Stories Romances
  • Poetry Autobiographies/Biographies Animal
  • How-to Books Alphabet books Pop-up Books
  • Field Guides Mini-textbooks Friendly Letters
  • Bulletin Boards Choose-Your-0wn
    Adventures Timelines
  • Murals Coloring Books Calendars
  • Annotated Catalogs Travel Brochures Manuals
  • Games Recipes Personal narratives
  • Folktales/legends/myths Information
    Reports Persuasive essays
  • Book/Movie Critiques Wills Yellow pages
  • Weather forecasts Wanted posters Vitas/resumes
  • Satire/spoofs Speeches Songs/raps
  • CD covers Soap operas Slogans

  • Requiems Rebuttals Play programs
  • Travel posters Movie posters Thank yous
  • Interviews Telegrams Sports accounts
  • Scary stories Quizzes/tests Rubrics
  • Surveys Monologues Jokes/riddles
  • Menus Metaphors Job applications
  • Indexes Headlines Grocery lists
  • Graffiti Comic strips Constitutions
  • Contracts Conversations Spreadsheets
  • Definitions Epilogues Evaluations
  • Fortunes Comparisons Character sketches
  • Certificates Cereal boxes Captions
  • Bumper stickers Advice columns Epithets
  • Codes Informal/formal observation musical
  • True or False Book Cookbook Wedding vows
  • Almanac Inauguration speech Annotated Family

  • R Role, A Audience, F Form, T Time or
    Topic, S Strong adverb or adjective
  • Students take on a role, work for a specific
    audience, use a particular form to express the
    content, and do it within a time reference, such
    as pre-Civil War, 2025, or ancient Greece.
  • Sample assignment chosen by a student
  • A candidate for the Green Party (role), trying
    to convince election board members (audience) to
    let him be in a national debate with Democrats
    and the Republicans. The student writes a speech
    (form) to give to the Board during the
    Presidential election in 2004 (time). Within
    this assignment, students use arguments and
    information from this past election with third
    party concerns, as well as their knowledge of the
    election and debate process. Another student
    could be given a RAFT assignment in the same
    manner, but this time the student is a member of
    the election board who has just listened to the
    first students speech.

  • Raise the complexity Choose items for each
    category that are farther away from a natural fit
    for the topic . Example When writing about
    Civil War Reconstruction, choices include a rap
    artist, a scientist from the future, and Captain
  • Lower the complexity Choose items for each
    category that are closer to a natural fit for the
    topic. Example When writing about Civil War
    Reconstruction, choices include a member of the
    Freedmens Bureau, a southern colonel returning
    home to his burned plantation, and a northern
    business owner

Change the Verb
  • Instead of asking students to describe how FDR
    handled the economy during the Depression, ask
    them to rank four given economic principles in
    order of importance as they imagine FDR would
    rank them, then ask them how President Hoover who
    preceded FDR would have ranked those same
    principles differently.

  •  Analyze Construct
  • Revise Rank
  • Decide between Argue against
  • Why did Argue for
  • Defend Contrast
  • Devise Develop
  • Identify Plan
  • Classify Critique
  • Define Rank
  • Compose Organize
  • Interpret Interview
  • Expand Predict
  • Develop Categorize
  • Suppose Invent
  • Imagine Recommend

Backwards Summaries
  • Make the web from which this paragraph came.
  • Heres the completed math solution. What would
    happen if I had never considered the absolute
    value of x?
  • Heres the final French translation of this
    sentence. What if I had not checked the tense of
    each verb?
  • Heres a well done concerto. What happens if I
    remove the oboes eight measures on page 4?
  • Heres a well-done lab procedure. What happens
    if I dont use distilled water?

Save the Last Word for Me
  • Students read the passage, making notations as
    they go.
  • They identify three or more sentences to which
    they have a response.
  • Place students in groups of 3 to 5, then ask one
    member of each group to read a line that he has
    identified. He reads only there is no
    commentary or reason for choosing it given.
  • Each group member other than the reading person
    responds to that one line agreeing, refuting,
    supporting, clarifying, commenting, or
  • After everyone else has had a chance to make a
    personal response to the statement, the
    originator of the line gets to offer his or her
    commentary getting the last word on the
  • When this round of discussion is done, the next
    person in the circle calls out his chosen line
    from the text, and everyone responds to the line
    before this second person offers his commentary.
    So it goes with each member of the group.

Change the Point of View
  • Tell the story of digestion from the points of
    view of the bolus passing down the esophagus, the
    villi in the small intestine that have
    capillaries receiving and carrying nutrients to
    the bloodstream, or a muscle in the body that
    finally receives the nutrients from the food
    ingested earlier.
  • Re-tell an historical incident from a biased
    participants point of view.
  • Reveal the truth behind a pronoun being a subject
    or an object based on which one did the action
    and which one received the action.
  • Re-tell the account of a scientific,
    mathematical, or manufacturing process, a moment
    in history, a chemicals reaction, a concertos
    performance, or a commas position in a sentence.

Blooms Taxonomy Summary Cubes
  • These are Posterboard cubes with each side
    emphasizing one level of Blooms Taxonomy of
    Higher Order Thinking Skills.
  • Blooms Taxonomy
  • Recall Students cite content they remember.
  • Comprehension Students demonstrate whether or
    not they understand a topic.  
  • Application Students use knowledge and skills
    in a different situation.
  • Analysis Students break down topics into
    component pieces and
  • analyze them in context of the whole.
  • Synthesis Students bring together seemingly
    contradictory aspects or
  • topics and form something new.
  • Evaluation -- Students use all the other levels
    to judge the validity,
  • success, or value of something, given
    specific criteria.

The Frayer ModelFrayer, Frederick, Klausmeier,
Essential Characteristics
Non- Essential Characteristics
lt Topic gt
Word Link
  • Each student gets a word.
  • In partners, students share the link(s) between
    their individual words.
  • Partner team joins another partner team, forming
    a word cluster.
  • All four students identify the links among their
    words and share those links with the class.
  • -- Yopp, Ruth Helen. Word Links A Strategy for
    Developing Word Knowledge, Voices in the Middle,
    Vol. 15, Number 1, September 2007, National
    Council Teachers of English

Summarization Pyramid
__________ ______________ ____________________ ___
______________________ ___________________________
___ ___________________________________
Great prompts for each line Synonym, analogy,
question, three attributes, alternative title,
causes, effects, reasons, arguments, ingredients,
opinion, larger category, formula/sequence,
insight, tools, misinterpretation, sample,
people, future of the topic
One-Word Summaries
  • The new government regulations for the
    meat-packing industry in the 1920s could be seen
    as an opportunity,
  • Picassos work is actually an argument for.,
  • NASAs battle with Rockwell industries over the
    warnings about frozen temperatures and the
    O-rings on the space shuttle were trench
  • Basic Idea Argue for or against the word as a
    good description for the topic.

Exclusion Brainstorming
  • The student identifies the word/concept that
    does not belong with the others, then either
    orally or in writing explains his reasoning
  • Mixtures plural, separable, dissolves, no
  • Compounds chemically combined, new properties,
    has formula, no composition
  • Solutions heterogeneous mixture, dissolved
    particles, saturated and unsaturated, heat
  • Suspensions clear, no dissolving, settles upon
    standing, larger than molecules

  • There is not any curriculum so symbolic or
    abstract that we cannot physicalize it for
    better student learning.

Physicalizing Process
  • Identify essential components, pieces, or
    definition of whatever were teaching
  • Physicalize those pieces and present them to the
  • Class critiques the physicalization in terms of
    accuracy, comprehensiveness, appropriateness, and
    clarity. Makes suggestions for improvement.
  • All three steps are learning experiences that
    help students internalize the knowledge.

Statues (Body Sculpture)
  • Students work in small groups
  • using every groupmembers body
  • to symbolically portray concepts
  • in frozen tableau.
  • Where does the learning occur?

  • Groups of students line up according to criteria.
    Each student holds an index card identifying
    what he or she is portraying.
  • Students discuss everyones position with one
    another -- posing questions, disagreeing, and
    explaining rationales.

  • Students can line-up according to
  • chronology, sequences in math problems,
    components of an essay, equations, sentences,
    verb tense, scientific process/cycle, patterns
    alternating, category/example, increasing/decreasi
    ng degree, chromatic scale, sequence of events,
    cause/effect, components of a larger topic,
    opposites, synonyms

Summary Ball
  • Provide a soft, tossable item (beach ball, nerf
    object, stuffed fish, hacky-sack, bag of
    eyeballs). Ask students to state one thing they
    remember from the lesson then toss the object to
    someone else in the room. If student doesnt
    respond within three seconds, he tosses the
    object then sits down.

Human Bingo

Free Space

Squares filled in with specific skills from
the lesson or unit.
Human Bingo
  • Give the students ten minutes to get classmates
    signatures on squares. They may sign only if
    they can do, solve, or respond to the prompt
    correctly. They will have to prove it later.
    Classmates may sign only one square per card.
  • Once all squares are filled with signatures, call
    names of students out of a hat or box. Students
    place edible markers (sunflower seeds, MMs,
    pieces of popcorn or vegetables) on the squares
    with the identified students names. on it.
  • The first student to get five in a row hollers,
    Human Bingo!
  • Ask winning student to name each squares prompt
    and the classmate who signed it. As students
    names are called, students must demonstrate their
    accurate responses. The rest of the class
    watches carefully to make sure there are no
    errors. If all five students demonstrate
    everything successfully, its a Human Bingo.
    Students get to eat their makers as they clear
    their boards for the next game. If one or more
    of the five students in the row does not
    demonstrate an accurate response, then there is
    no bingo awarded, and the game continues.

  • Knows 2 products of photo-synthesis
  • Personal Pronoun, 3rd pers., objectv., plural
  • Knows formula for area of a triangle
  • Can list 3 differences between WWI and WWII
  • Can solve 2/3 - 1 4/5
  • Knows 3 conflicts in No Promises in the Wind
  • Knows 3 basic passes in basketball
  • Knows the differences between squid and octopus
  • Can perform --------- .
  • Can demonstrate titration
  • Knows the capitals of countries in South America
  • Free Space (student write his own name here)
  • Knows 5 things to consider when making difficult
  • Can draw the sequence of energy transfer in
  • Can make into a polynomial (x1)(x3)
  • Can perform three approved gymnastic moves
  • Knows the difference between meiosis and mitosis
  • Can name 24 bones with the proper terms
  • Can make a strange noise with his or her body

Sample Skills for Human Bingo Card
Human Continuum
Human Continuum
  • Use a human continuum. Place a long strip of
    masking tape across the middle of the floor, with
    an "Agree" or Yes taped at one end, and
    "Disagree" or No at the other end. Put a
    notch in the middle for those unwilling to commit
    to either side. Read statements about the days
    concepts aloud while students literally stand
    where they believe along the continuum. Be pushy
    ask students to defend their positions.

Microscope Stage
Ellis Island
The Cell
25,000 Pyramid
  • Played just like the game show in which one
    player lists objects in a category and the other
    player guesses the category. How many categories
    can you get in 1 minute?
  • Adjust time and number of categories according to
    students needs.

Taboo Cards
  • Photosynthesis
  • Light
  • Green
  • Water
  • Sun
  • Chlorophyll
  • Plant
  • Produce

Share One, Get One

  • We think primarily in physical terms. Over
    time we become adept at translating symbolic and
    abstract concepts into meaningful structures or

  • Have Some Fun Anything Can Be A Metaphor!
  • An apple
  • a star (the birth place of energy on our planet)
    in the middle (the seed pattern makes a star if
    we cut it the right way)
  • we must break the surface to get to the juicy
    good parts
  • the outside doesnt reveal what lies inside
  • the apple becomes soft and mushy over time
  • the apple can be tart or sweet depending on its
    family background
  • its parts are used to create multiple products
  • A cell phone
  • lifeline to the larger world
  • an unapologetic taskmaster
  • an unfortunate choice of gods
  • a rude child that interrupts just when he
  • a rite of passage
  • a declaration of independence

  • A pencil sharpener
  • Whittler of pulp
  • Tool diminisher
  • Mouth of a sawdust monster
  • Eater of brain translators
  • Cranking something to precision
  • Writing re-energizer
  • Scantron test enabler
  • Curtains
  • Wall between fantasy and reality
  • Denied secrets
  • Anticipation
  • Arbiter of suspense
  • Making a house a home
  • Vacuum cleaner antagonist
  • Railroad
  • Circulatory system of the country
  • Enforcer of Manifest Destiny
  • Iron monster
  • Unforgiving mistress to a hobo
  • Lifeline
  • Economic renewal
  • Relentless beast
  • Mechanical blight
  • Movie set
  • A foreshadow of things to come
  • A hearkening to the past

  • ______________________ is (are) a
    _________________ because _______________________
  • Ask students to include something intangible,
    such as suspicion or an odyssey, in the first
    blank. The tangible comparison---a combination
    lock or an elliptical trainer---would fit in the
    second section.
  • Ask students to justify their choices
  • Suspicion is a combination lock because it
    secures a possessions well-being that cannot be
    assured through trust alone. Odyssey is an
    elliptical trainer because it has a beginning,
    middle, and end, and along the way, we encounter
    moments of endurance, doubt, despair, and
    elation, leaving comfort and returning again.

Metaphors Break Down
  • You cant think of feudalism as a ladder
    because you can climb up a ladder. The feudal
    structure is more like sedimentary rock whats
    on the bottom will always be on the bottom unless
    some cataclysmic event occurs.
  • -- Amy Benjamin, Writing in the Content Areas, p.
  • A classroom is like a beehive. Where does
    the simile sink?
  • Students are not bees.
  • Students have a variety of readiness levels and
    skill sets for completing tasks. Bees are more
  • Students dont respond blindly or purely to the
    pheromones of the queen bee.
  • Students are busier throughout the day and night
    than bees.
  • Students dont swarm when angered.

Descriptions With and Without Metaphors
  • Friendship Family
  • Infinity Imperialism
  • Solving for a variable Trust
  • Euphoria Mercy
  • Worry Trouble
  • Obstructionist Judiciary Honor
  • Immigration Homeostasis
  • Balance Temporal Rifts
  • Economic Principles Religious fervor
  • Poetic License Semantics
  • Heuristics Tautology
  • Embarrassment Knowledge

Common Analogous Relationships
  • Antonyms
  • Synonyms
  • Age
  • Time
  • Part Whole
  • Whole Part
  • Tool Its Action
  • Tool user Tool
  • Tool Object Its Used With
  • Worker product he creates
  • Category Example
  • Effect Cause
  • Cause Effect
  • Increasing Intensity
  • Decreasing Intensity
  • Person closely related adjective
  • Person least related adjective
  • Math relationship
  • Effect cause
  • Action Thing Acted Upon
  • Action Subject Performing the Action
  • Object or Place Its User
  • Object specific attribute of the object
  • Male Female
  • Symbol what it means
  • Classification/category example
  • Noun Closely Related Adjective
  • Elements Used Product created
  • Attribute person or object
  • Object Where its located
  • Lack (such as drought/water one thing lacks
    the other)

Synectics(William J. Gordon)
  • The joining together of different and apparently
    irrelevant elements, or put more simply, Making
    the familiar strange.
  • Teach a topic to students.
  • Ask students to describe the topic, focusing on
    descriptive words and critical attributes.
  • Teacher identifies an unrelated category to
    compare to the descriptions in 2. (Think of a
    sport that reminds you of these words. Explain
    why you chose that sport.) Students can choose
    the category, too.
  • Students write or express the analogy between the
    two The endocrine system is like playing zones
    in basketball. Each player or gland is
    responsible for his area of the game.

4-Square Synectics
  • Brainstorm four objects from a particular
    category (examples kitchen appliances, household
    items, the circus, forests, shopping malls).
  • In small groups, brainstorm what part of todays
    learning is similar in some way to the objects
  • Create four analogies, one for each object.
  • Example How is the human digestive system like
    each household item sink, old carpet, microwave,
  • Example How is the Pythagorean Theorem like
    each musical instrument piano, drum set,
    electric guitar, trumpet?

Highly Recommended for Summarization Ideas
  • Check out NCTEs ReadWriteThink.org Web site!
  • Allen, Janet. Yellow Brick Roads Shared and
    Guided Paths to Independent Reading 4-12,
    Stenhouse Publishers, 2000
  • Allen, Janet. Words, Words, Words Teaching
    Vocabulary in Grades 4-12, Stenhouse Publishers,
  • Allen, Janet. Tools for Teaching Content
    Literacy (flipbook), Stenhouse, 2004
  • Billmeyer, Rachel, Ph.D. Barton, Mary Lee.
    Teaching Reading in the Content Areas If Not Me,
    Then Who? 2nd Edition McREL (Mid-continent
    Research for Education and Learning, 1998
  • Barton, Mary Lee Heidema, Clare. Teaching
    Reading in Mathematics, ASCD, McREL
    (Mid-continent Research for Education and
    Learning, 2000 (Also distributed by ASCD)
  • Beers, Kylene. When Kids Cant Read What
    Teachers Can Do, Heinemann, 2003
  • Beers, Kylene and Samuels, Barabara G. (1998)
    Into Focus Understanding and Creating Middle
    School Readers. Norwood, Massachusetts
    Christopher-Gordon Publishers, Inc.

Highly Recommended for Summarization Ideas
  • Buehl, Doug. Classroom Strategies for Interactive
    Learning (second Edition) (2001) Newark,
    Delaware, International Reading Association, Inc.
  • Burke, Jim. Illuminating Texts How to Teach
    Students to Read the World, Heinemann, 2001
  • Burkhardt, Ross M. Writing for Real Strategies
    for Engaging Adolescent Writers, Stenhouse
    Publishers, 2003
  • Frender, Gloria. Learning to Learn Strengthening
    Study Skills and Brain Power, Incentive
    Publications, Inc., 1990
  • Forsten, Char Grant, Jim Hollas, Betty.
    Differentiated Instruction Different Strategies
    for Different Learners, Crystal Springs Books,
    2001 This is great for K-8
  • Forsten, Char Grant, Jim Hollas, Betty.
    Differentiating Textbooks Strategies to Improve
    Student Comprehension and Motivation, Crystal
    Springs Books
  • Glynn, Carol. Learning on their Feet A
    Sourcebook for Kinesthetic Learning Across the
    Curriculum, Discover Writing Press, 2001
  • Harvey, Stephanie (1998) Nonfiction Matters
    Reading, Writing, and Research in Grades 3 8.
    Portsmouth,Maine Stenhouse Publishers
  • Harvey, Stephanie Goudvis, Anne. Strategies
    that Work Teaching Comprehension to Enhance
    Understanding, Stenhouse Publishers, 2000
  • Hyerle, David. A Field Guide to Visual Tools,
    ASCD, 2000

Highly Recommended for Summarization Ideas
  • Marzano, Robert J. Pickering, Debra J. Pollock,
    Jane E. Classroom Instruction that Works
    Research-based Strategies for Increasing Student
    Achievement, ASCD, 2001
  • Robb, Laura. Teaching Reading in Middle School.
    Scholastic, 2000
  • Robb, Laura (editor). Readers Handbook, Great
    Source Education Group, Houghtoun-Mifflin (Same
    group that does Write Source 2000 and Writers,
  • Sousa, Dr. David A. How the Brain Learns.
    Corwin Press, 2002
  • Spandel, Vicki Stiggins, Richard J. Creating
    Writers Linking Writing Assessment and
    Instruction, Longman Publishers, 1997
  • Stephens, Elaine C. and Brown, Jean E. (2000) A
    Handbook of Content Literacy Strategies 75
    Practical Reading and Writing Ideas. Norwood,
    Massachusetts Christopher-Gordon Publishers,
  • Strong, Richard W. Silver, Harvey F. Perini,
    Matthew J. Tuculescu, Gregory M. Reading for
    Academic Success Powerful Strategies for
    Struggling, Average, and Advanced Readers, Grades
    7-12, Corwin Press, 2002

Highly Recommended for Summarization Ideas
  • Tovani, Cris. I Read It, But I Dont Get It.
    Stenhouse Publishers, 2001
  • Tovani, Cris. Do I Really Have to Teach Reading?
    Content Comprehension Grades 6-12, Stenhouse,
  • Vacca, R. and Vacca J. (1999) Content Area
    Reading Literacy and Learning Across the
    Curriculum. 6th ed. New York Longman
  • Wood, Karen D. Harmon, Janis M. Strategies for
    Integrating Reading and Writing in Middle and
    High School Classrooms, National Middle School
    Association, 2001
  • Wormeli, Rick. Summarization in any Subject,
    ASCD, 2005
  • Wormeli, Rick. Metaphors Analogies Power Tools
    for Teaching any Subject, Stenhouse, 2009
  • Zinsser, William. Writing to Learn (1988)New
    York Harper and Row Publishers

Where do we go from today?
3 X 3 X 3!
-- 3 Strategies/Principles/Aspects that will be
in your thinking in the next three to four
weeks -- 3 Topics/Skills you want to pursue in
more depth -- 3 Steps you will take to pursue
those three topics
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