2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system

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Title: 2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of the digestive system


1
2.08 Understand the functions and disorders of
the digestive system
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Gastric juices
  • Enteroendocrine glands
  • secretes gastrin, which stimulates cells to
    produce hydrochloric acid (HCL) and pepsinogen.
  • Parietal cells
  • produce HCL, which converts pepsinogen into
    pepsin and destroys bacteria and microorganisms
    that enter the stomach.
  • Bodys natural sterilizer
  • Produces intrinsic factor which is essential for
    B12 absorption

6
Gastric juices
  • Chief type cells
  • Produce Pepsinogen which converts to pepsin
  • Pepsin breaks down protein into smaller pieces
    called protease and peptone
  • Mucus cells
  • Secrete alkaline mucus which helps neutralize the
    effects of HCL acid and other digestive juices
  • Rennin
  • found in infants and children, not in adults
  • Prepares milk proteins for digestion by other
    enzymes

7
Processes of digestion and their relevance to
health
  • Chemical Change food by digestive juices into
    the end products of fat, carbohydrates, and
    protein
  • Physical break food into smaller pieces

8
Processes of digestion and their relevance to
health
  • Absorption nutrients enter the blood
    capillaries of the small intestine for use in the
    body
  • Elimination waste products of digestion

9
News Flash... New treatment!!!!
  • Fecal transplant
  • Allows the bacteria from the healthy stool to
    repopulate the gut of the patient who has lost
    healthy bacteria in their gut
  • Used to treat Clostridium difficile that grows in
    human intestines
  • Symptoms range from persistent diarrhea to
    life-threatening inflammation of the colon to
    death

10
Humor
Potty Trivia...
  • What can healthcare professionals learn from
    observing stool specimens?
  • On average, how much flatus does a person produce
    per day? 1-3 pts/day

11
Act of Digestion
  • Ingestion
  • Mastication
  • Digestion
  • Secretion
  • Absorption
  • Excretion

12
Digestive System Disorders
  • Anorexia nervosa
  • refusal to eat not because of lose of appetite
  • Psychiatric disorder
  • Distorted body image
  • Fear of wgt gain
  • Amenorrhea
  • Wgt loss of 25 of original body wgt
  • Anorexia
  • Decreased or poor appetite
  • Symptoms

13
Caries
  • Decay of tooth or bone
  • The acids in plaque damage the enamel covering
    your teeth, and create holes in the tooth
  • If symptoms occur, they may include
  • Tooth pain or achy feeling
  • Visible pits or holes in the teeth
  • Prevention- use of flouride , brushing and
    flossing

14
Cleft palate
  • a fissure or openinga gap in the palate may be
    either soft, hard or both
  • can be successfully treated with surgery

15
Cholelithiasis
Cholecystitis Inflammation of gallbladder.
  • Gallstones
  • Can block the bile duct causing pain in back
    between the shoulder blades and digestive
    disorders, can cause jaundice
  • Small ones may pass on their own, large ones
    surgically removed
  • Surgical removal of gallbladder Cholecystectomy

16
Gastroenteritis
  • Inflammation of mucous membrane lining of stomach
    and intestine
  • Common cause Virus
  • Symps diarrhea and vomiting for 24-36 hours
  • Complication dehydration

17
Cirrhosis
  • abnormal structure and function of the liver
  • Chronic progressive disease of the liver
  • Normal tissue replaced by fibrous connective
    tissue
  • 75 caused by excessive alcohol consumption

18
causes of cirrhosis
  • chemicals (such as alcohol, fat, and certain
    medications)
  • viruses, toxic metals (such as iron and copper
    that accumulate in the liver as a result of
    genetic diseases)
  • autoimmune liver disease in which the body's
    immune system attacks the liver.

19
Treatment of cirrhosis
  • preventing further damage to the liver
  • treating the complications of cirrhosis
  • preventing liver cancer or detecting it early
  • liver transplantation.

20
Constipation
  • When defecation delayed,
  • feces becomes dry and
  • hard
  • RX diet with cereals,
  • fruits, vegetables,
  • (roughage) drinking plenty
  • of fluids, exercise, and
  • avoiding tension

21
Causes of Constipation
  • not getting enough fiber/water in the body
  • A disruption of regular diet or routine
    traveling
  • Inadequate activity or exercise or immobility
  • Eating large amounts of dairy products
  • Stress
  • Obstipation
  • a condition of extreme and persistent
    constipation caused by obstruction in the
    intestinal system

22
Diarrhea
  • Loose, watery, frequent bowel movements that pass
    along colon too rapidly
  • Caused by infection, poor diet, nervousness,
    toxic substances or irritants in food.
  • Can cause dehydration

23
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  • Disorder that affects the sphincter muscle
    connecting the esophagus with the stomach
  • The sphincter is weak or relaxes inappropriately

24
Hepatitis
Which hepatitis virus has a vaccine?
  • Acute
  • Chronic
  • A, B, C, D, E
  • common symptoms
  • Fever
  • Nausea
  • Anorexia
  • jaundice

25
Hepatitis A
  • Infectious hepatitis
  • Cause virus
  • Spread through contaminated food or H2O

26
Hepatitis B
  • Serum Hepatitis
  • Caused by virus found in blood
  • Transmitted by blood transfusion or being stuck
    with contaminated needles (drug addicts)
  • Health care workers at risk and should be
    vaccinated
  • Use standard precautions for prevention

27
Irritable bowel syndrome
  • a symptom-based diagnosis characterized by
    chronic abdominal pain, discomfort, bloating, and
    alteration of bowel habits
  • no known organic cause
  • Treatments attempt to relieve symptoms,
    including dietary adjustments, medication and
    psychological interventions

28
Peptic ulcers
  • Sore or lesion that forms in the mucosal lining
    of the stomach
  • Cause H. pylori (bacteria) is primary cause
  • Lifestyle factors cigarette smoking, alcohol,
    stress, drugs.
  • Sym. burning pain, may be relieved by eating
    or taking antacids.
  • Diagnosis x-ray, presence of bacteria
  • Rx H2 blockers ( drugs) that block release of
    histamine

29
Peptic ulcers
  • Gastric and duodenal ulcers
  • Normally recurs in 50 to 80 of cases

30
Relevance of nutrition to the digestive system
  • Healthy dietary habits help maintain homeostasis
    of body systems

31
Vitamins
  • Fat Soluble- can be stored by the body
  • A
  • D
  • E
  • K
  • Water soluable - cant be stored, excess excreted
    by body
  • B
  • C
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