9th Grade Health Test #7 - Diseases and Disorders - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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9th Grade Health Test #7 - Diseases and Disorders


Test #7 - Chapters 23-25 - 9th Grade Health John S. Battle H.S. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 9th Grade Health Test #7 - Diseases and Disorders

Health Test 7
  • Chapters 23-25

Understanding communicable diseases
  • Chapter 23 Lesson 1
  • pp. 628-632

Understanding the Causes of Communicable Diseases
  • Communicable diseases are caused by several kinds
    of microorganisms.
  • Communicable Disease a disease that is spread
    from one living organism to another or through
    the environment.
  • Infection a condition that occurs when
    pathogens in the body multiply and damage cells.

  • Virus piece of genetic material surrounded by a
    protein coat.
  • In order to reproduce, viruses invade the cells
    of living organisms.
  • Two of the most common communicable diseases are
    the cold and flu which are caused by viruses.

  • Bacteria single-celled microorganisms that live
    almost everywhere on earth.
  • Most bacteria are harmless. Some are even
    helpful, like the ones that help you digest food.
  • Toxins substances that kill cells or interfere
    with their functions.
  • Disease-causing bacteria can produce this.

Other Pathogens
  • Fungi
  • Protozoa
  • Rickettsias
  • Read p. 630 as a class.

How Diseases Spread
  • Diseases can be transmitted in a variety of ways.
  • How diseases are spread
  • Direct Contact
  • Indirect Contact

Direct Contact
  • Many pathogens are transmitted through direct
    contact with an infected person. This includes
    touching, biting, kissing, and sexual contact.
  • Other transmission methods
  • Puncture Wounds
  • Childbirth
  • Contact with infected animals

Indirect Contact
  • You dont have to be in direct contact with a
    person to become infected.
  • Transmission Methods
  • Contaminated Objects
  • Vectors an organism that carries and transmits
    pathogens to humans or other animals.
  • Contaminated Food and Water

Airborne Transmission
  • When an infected person sneezes or coughs,
    pathogens are released into the air as tiny
    droplets that can travel as far as 10 feet.

Taking Precaution
  • You can take steps to prevent infection.
  • Wash Your Hands
  • Protect Yourself from Vectors
  • Other Prevention Strategies

Wash Your Hands
  • Always wash your hands
  • Before you eat.
  • After you use the bathroom.
  • After handling pets.
  • Before and after inserting contact lenses or
    applying makeup.
  • After touching an object handled by an infected

Protect Yourself from Vectors
  • Limit time you spend outdoors at dawn and dusk.
  • Wear pants and long-sleeved shirts to avoid
    insect bites.
  • Use insect repellant, and avoid contact with dead

Other Prevention Strategies
  • Avoid sharing personal items, such as eating
  • Handle food properly.
  • Eat well and exercise.
  • Avoid tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs.
  • Abstain from sexual contact.
  • Cover your mouth when you cough or sneeze, and
    wash your hands after using a tissue.

Common communicable diseases
  • Chapter 23 Lesson 2
  • pp. 633-637

Respiratory Infections
  • Many diseases begin as respiratory infections.
  • Respiratory Infections the passageway that
    makes breathing possible.

Habits to Help You Avoid Getting Sick
  • Avoid close contact with sick people.
  • Wash your hand often.
  • Avoid touching your mouth, eyes, and nose.
  • Eat right and get physical activity to strengthen
    your immune system.
  • Abstain from smoking.

Common Cold
  • Mucous Membrane the linking of various body
    cavities, including the nose, ears, and mouth.
  • Most Common Symptoms
  • Sneezing
  • Sore Throat
  • Runny Nose
  • There is no cure for the cold. Your body has to
    fight it off, since it is caused by a virus.

  • Flu (influenza) is a viral infection of the
    respiratory tract.
  • Symptoms
  • High Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Muscle Aches
  • Coughing
  • Viral infection as well that your body has to
    fight off by itself.

  • Pneumonia an infection of the lungs in which
    the air sacs fill with pus and other liquids.
  • Symptoms are similar to that of the flu.
  • Pneumonia can be caused by a virus or bacteria.

Strep Throat
  • Strep Throat bacterial infection spread by
    direct contact with an infected person or through
    airborne transmission.
  • Symptoms
  • Sore Throat
  • Fever
  • Enlarged Lymph Nodes in Neck

  • Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial disease that
    usually attacks the lungs.
  • Symptoms
  • Fatigue
  • Coughing
  • Fever
  • Weight Loss
  • Night Sweats
  • Treated with antibiotics!

  • There are three common types of hepatitis.
  • Hepatitis- a viral infection that causes
    inflammation of the liver.
  • Symptoms
  • Jaundice a yellowing of the skin and eyes.
  • Cirrhosis scarring of the liver

  • Three Types
  • Hepatitis A usually attacks the digestive
  • Hepatitis B similar symptoms as Hepatitis A,
    but it can cause liver failure and cirrhosis.
  • Hepatitis C the most common blood-borne
    infection in the United States.
  • Read p. 636 as a class.

Other Communicable Diseases
  • Stay informed about communicable diseases.
  • Respiratory infections and hepatitis are the most
  • Look at Figure 23.4 on p. 636 as a class.

Fighting Communicable diseases
  • Chapter 23 Lesson 3
  • pp. 638-644

Physical and Chemical Barriers
  • Physical and chemical barriers make up your
    bodys first line of defense against pathogens.
  • Physical Barriers Ex Skin
  • Chemical Barriers Ex Enzymes in Tears
  • Look at p. 639 Figure 23.5 as a class.

The Immune System
  • Your bodys immune system is your best ally in
    the fight against communicable diseases.
  • Immune System a network of cells, tissues,
    organs, and chemicals that fights off pathogens.

The Inflammatory Response
  • Inflammatory Response a reaction to tissue
    damage caused by injury or infection.
  • How It Works
  • Sends more blood to the affected area.
  • Fluid and cells from the bloodstream cause
  • Phagocytes white blood cells that attack
    invading pathogens surround the pathogen.
  • The body begins to repair itself.

Specific Defenses
  • Antigens substances that can trigger an immune
  • Immunity the state of being protected against a
    particular disease.

  • Lymphocytes a specialized white blood cell that
    coordinates and performs many functions of
    specific immunity.
  • 2 Types
  • T Cells
  • B Cells

T Cells
  • Helper T Cells trigger the production of B
    cells and killer T cells.
  • Killer T Cells attack and destroy the infected
    body cells.
  • Suppressor T Cells turn off the helper T cells
    when the infection has been cleared.

B Cells
  • Produce antibodies.
  • Antibody a protein that acts against a specific
  • Purposes of Antibodies
  • Attach to antigens and mark them for destruction.
  • Destroy invading pathogens.
  • Block viruses from entering body cells.

Immune System Memory
  • Your immune system remembers the antigens it
    has dealt with in the past.
  • Read p. 641 as a class.
  • Look at Figure 23.6 on p. 641.
  • Active immunity this type of immunity develops
    from natural or artificial processes.
  • Vaccine a preparation of dead or weakened
    pathogens that are introduced into the body to
    stimulate an immune response.

Passive Immunity
  • Natural passive immunity occurs when antibodies
    are passed from the mother to the child during
    pregnancy or while nursing.

Prevention Strategies
  • Strategies for preventing the spread of disease
    include practicing healthful behaviors, tracking
    diseases, and getting vaccinations.

Tracking Reportable Diseases
  • Agencies such as the Centers for Disease Control
    (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO)
    keep a constant watch on the spread of diseases
    around the world.

  • Types
  • Live-virus vaccines
  • Killed-virus vaccines
  • Toxoids
  • New and second-generation viruses
  • Read p. 643-644 as a class.

Emerging diseases and pandemics
  • Chapter 23 Lesson 4
  • pp. 644-649

  • In 2007, there were 1,397,187 reported cases of
    Salmonella contamination in the U.S.
  • At least 400 people die each year from sever
    cases of Salmonella contamination.

Emerging Infections
  • Some diseases are becoming more dangerous and
  • Emerging Infections communicable diseases whose
    occurrence in humans has increased within the
    past two decades or threatens to increase in the
    near future.
  • Look at Figure 23.8 as a class on p. 646.

Emerging Infections
  • Avian Influenza caused by a virus that occurs
    naturally among birds.
  • H1N1 Virus a respiratory virus normally found
    in pigs.
  • Salmonella and E. Coli bacteria that sometimes
    lives in animals intestinal tract.
  • Recreational Water Illnesses water is
    contaminated by harmful bacteria.
  • Giardia a microorganism that infects the
    digestive system.

Other Emerging Infections
  • HIV/AIDS it is spreading quickly and has become
    a global health threat.
  • Lyme Disease transmitted to humans through a
    tick bit.
  • West Nile Virus transmitted through a mosquito
  • SARS severe acute respiratory syndrome.
  • Mad Cow Disease affects the brain.

How Diseases Affect the World
  • Diseases can spread with amazing speed.
  • Epidemic a disease outbreak that affects many
    people in the same place and at the same time.
  • Pandemic a global outbreak of an infectious

The Impact of Travel
  • The mobility of people in our globalized world
    contributes to the spread of disease. For
    example, an American tourist can pick up and
    infection in another country, return home, and
    spread it to his family, friends, and coworkers.

Mutation of Pathogens
  • Some pathogens have mutated into new forms that
    are resistant to antibiotics.
  • 3 Step Process of Becoming Drug Resistant
  • Pathogens invade the body and cause illness.
  • Antibiotics attack the pathogens.
  • The pathogens that survive the antibiotics
    reproduce, creating a new generation of
    drug-resistant pathogens.

Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Chapter 24 Lesson 1
  • pp. 658-663

Big Idea
  • Watch Video
  • What different types of STDs have you heard

What Are STDs
  • Anyone who has sexual contact with another person
    risks contracting a sexually transmitted disease.
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases infections spread
    from person to person through sexual contact.
  • Also known as Sexually Transmitted Infections.
  • Communicable diseases that can be easily
    transmitted from one person to another.

  • Asymptomatic individuals show no symptoms, or
    the symptoms are mild and disappear after the
    onset of the infection.
  • Several of the most common STDs show no
  • Females are more likely to suffer complications
    from STDs and the effects are more serious in
    females than in males.

Common STDs
  • There are approximately 25 different STDs six of
    which are considered the most common.
  • Genital HPV Infections
  • Chlamydia
  • Genital Herpes
  • Gonorrhea
  • Trichomoniasis
  • Syphilis
  • Read pp. 661-662 as a class!

The STD Epidemic
  • Accurate health information and responsible
    behavior will help fight the STD epidemic.
  • Many STD cases go undiagnosed and untreated
  • Embarrassment or Fear
  • Lack of Symptoms
  • Misinformation
  • Notification Policies

STD Review
  • Bacterial infections can be cured with
    antibiotics. Viral infections cannot be treated
    with antibiotics.

Preventing and Treating STDs
  • Chapter 24 Lesson 2
  • pp. 664-668

Prevention Through Abstinence
  • The most successful method to prevent the spread
    of STDs is abstinence.
  • About 9 million American teens contract STDs
  • Some can be treated with antibiotics such as
    chlamydia and gonorrhea.
  • Antibiotic a class of chemical agents that
    destroy disease-causing microorganisms while
    leaving the patient unharmed.

To Help Protect Your Health
  • Read p. 665 Guidelines as a class
  • Each month, about 750,000 teens are diagnosed
    with an STD.

Avoiding High Risk Behaviors
  • High Risk Behaviors Include
  • Being sexually active with one or more than one
  • Engaging in unprotected sex.
  • Engaging in sexual activity with high-risk
  • Using alcohol and other drugs.

HPV Vaccine
  • HPV Vaccine a vaccine that can prevent cervical
    cancer, pre-cancerous genital lesions, and
    genital warts caused by genital HPV infection.
  • Health officials recommend this vaccine for
    females 9-26 years old.

Diagnosing and Treating STDs
  • Only a health care professional can accurately
    diagnose and treat an STD.
  • If STDs are not diagnosed and treated early,
    serious long term consequences can result.

Act Responsibly
  • What does that mean?
  • Abstain from sexual contact of any kind until you
    are married practice abstinence.

  • Chapter 24 Lesson 3

What is HIV/AIDS
  • HIV/AIDS weakens the bodys immune system.
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus a virus that
    attacks the immune system.
  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) a
    disease in which the immune system is weakened.

AIDS Statistics
  • AIDS has become one of the deadliest in human
  • Approximately 12 million of the people who have
    HIV/AIDS are in the 15 to 24 age group.
  • Half of all new HIV infections are among young
    people. Every day about 7,000 young people
    become infected.
  • HIV infection is a worldwide concern.

Understanding HIV/AIDS
  • HIV/AIDS is transmitted in a variety of ways.
  • HIV is transmitted among humans only when one
    persons infected blood, semen, or vaginal
    secretions comes in contact with another persons
    broken skin or mucous membrane.

HIV Is Spread In 3 Ways
  • During sexual intercourse.
  • By sharing needles.
  • From mother to baby.

How HIV/AIDS Affects the Immune System
  • HIV attacks the bodys immune system by
    destroying lymphocytes.
  • Figure 24.8 on p. 672 shows how HIV attacks cells.

Stages of HIV/AIDS
  • Asymptomatic Stage
  • Middle Stage
  • Symptomatic Stage
  • AIDS Stage
  • Read pp. 671-672 as a class.

Preventing and Treating HIV/AIDS
  • Chapter 24 Lesson 4
  • pp. 674-679

Preventing HIV/AIDS
  • There are many actions you can take to avoid
    contracting HIV/AIDS.
  • The CDC estimates that about 25 percent of the
    people in the United States who are infected with
    HIV do not know they are infected.

Protect Yourself From HIV
  • Practice abstinence.
  • Do not share needles.
  • Avoid situations where drug and alcohol use might
    compromise your decision making.
  • Use refusal skills when you feel pressured to
    engage in risky behaviors.

Diagnosing HIV/AIDS
  • Several tests are used to diagnose HIV/AIDS.
  • Typically a blood sample or an oral specimen from
    between the inside of the cheek and gum is
    collected and sent to the laboratory for analysis.

Types of Laboratory HIV Tests
  • EIA Test a test that screens for the presence
    of HIV antibodies in the blood.
  • Western Blot Test a test that detects HIV
    antibodies and confirms the results of earlier
    EIA tests.
  • Rapid Test an HIV test that produces results in
    only 20 minutes.

Benefits of Early Diagnosis
  • Begin proper medical care early to slow the
    progress of the virus.
  • Avoid behaviors that could spread HIV to others.
  • Gain peace of mind when the results are negative.

Treating HIV/AIDS
  • Medications can slow the growth of HIV/AIDS, but
    there is no cure.
  • To slow the growth of the AIDS virus, people take
    a combination of drugs, a treatment known as
    highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • In 2006, the FDA approved a once-daily, single
    pill treatment for HIV/AIDS.

Cardiovascular Disease
  • Chapter 25 Lesson 1
  • pp. 688-694

  • An estimated 47 of cardiac deaths occur before
    emergency services or transport to a hospital.
  • Worldwide, coronary heart disease kills more than
    seven million people each year.

Cardiovascular Disease
  • The heart, blood, and blood vessels are at risk
    for a number of potentially serious diseases.
  • Noncommunicable Disease a disease that is not
    transmitted by another person, vector, or the
  • Cardiovascular Disease a disease that affects
    the heart or blood vessels.

Types of Cardiovascular Disease
  • There are many different types of CVDs.
  • Types
  • Hypertension
  • Atherosclerosis

  • Hypertension high blood pressure.
  • Can damage the heart, blood vessels, and other
    body organs if it continues over a long period of

  • Atherosclerosis a disease characterized by the
    accumulation of plaque on artery walls.
  • Arteriosclerosis hardened arteries with reduced
  • Look at Figure 25.1 as a class on p. 689.

Diseases of the Heart
  • Every day your heart pumps about 100,000 times,
    moving blood to all parts of your body.
  • Angina Pectoris chest pain that results when
    the heart does not get enough oxygen.
  • Arrhythmias irregular heartbeats.

Heart Attack
  • Heart Attack occurs when a reduced or blocked
    blood supply damages the heart muscle.
  • About 25 of heart attacks produce no symptoms or
    unusual symptoms such as shortness of breath.

Warning Signs of a Heart Attack
  • Pressure, fullness, squeezing, or aching in the
    chest area.
  • Pain spreading to arms, neck, jaw, abdomen, or
  • Chest discomfort, with shortness of breath,
    lightheaded feeling, sweating, nausea, or
  • Call 911 immediately!

Congestive Heart Failure
  • This occurs when the heart gradually weakens and
    can no longer maintain its regular pumping rate
    and force.
  • Congestive heart failure cannot be cured, but it
    can improve through continuous treatment.

  • Stroke an acute injury in which blood flow to
    the brain is interrupted.
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage a stroke that occurs because
    of a burst of blood vessels.
  • Warning Signs of a Stroke
  • Severe headache
  • Numbness on one side of the body
  • Confusion
  • Trouble Walking
  • Dizziness
  • Trouble seeing out of one or both eyes

What Teens Need To Know
  • Cardiovascular Disease can begin during the teen
  • Risk Factors
  • Heredity
  • Gender
  • Age
  • Read p. 693 as a class.

Risk Factors You Can Control
  • Look at Figure 25.4 on p. 693 as a class.
  • What are at least 3 decisions you could make
    today to reduce your risk of cardiovascular

  • Chapter 25 Lesson 2
  • pp. 695-701

What Is Cancer?
  • Cancer has a variety of forms and affects
    different areas of the body.
  • Cancer the uncontrollable growth of abnormal
  • Tumor an abnormal mass of tissue that has no
    natural role in the body.

  • Benign noncancerous tumor.
  • Malignant cancerous tumor.
  • Metastasis the spread of cancer from the point
    where it originated to other parts of the body.
  • Look at Figure 25.5 on p. 696 as a class.

Types of Cancer
  • Lymphomas cancers of the immune system.
  • Leukemia's cancers of the blood.
  • Carcinomas cancers of the glands and body
    linings (includes skin and digestive tract).
  • Sarcomas cancers of the connective tissue such
    as bone, ligaments, and muscles.

Risk Factors for Cancer
  • Risk factors for cancer include lifestyle
  • Carcinogen cancer-causing substance.
  • Risk Factors
  • Tobacco Use
  • Radiation
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Diet

Reducing Your Risk
  • You can reduce your risk of cancer by practicing
    healthful behaviors.
  • Look at Figure 25.7 on p. 699 as a class.

Detecting and Treating Cancer
  • Successful cancer treatment depends on early
    detection and the right kind of treatment.
  • Early Detection
  • Self-Examination
  • Medical Examination

  • If a doctor thinks cancer is a possibility, a
    biopsy will be done.
  • Biopsy removal of a small piece of tissue for

Treatment Options
  • Surgery
  • Radiation Therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Immunotherapy
  • Hormone Therapy
  • Remission a period of time when symptoms
  • When treatment works and the cancer is either
    gone or under control, the cancer is said to be
    in remission.

Allergies, Asthma, diabetes, and Arthritis
  • Chapter 25 Lesson 3
  • pp. 702-708

  • Allergies are caused by a variety of substances.
  • Allergy a specific reaction of the immune
    system to a foreign and frequently harmless

4 Step Process Of AnAllergic Reaction
  1. The allergen enters the body, which treats the
    allergen as a foreign invader.
  2. Antigens on the surface of allergens attach to
    special immune cells in the linings of the nasal
  3. These immune cells release histamines, chemicals
    that can stimulate mucus and fluid production.
  4. Histamines cause sneezing, itchy eyes, runny
    nose, and other allergy symptoms.

Allergic Reactions
  • Severe hives
  • Itching or swelling of an area stung by an insect
  • Difficulty breathing or swallowing
  • Swelling of the tongue, mouth, or eyes
  • Sharp drop in blood pressure, which can cause

Diagnosing Allergies
  • Self-Diagnosis
  • Blood Tests
  • Skin Tests
  • Treating Allergies
  • Simplest way to treat an allergy is to avoid
    whatever it is that you are allergic to.

  • Asthma has no cure, but it can be managed.
  • Asthma an inflammatory condition in which the
    small airways in the lungs become narrowed,
    causing difficulty in breathing.

Managing Asthma
  • Monitor the condition.
  • Manage your environment.
  • Manage stress.
  • Take medication properly.

  • Type 2 diabetes is on the rise.
  • Diabetes a chronic disease that affects the way
    body cells convert sugar into energy.

Symptoms of Diabetes
  • Frequent urination
  • Excessive thirst
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Sudden changes in vision
  • Tingling in hands or feet
  • Frequent fatigue
  • Sores that are slow to heal
  • More infections than usual

  • In a person with diabetes, the pancreas produces
    too little or no insulin, a hormone that helps
    glucose from food enter the body cell and provide
    them with energy.

Type 1 Diabetes
  • Type 1 diabetes accounts for 5-10 of all
    diabetes cases.
  • The body fails to produce insulin, glucose builds
    up in the blood, and cells dont get the energy
    they need.
  • Autoimmune Disease a condition in which the
    immune system mistakenly attacks itself,
    targeting the cells, tissues, and organs of a
    persons own body.

Type 2 Diabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes accounts for 90-95 of all cases
    of diabetes.
  • Usually appears after age 40.
  • Is in large part due to being obese.
  • To help prevent Type 2 Diabetes
  • Choose low-fat, low-calorie foods.
  • Participate in regular physical activity.

  • Arthritis is a major cause of disability.
  • Arthritis a group of more than 100 different
    diseases that cause pain and loss of movement in
    the joints.
  • Osteoarthritis a disease of the joints in which
    cartilage breaks down.

Reducing Your Risk of Arthritis
  • Control your weight.
  • Stay active.
  • Prevent sports injuries.
  • Protect against Lyme disease.

Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis a disease characterized by
    the debilitating destruction of the joints due to
  • Symptoms
  • Joint pain, inflammation, swelling, and
  • Deformed joints that cant function normally.
  • Possible fever, fatigue, and swollen lymph glands.

Physical and mental challenges
  • Chapter 25 Lesson 4
  • pp. 709-713

Physical Challenges
  • Most physical challenges affect sight, hearing,
    and motor ability.
  • Disability any physical or mental impairment
    that limits normal activities, including seeing,
    hearing, walking, or speaking.

3 Types of Physical Disabilities
  • Sight Impairment
  • Hearing Impairment
  • Motor Impairment
  • Figure 25.12 p. 710

Sight Impairment
  • Worldwide, more than 40 million people are bling.
    In the United States, about 1.3 million people
    are legally blind, and at least 5 million move
    have some degree of sight impairment.

Hearing Impairment
  • Almost 30 million Americans have disabilities
    that affect their ability to hear.
  • Profound Deafness hearing loss so severe that a
    person affected cannot benefit from mechanical
    amplification, such as a hearing aid.

Factors Causing Hearing Impairment
  • Heredity
  • Injury
  • Disease
  • Obstruction
  • Nerve Damage

Motor Impairment
  • Motor impairments result when the bodys range of
    motion and coordination are affected by a brain
    injury or a nervous system disorder.
  • Things that can help
  • Physical Therapy
  • Occupational Therapy
  • Assistive Devices

Mental Challenges
  • Mental disabilities have been linked to several
    different causes.
  • Mental Retardation below-average intellectual
    ability present from birth or early childhood and
    associated with difficulties in learning and
    social adaptation.

Mental Challenges
  • Genetic Disorders
  • Behaviors during pregnancy
  • Rubella Infection
  • Restricted Oxygen Supply

Accommodating Differences
  • It is important to provide equal treatment and
    opportunities for people with physical and mental
  • Americans with Disabilities Act a law
    prohibiting discrimination against people with
    physical or mental disabilities in the workplace,
    transportation, public accommodations, and
  • Read p. 713 as a class.
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