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Writing the paper III: Discussion, Conclusions, Literature cited

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Writing the paper III: Discussion, Conclusions, Literature cited Laura A. Meyerson Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December 2008 How to get published – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Writing the paper III: Discussion, Conclusions, Literature cited


1
Writing the paper IIIDiscussion,Conclusions,L
iterature cited
  • Laura A. Meyerson

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
How to get published
2
Discussion
  •  
  • The purpose of the Discussion
  • To interpret your results.
  • To answer the question What do the data mean?
  • To explain the new understanding of the problem
    your results have provided.
  • To put your results in the broader context of
    other existing research.

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
How to get published
3
Discussion
  • The Discussion relates to the Introduction, but
    it does not simply repeat or rearrange the
    Introduction.
  • Instead, the discussion describes how your study
    has advanced our knowledge of the problem, from
    where we were at the end of the Introduction.
  • The Discussion brings a new perspective or new
    information, based on your results.
  • Additional literature sources may be cited here.

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
How to get published
4
Discussion Fundamental questions to answer
  • Do your results provide answers to your testable
    hypotheses?
  • If so, how do you interpret your findings?
  • If not, why not?
  • Do your findings agree with what others have
    shown?
  • If so, describe.
  • If not, suggest an alternative explanation or an
    unanticipated design flaw in your experiment (or
    theirs?).

5
DiscussionFundamental questions to answer
  • Given your conclusions, what is the new
    understanding of the problem that you
    investigated and outlined in the Introduction?
  • If warranted, what would be the next step in your
    study?
  • i.e. what study would you do next?
  • Do not waste space repeating your results
  • Do not introduce new results in the Discussion

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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6
Conclusions
  • Purpose
  • The purpose of the Conclusions section is to
    briefly state your major final points, based on
    the synthesis of your results and the
    introduction and discussion.
  • In other words, in this section you are drawing
    conclusions based on the discussion of the
    results in the previous section
  • The Conclusion section of your paper is generally
    the final text of your paper and emphasizes why
    your work is important.
  • The conclusion section is usually brief and to
    the point.
  • Not all papers have distinct Conclusions sections
  • Be sure to check the style of the journal that
    you are submitting to.

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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7
Conclusions Example
  • The major implication of our work is that a
    species immigration history can have profound
    consequences for fundamental evolutionary
    processes regulating its geographic range. First,
    depletion of genetic diversity at the periphery
    of a species range is generally thought to slow
    down its geographic spread but, large scale and
    repeated introductions may overcome genetic
    bottlenecks and create genetically diverse
    peripheral populations that have the potential
    for continued range expansion. Second, repeated
    introduction may allow the emergence of genetic
    novelties that are necessary to exploit new
    environments by increasing the probability of
    recombination between introduced conspecific
    genotypes (22, 34) or between interfertile
    introduced species (35). Finally, our results
    shed light on the relative roles of drift and
    natural selection after colonization events and
    suggest that natural selection can be stronger
    than drift in recently founded populations, which
    contrasts with the classic assumption that
    Fisherian evolution may be negligible during
    colonization processes (36, 37).

8
Conclusions Dos and Donts
  • Dont simply repeat what you have previously
    stated, including over-summarizing.
  • Dont over-reach with the conclusions.
  • Dont summarize again.
  • Do look at other papers to determine if including
    implications, or giving suggestions for future
    research, is appropriate - Journals differ on
    what they want you to include in the conclusions.
  • Do read the instructions to authors carefully!

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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9
Literature Cited
  • Check that all citations appear in both the text
    and the reference section.
  • Have a hard copy of your paper and your
    Literature Cited section and check them off.
  • Then check again.
  • Check that all citations are correct.
  • Go to hard copies or .pdf copies of the papers
    that you are citing to double check.
  • Then check again.

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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10
Literature cited Dos and Donts
  • Do cite appropriate and relevant work.
  • Do try to be complete without overdoing it (use
    the most relevant citations).
  • Do be meticulous with all of your citations
    (spelling, journal, volume, page s, etc.).
  • Dont just rely on the most cited papers.
  • Dont cite friends and colleagues just to raise
    their citation numbers.
  • Dont over-cite yourself (unless it is really
    appropriate).
  • Never cite a paper that you have not read all the
    way through!
  • Your paper will lose credibility if you make an
    error.

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
How to get published
11
Citation styles and what to cite
Sue Silver
Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
How to get published
12
Citations
Why you need to cite other authors
Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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13
Citations
  • Why you need to cite other authors
  • To provide background information on what you
    have done
  • To acknowledge the source of ideas and results
    upon which your work is based
  • To provide support for your ideas and conclusions
  • To provide information for others wishing to
    repeat your work

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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14
Citations
  • Why you need to cite other authors (continued)
  • To allow comparison with other results
  • To show that you are aware of the current state
    of research directly related to your study
  • To tell interested readers where to find to
    related work

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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15
Citations
  • Why you need to cite other authors (continued)
  • To save space dont describe a method that is
    described in another paper
  • To show how your method has been used before
  • If you use data from another paper, cite the
    source

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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16
Citations
  • What to cite
  • Any information not from your experiment and not
    common knowledge should be supported by a
    citation
  • Check Instructions to Authors for limit to the
    number of citations
  • Even if no limit, do not cite everything!
  • Choose papers that can be easily accessed by
    readers

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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17
Citations
  • Reducing the number of citations
  • Include recent references
  • Use two or three citations to support each point
  • Reduce the number of citations by choosing the
    most important papers
  • If there are many important citations, cite one
    or two good reviews (Yang et al. and references
    therein)

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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18
Citations
  • Citation styles
  • Different journals use different styles to list
    citations look at the journal to see which
    style it uses
  • Change your citations to match the journal style
  • Two well known styles but each journal has slight
    variations copy the style carefully
  • EndNote and Procite will convert all your
    citations to the style of many well-known journals

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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19
Citations
  • Harvard style
  • In the text, include the author(s) and the year
  • Fire suppression has been the primary management
    tool in fire-prone forests
  • (Ohlsen et al. 2006 Wang et al. 2007)
  • In the Reference list, put citations in
    alphabetical order (first by author, then by year)

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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20
Citations
Harvard style
Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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21
Citations
  • Vancouver style
  • For each citation, put a number in the text
  • Fire suppression has been the primary
    management tool in fire-prone forests (1, 2). A
    number of factors have probably contributed to C
    storage (3)
  • In the Reference section, list the citations in
    number order

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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22
Citations
Vancouver style
Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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23
Citations
  • Many small differences within these categories
  • And or (Able, Smith Brown OR Able and Brown)
  • Authors initials (P Jones LP Hartley or Jones P
    Hartley LP)
  • Journal title in full or abbreviated Environ
    Pollut or Environmental Pollution
  • How is punctuation used? (, .)

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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24
Citations
Examples of subtle differences Clements, F.E.
(1934) The relict method in dynamic ecology.
Journal of Ecology, 22, 3968. Clements FE.
1934. The relict method in dynamic ecology. J
Ecol 22 3968. Copy the journal citation
style before submitting
Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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25
Citations
Journal title abbreviations http//library.caltec
h.edu/reference/abbreviations
Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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26
Citations
  • Citing different types of resources
  • Book
  • Pim, S.L. (1982) Food Webs. Chapman and Hall,
    London.
  • Government or other report
  • Pitcher T.J. (2005) Strategic management of
    marine fisheries Nice, France NATO Advanced
    Study Institute on Strategic Management of Marine
    Ecosystems.
  • Website
  • Global (1996). Trials and tribulations. from
    Bradley Campus resources website. Viewed 27
    September 2008 http//www.bradley.edu/campusorg/ps
    iphi/DS9/ep/503r.html

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
How to get published
27
Writing the paper IVAbstractKey WordsPre-review
  • Laura A. Meyerson

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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28
AbstractWhat is its purpose?
  • An Abstract is a summary of the information in
    your paper.
  • The Abstract is always the last section written.
  • This is because you wont know what to include
    until you have completed a full version of the
    paper.
  • Abstract lengths vary by journal
  • Usually between 150 350 words
  • Usually written as a single paragraph
  • Check instructions to authors!

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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29
AbstractWhy is it important?
  • Usually the first part of your paper that is read
  • If you cannot capture the reviewers or readers
    attention with your abstract, your cause is lost.
  • Reviewers may make a preliminary judgment based
    on your abstract alone and you want this to be
    favorable.
  • A good Abstract is usually followed by a good
    paper. A bad abstract often indicates a bad paper.

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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30
AbstractHow is it used?
  • A well-written Abstract helps readers to
  • Identify the basic content of a paper quickly
    and accurately
  • Determine its relevance to their interests
  • Decide whether or not they want to read the whole
    paper.

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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31
AbstractWhat to include?
  • The question(s) you investigated
  • State the purpose of your paper very clearly in
    the 1st or 2nd sentence
  • The experimental design and methods used
  • Clearly express the basic design or approach of
    the study
  • Name or briefly describe the basic methodology
    used
  • The major findings, including key quantitative
    results, or trends
  • Report those results that answer your questions
  • Identify trends, relative change or differences,
    etc.
  • A brief summary of your interpretations and
    conclusions
  • Clearly state the implications of your results

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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32
AbstractWhat not to include?
  • Dont include any information in the abstract
    that is not stated in the paper
  • Dont cite references in the abstract
  • Dont include acronyms, e.g., NSF (National
    Science Foundation) in the abstract if possible.
  • Dont use abbreviations in the abstract. Wait
    until the introduction, where they can be
    introduced and defined.
  • Dont use 250 words when 200 are enough.

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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33
Keywords
  • What is a key word
  • A search term for people to use and that will
    help them to find your paper
  • They alert the reader to elements in a paper that
    might not appear in the abstract
  • Keywords dont have to appear in the title
  • They help the paper to reach a target audience
  • How used?
  • What for?
  • How to choose?
  • What makes a really good key word?

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
How to get published
34
Acknowledgements
  • Contributors not on author list
  • Sample and data collection
  • Data processing and analysis
  • Granting agencies
  • Reviewers
  • Colleagues
  • Anonymous reviewers?

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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35
Acknowledgements
  • Example
  • This work resulted from a workshop of the
    Collaboratory on the Population Biology of
    Invasive Species conducted in October 1999 at the
    National Science Foundation in Arlington, VA. The
    Collaboratory is funded by the National Science
    Foundation (supplement to DEB98-15878). The goal
    of the Collaboratory is to highlight both the
    contributions that population biology can make in
    studies of invasion biology, as well as the
    opportunities for studies of basic concepts in
    population biology using invasive species. We
    thank E. Lyons, S. Scheiner, and M. Courtney for
    their encouragement and J. Heacock and T. Culley
    for their technical assistance.

36
The Value of Pre-review
  • Pre-review simply means getting your manuscript
    reviewed before submitting it to a journal.
  • This is common practice and very wise.
  • Ask your colleagues, lab mates, students, etc. if
    they would be willing to read your manuscript and
    comment on it.

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
How to get published
37
The Value of Pre-review
  • Pre-review can greatly improve your manuscript
    and improve your chances of having it accepted.
  • If you are writing a paper that is not in your
    own language, be sure to have a native speaker
    read and review your paper carefully for grammar
    and meaning.
  • Be sure that you are willing to do the same for
    others!

38
Exercise 4
  • Who should be an author on a paper?
  • With your team, spend 15 minutes discussing the
    most important criteria for being included as an
    author on a paper
  • Write down these criteria and give them to Sue or
    Laura

39
Who should be an author?
Sue Silver
Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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40
Who should be an author?
  • Definition of author
  • The writer of a text, article, or book

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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41
Who should be an author?
  • ESA Code of Ethics (www.esa.org/aboutesa/codeethic
    s.php)
  • Authorship may legitimately be claimed if
    researchers
  • conceived the ideas or experimental design
  • participated actively in execution of the
    study
  • analyzed and interpreted the data
  • wrote the manuscript.
  • Researchers will not add or delete authors from
    a
  • manuscript submitted for publication
    without consent of
  • those authors.
  • Researchers will not include as co-author(s)
    any individual
  • who has not agreed to the content of the
    final version of the
  • manuscript.

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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42
Who should be an author?
Weltzin, Belote, Williams et al. (2006)
Authorship in ecology attribution,
accountability, and responsibility. Frontiers in
Ecology and the Environment 4(8)
43541. Weltzin et al. suggest that authors
include a statement in a box, somewhere in the
paper, describing the contribution of each
author.
Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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Who should be an author?
Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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44
Finding Co-Authors
  • Laura A. Meyerson

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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45
Benefits of Co-authors
  • Can strengthen a paper by adding expertise or
    perspectives.
  • Can lighten the load by helping to pull a paper
    together.
  • Can increase the prestige of a paper if a
    co-author is well-known in the field.

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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46
Disadvantages of co-authors
  • Single author papers are often highly valued by
    institutions.
  • Authorship order does not always reflect who did
    the most work and who contributed original ideas.
  • Can complicate and can delay writing.

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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47
Finding co-authors
  • Do you have colleagues inside or outside of your
    institution that you would like to collaborate
    with?
  • Approach the author and ask whether they would be
    interested in collaborating.
  • Did you hear a paper at a meeting or read a paper
    that you admired?
  • Approach the author and ask whether they would be
    interested in collaborating.

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
How to get published
48
Finding co-authors
  • For students
  • Other students or your Major Professor can be a
    great co-author
  • Is there a technique that you would like to apply
    to your work but cannot do yourself?
  • Find an expert and ask them to work with you and
    co-author a paper.
  • Dont be afraid to ask - people are usually
    flattered to be asked.

Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 15/16 December
2008
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49
Break!
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