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Title: I. Background and Procedure


1
In the Beginning
  • I. Background and Procedure
  • II. Colonial Literature
  • III. The Crucible
  • IV. Nonfiction Revolutionary Texts

2
Tuesday, Sept 2
  • Edit and Revise your essay.
  • Check spelling, punctuation, and sentence
    structure.
  • Check grammar.
  • Make sure it is in MLA Format
  • Make sure you used Parenthetical Citations.
  • Once you are finished and ready for me to grade,
    print, place in your folder and turn your folder
    into me.

3
Essential Questions
  • How do the authors and works I will study in this
    class relate to American history and society at
    the time?
  • How do I properly format a formal essay?
  • How do I create a works cited page in MLA format?
  • How do I use in-text citations effectively and
    appropriately to avoid "accidental plagiarism"?
  • How does the literature in early Colonial America
    reflect the customs and beliefs of the Native
    Americans and Puritans?
  • What kind of literary styles did the earliest
    writers contribute to American Literature?
  • How did history have an effect on the types of
    literature being written?
  • How did McCarthyism influence Arthur Miller to
    write The Crucible?
  • What was Miller's purpose in writing about the
    Salem Witch Trials?
  • What are the major themes found in the play?
  • Is Miller's portrayal of the Puritans accurate?
  • What were the primary types of literature during
    the Revolutionary period?
  • What written and oral language conventions can be
    found in Revolutionary era literature?
  • How does the literature of the Revolutionary
    period relate to the state of the colony and the
    turmoil faced by the colonists?

4
Group Assignments
  • Please line up, starting in the back of the room
    by birthdate. January will begin at the back
    door.
  • Count off by 6. Find your groups desks, sit
    down, and prepare to start class.

5
Monday
  • Introduction to Colonial Literature
  • Overview
  • Journal
  • Group Activity

6
Wednesday, Sept. 3
  • Iroquois Constitution
  • Mayflower Compact

7
Colonial Literature
  • Overview
  • Societies and Leaders Iroquois and Bradford
  • Puritan Poetry and Prose

8
Journal
  • What qualities make a good leader? What
    qualities make a good follower? 5-7 complete
    sentences.
  • Keep your paper out for the next activity.

9
Societies and Leaders
  • View The Iroquois Nation and take notes
  • Read about their society---page 41 and take notes
  • Summarize the info from the book and the video.
  • With your table, write one well developed
    paragraph. Each person will write one on the same
    paper as their journal to put in their folder.

10
Read Iroquois Constituion (42-44) or Hodenosaunee
Nation ("people of the longhouse")
  • 1. The Tree of the Great Peace has both literal
    and figurative meanings. Discuss some of the
    things it might symbolize to the Iroquois.
  • 2. What advantages do you think the Iroquois
    gained by establishing the constitution? What
    disadvantages, if any, might there have been?

11
The Mayflower Compact
  • Old English
  • First American document that spelled out
    governmental procedure.
  • The Mayflower Compact was drawn up in 1629 with
    fair and equal laws, for the general good of the
    settlement and with the will of the majority
  • Being the first written laws for the new land,
    the Compact determined authority within the
    settlement and was the observed as such until
    1691.

12
(No Transcript)
13
The Mayflower Compact
  • In ye name of God Amen We whose names are
    vnderwriten,
  • the loyall subjects of our dread soueraigne Lord
    King James
  • by ye grace of God, of great Britaine, franc,
    Ireland king,
  • defender of ye faith, c
  • Haueing vndertaken, for ye glorie of God, and
    aduancemente
  • of ye christian faith and honour of our king
    countrie, a voyage to
  • plant ye first colonie in ye Northerne parts of
    Virginia doe
  • by these presents solemnly mutualy in ye
    presence of God, and
  • one of another, couenant, combine our selues
    togeather into a
  • ciuill body politick for ye our better ordering,
    preseruation fur
  • therance of ye ends aforesaid and by vertue
    hearof, to enacte,
  • constitute, and frame shuch just equall lawes,
    ordinances,
  • Acts, constitutions, offices, from time to
    time, as shall be thought
  • most meete conuenient for ye generall good of
    ye colonie vnto
  • which we promise all due submission and
    obedience. In witnes
  • wherof we haue herevnder subscribed our names at
    Cap
  • Codd ye 11 of Nouember, in ye year of ye raigne
    of our soueraigne
  • Lord king James of England, france, Ireland ye
    eighteenth

14
The Mayflower Compact
  • In the name of God, Amen. We whose names are
    underwritten, the loyal subjects of our dread
    Sovereign Lord King James, by the Grace of God of
    Great Britain, France, and Ireland King, Defender
    of the Faith, etc.
  • Having undertaken for the Glory of God and
    advancement of the Christian Faith and Honour of
    our King and Country, a Voyage to plant the First
    Colony in the Northern Parts of Virginia, do by
    these presents solemnly and mutually in the
    presence of God and one of another, Covenant and
    Combine ourselves together in a Civil Body
    Politic, for our better ordering and preservation
    and furtherance of the ends aforesaid and by
    virtue hereof to enact, constitute and frame such
    just and equal Laws, Ordinances, Acts,
    Constitutions and Offices from time to time, as
    shall be thought most meet and convenient for the
    general good of the Colony, unto which we promise
    all due submission and obedience. In witness
    whereof we have hereunder subscribed our names at
    Cape Cod, the 11th of November, in the year of
    the reign of our Sovereign Lord King James, of
    England, France and Ireland the eighteenth, and
    of Scotland the fifty-fourth. Anno Domini 1620.

15
Questions
  1. What reasons were given for the creation of the
    document?
  2. What did they agree to do?
  3. What words in the document show the seriousness
    of the persons who signed it?
  4. What was so important about the Mayflower Compact
    that it is still studied as part of our history?
    (first agreement to create self-government in
    America)
  5. Did it help or hurt them?
  6. Would the new colony have survived just as
    well without it?
  7. Could the signing of the Mayflower Compact be
    considered an act that contributed to the "common
    good?" How?
  8. What was the benefit in this historical
    situation of group cooperation?

16
Thursday
  • Review of Iroquois and Mayflower Complact
  • Vocabulary
  • Journal
  • Group Activity

17
  • The United States of America began as a land of
    voyagers. Several hundred Native American tribes
    inhabited the United States long before the
    Puritans came here for religious freedom. The
    Native American literature was entirely oral, for
    these tribes had not yet created a writing system
    of their own.
  • The New England Puritans also played a vital role
    in shaping American values. The 17th century
    Puritans contributed to our country's mission,
    work ethic, and its moral sensibility. Along
    with the Native Americans, the colonists helped
    to shape the beginning of our literary heritage.

18
Vocabulary
  • Puritan Plain A way of writing that expresses
    simplicity and clarity of expression
  • Anachronism Words that are no longer in general
    use
  • Allusion A reference to someone or something
    that is known from history, literature, religion,
    sports, politics, science, or some other branch
    of culture
  • Inversion A reversal of the normal word order
    in a sentence or phrase
  • Anaphora The repetition of a word or words at
    the beginning of a line, clause, or sentence
  • Conceit An elaborate, extended metaphor
  • Apostrophe A figure of speech in which a
    speaker directly address a person who is not
    there or a personified object, quality, or idea

19
Journal Read the Following
  • So lamentable was our scarcity that we were
    constrained to eat dogs, cats, rats, snakes,
    toadstools, horsehides, and what not. One man out
    of the misery he endured, killing his wife,
    powdered her up to eat her, for which he was
    burned. Many besides fed on the corpses of dead
    men, and one who had gotten insatiable out of
    custom to that food could not be restrained until
    such time as he was executed for it. The
    Starving Time
  • Respond
  • Obviously, it was very difficult to make it in
    the new world. Life was hard, food was scarce,
    and a lot of people died.
  • What made those that survived different? Was it
    just luck or survival of the fittest (Darwin).
    Would you have survived? Respond in a paragraph.

20
Journal Response
  • Obviously, it was very difficult to make it in
    the new world. Life was hard, food was scarce,
    and a lot of people died.
  • What made those that survived different? Was it
    just luck or survival of the fittest (Darwin).
    Would you have survived? Respond in a paragraph.

21
Primary Sources Group Work
  • Using the handout, answer the following questions
    in pairs.
  • 1. Identify the basic Puritan beliefs illustrated
    in these quotations.
  • 2. What do these quotations suggest about Puritan
    attitudes toward women and children?
  • 3. In what ways did the Puritans attempt to make
    religion a controlling force in everyday life?
  • 4. Based on these quotations, do you consider
    Puritanism a repressive and intolerant moral and
    religious code or as a rigorous and realistic
    attempt to face up to the harsh realities of
    life?

22
  • Basic Puritan Beliefs
  • 1. Total Depravity - through Adam and Eve's fall,
    every person is born sinful - concept of Original
    Sin.
  • 2. Unconditional Election - God "saves" those he
    wishes - only a few are selected for salvation -
    concept of predestination.
  • 3. Limited Atonement - Jesus died for the chosen
    only, not for everyone.
  • 4. Irresistible Grace - God's grace is freely
    given, it cannot be earned or denied. Grace is
    defined as the saving and transfiguring power of
    God.
  • 5. Perseverance of the "saints" - those elected
    by God have full power to interpret the will of
    God, and to live uprightly. If anyone rejects
    grace after feeling its power in his life, he
    will be going against the will of God - something
    impossible in Puritanism.

23
Day 8
  • Social Contract
  • Puritan Poetry
  • Terms conceit, anaphora, and apostrophe
  • Quiz on Friday on all literature from this week.

24
(No Transcript)
25
Huswifery (82) By Edward Taylor
As you read the poem, pay close attention to the
use of conceit and apostrophe. How are these
literary terms effectively used in the poem? What
do you think the spinning wheel really
represents? In addition to the spinning wheel,
try to identify the metaphors for the following
objects loom, clothing, and apparel.
  • Make me, O Lord, Thy spinning-wheel complete.
  • Thy holy word my distaff make for me.
  • Make mine affections Thy swift flyers neat
  • And make my soul Thy holy spool to be.
  • My conversation make to be Thy reel
  • And reel thy yarn thereon spun of Thy wheel.
  • Make me Thy loom
  • then, knit therein this twine
  • And make Thy Holy Spirit, Lord, wind quills
  • Then weave the web Thyself. Thy yarn is fine.
  • Thine ordinances make my fulling-mills.
  • Then dye the same in heavenly colors choice,
  • All pinked with varnished flowers of paradise.
  • Then clothe therewith mine understanding, will,
  • Affections, judgment, conscience, memory, My
    words and actions,
  • that their shine may fill My ways with glory and
    Thee glorify.
  • Then mine apparel shall display before Ye

26
Anne Bradstreet is most famous for being the
first Puritan poet. Not only is she recognized
for her poetry, which was uncommon during the
early 17th century, but the fact that she is a
woman makes her even more prominent. There were
not very many women writers before the 20th
century, much less in the 1600s! Bradstreet and
her family emigrated to American in 1630. The
well-educated Anne was ill-prepared for the three
month journey. She was afflicted with small pox
which really affected her joints, but she was
still able to have eight children. Tragedy struck
again when Bradstreet's home burned to the
ground, as you will read in one of her poems. It
was a devastating fire that left the family
devoid of all personal belongings. Anne's
husband Simon had many political duties that kept
him traveling to various colonies on diplomatic
errands, so Anne would spend her lonely nights
reading and educating her children. Anne was
especially fond of poetry and began to write
herself her works were kept private as it was
frowned upon for women to pursue intellectual
enlightenment, let alone create and air their
views and opinions. However, her brother-in-law
had secretly copied her work and brought it to
England to have it published without her
permission. The book did fairly well in England,
but was the only one to be published during her
lifetime. All of her other poems would be
published after her death. Bradstreet's poetry
was mostly based on life experience and the love
for her husband and family. She lived in a time
where the search for knowledge was against God's
will, and women were relegated to traditional
roles. She clearly valued knowledge and intellect
and was a free thinker, who could even be
considered an early feminist.
27
Quote about Bradstreets work
  • ...the worse effect of his the reader's reading
    will be unbelief, which will make him question
    whether it be a woman's work, and ask, is it
    possible? If any do, take this as an answer from
    him that dares to avow it it is the work of a
    woman, honored, and esteemed where she lives, for
    her gracious demeanor, her eminent parts, her
    pious conversation, her courteous disposition,
    her exact diligence in her place, and discreet
    managing of her family occasions, and more than
    so, these poems are the fruit but of some few
    hours, curtailed from her sleep and other
    refreshments.

28
Reading Assignment
  • You will read two poems written by Bradstreet
    "Upon the Burning of our House" and "To My Dear
    and Loving Husband.

29
"To My Dear and Loving Husband" (76)
  • If ever two were one, then surely we.
  • If ever man were loved by wife, then thee
  • If ever wife was happy in a man,
  • Compare with me, ye women, if you can.
  • I prize thy love more than whole mines of gold
  • Or all the riches that the East doth hold.
  • My love is such that rivers cannot quench,
  • Nor ought but love from thee, give recompense.
  • Thy love is such I can no way repay,
  • The heavens reward thee manifold, I pray.
  • Then while we live, in love let's so persevere
  • That when we live no more, we may live ever.
  1. Note that each of the first three lines begins
    with "If"--a good example of anaphora. What is
    the effect of this repetition? Does it undermine
    the certainty that other lines seem to express?
    Note that it is further emphasized by breaking
    the regular iambic rhythm.
  2. Whom is this poem addressed to? If just her
    husband, why does she address "ye women"y here?
    Is she speaking to both? Or is this a private
    poem, probably not meant for publication? It was
    not published for many years.
  3. Note how she uses the imagery of physical wealth
    and ownership to represent their emotional love,
    and its contrast with the spiritual element at
    the end of their poem.
  4. Ought means both nothing and expression of duty.
    These are very different meanings. Which is she
    using here? Could she be using both?
  5. Why should she want to "repay" if they two are
    truly one?
  6. What does this paradox mean? How should they live
    now, as lovers, if they are to live and love
    forever? How does this tie in with their Puritan
    beliefs in predestination? Note the extra
    syllable in these final two lines. What is its
    effect?

30
"Upon the Burning of our House (handout)
  • Consider the importance Bradstreet places on
    worldly possessions.
  • Does she find them important at all?
  • What is most important to her?
  • Notice the fact that she still praises God
    immediately after all of her things turn to dust.
    How does this poem display the characteristics of
    Puritan beliefs?
  • Lastly, notice the use of inversion. It is
    typical to read literature from this time period
    that uses a different word order than we would
    use today.

31
Day 9
  • Quiz
  • Final Draft of essay must be complete, check
    spelling, punctuation, grammar, capitalization.
    (50)
  • Essay must contain 3 quotes.(10)
  • Quotes must be cited with parenthetical
    citations. (10)
  • Works Cited must be last page of essay. (20)
  • Paper must use MLA format. (10)

32
Native American Myths
  • Despite the immense variety of the tribes,
    certain themes, characters, and stories can be
    found in many of the cultures. One idea prevalent
    in most of the myths is that spiritual forces can
    be sensed in the natural world - including
    clouds, wind, animals, and plants - that they
    shape and sustain. In addition, a major theme in
    Native American mythology is creation, the steps
    by which the world and everything in it took on
    their present forms.

33
Reading Assignment page 20
  • Read the creation myth "The Earth on Turtle's
    Back. As you read, pay attention to the
    importance the Onondaga tribe placed on dreams
    and how they believe the world came into
    existence. When you have finished reading,
    complete the following self-assessment activity
    to review the myth.

34
Research Assignment
  • Many Native Americans greeted the English and
    Spanish settlers when they arrived in America.
    Investigate one tribe, and write a well-written
    mini-report of your findings (2- 3 paragraphs).
    You can explain the tribe's lifestyle,
    government, transportation, clothing, housing,
    trading, relationship with settlers, or any other
    interesting aspect of their lives that you may
    discover. Make sure you cite the information you
    find using MLA format. You can find a couple of
    websites to help you with your research
  • http//www.si.edu/Encyclopedia_SI/History_and_Cult
    ure/AmericanIndian_History.htm
  • http//www.mce.k12tn.net/indians/navigation/native
    _american_chart.htm
  • Save your work in the GPerritt/Block/Assignment

35
Quiz Match the items.
  • The task is to match the lettered items with the
    correct numbered items. Appearing below is a list
    of lettered items. Following that is a list of
    numbered items. Each numbered item is followed by
    a drop-down. Select the letter in the drop down
    that best matches the numbered item with the
    lettered alternatives.
  • a. slave captured during the slave trade
  • b. Puritan minister who was a part of The Great
    Awakening
  • c. Puritan a part of the first Plymouth Colony
  • d. Harvard graduate who is known for using
    conceit
  • e. first Puritan poet
  • 1. William Bradford
  • 2. Edward Taylor
  • 3. Olaudah Equiano
  • 4. Jonathan Edwards
  • 5. Anne Bradstreet

36
Background
  • The Great Awakening was a religious revival that
    began around the 1730s. It swept through the
    colonies in the East transforming the religious
    and social life of the Puritans. Unlike the
    compact communities of the old world, the small
    farms and plantations made communication
    difficult. People often lived great distances
    from the church and membership suffered they
    relied on themselves, and by the second and third
    generations, the majority of the population was
    outside the membership of the Puritan church.
  • Ministers like Jonathan Edwards would preach
    their sermons trying to revive the Puritan
    church. These revivals would occur and then die
    out one of the reasons why they were
    extinguished was because of the growing influence
    of the Enlightenment text annotation indicator
    . Edwards is most known for his sermon "Sinners
    in the Hands of an Angry God" where he uses the
    image of a dangling spider over a fire to
    describe the human predicament.
  • Despite the initial response to his preaching,
    Edwards did not remain popular forever. His
    downfall occurred when he condemned a group of
    young people from his pulpit. The parents of
    these children drove him from his position, and
    he was exiled to Stockbridge where he worked with
    the Native Americans.

37
Puritan Sermon
  • The Puritans believed that the real power of a
    sermon was to be found in its words, rather than
    its delivery. Since the words were thought to be
    divinely inspired, it was believed that the words
    alone carried enough power to affect the
    congregation. Preachers usually spoke their
    sermons in a deliberate monotone. Consider this
    effect as you read Sinners in the Hands of an
    Angry God.

38
Introduction
39
Sinners in Hands.
40
Final Project
  • Now that you have completed all of the readings
    for this unit, it's time to put your knowledge of
    the literary terms to the test. Not only is it
    important to be able to identify literary terms
    within a piece of literature, but it is also
    important to understand the writer's purpose in
    utilizing that writing technique as well as the
    significance of the technique to the piece as a
    whole.
  • Your task is to create a Literary Terms
    PowerPoint presentation. You will use all 9 Key
    Terms from this unit. More than likely you will
    need two slides per term. Once you create a title
    slide, you will have approximately 19-20 slides.
  • For each term, you will include a specific text
    reference from one of the pieces from this unit
    that utilizes the term. For example, if my term
    is "simile," I will want to find an example of a
    simile in one of the stories or poems we have
    read. You will type that example onto the slide.
    In addition, you need to explain the
    effectiveness or significance of that example as
    it relates to the piece. Lastly, you need to
    create your own sentence(s) utilizing that
    literary term. Please include a picture to go
    along with your example.
  • sample slide below.

41
(No Transcript)
42
Day 10
  • Quiz
  • Vocabulary
  • Background information (Issue Books)
  • Overture/Group Work
  • Journal
  • Study guide/character chart

43
III. The Crucible
44
Essential Questions
  • How did McCarthyism influence Arthur Miller to
    write The Crucible?
  • What was Miller's purpose in writing about the
    Salem Witch Trials?
  • What are the major themes found in the play?
  • Is Miller's portrayal of the Puritans accurate

45
1692 vs 1950
  • Arthur Miller wrote The Crucible to both
    understand and to comment on a brief but
    turbulent episode in American history that he and
    the country had just survived.
  • This was the hunt for communists led by Senator
    Joseph McCarthy in the 1950s. Because of the
    near hysteria surrounding this national hunt for
    communists shortly after World War II, playwright
    Miller equated it with the hunt for witches in
    the 1690s in colonial New England, most
    specifically in the village of Salem,
    Massachusetts.

46
  • Even though this play was written in the 1950s,
    Arthur Miller is true to the diction and style of
    the Puritans. There may be words you don't know
    as you read. It would be to your benefit to
    look these words up.
  • Here are a few of the words you will encounter
    while reading the play. Make sure you learn and
    study these words.
  • 1.Predilection
  • 2.Parochial
  • 3.Defiled
  • 4.Injunctions
  • 5.Deference
  • 6.Contention
  • 7.Prodigious
  • 8.Ameliorate
  • 9.Pious
  • 10.Tainted
  • 11.Scoffing
  • 12.Base
  • 13.Adamant
  • 14.Rescinded
  • 15. Indictment

47
Key Terms
  • McCarthyism the practice of making accusations
    of disloyalty, esp. of pro-Communist activity, in
    many instances unsupported by proof or based on
    slight, doubtful, or irrelevant evidence
  • Allegory the representation of abstract ideas or
    principles in a narrative or dramatic form

48
The Crucible
  • Overview

49
The Overture pages 3-8
  • Group Paragraphs
  • 1 Setting 1 3
  • 2 Theocracy 4 5
  • 3 The wilderness 6 7
  • 4 "City on a hill" 8 10
  • 5 Next generation Puritans 11 13
  • 6 Withcraft 14 15

50
  • Describe how the narrator/author sees Rev.
    Parris.
  • Explain, in detail, the "town" and describe how
    the Puritans viewed their "town."
  • According to these paragraphs, what was the
    economic situation in Salem during this time?
  • How did the Europeans view the Puritans?
  • What does the narrator/author mean when he says
    that "There was a good supply of neer-do-wells?"
    Describe what you think a neer-do-well is and
    what their life might be like in Salem 1692.
  • What reason "more than the creed" does the author
    give for the people of Salem remaining so
    strongly united? Will that reason remain valid
    (consider when the author says, "the time of the
    armed camp had almost passed" in your response)?
  • Explain the duty of the two-man patrols appointed
    by the Church-Govt. as police officers. What
    exactly were they policing?
  • List the main tension of this section
    ____________ vs. ______________

51
  • How did the Puritans view the forest and why?
  • Explain why the Puritans viewed the Indians
    as heathens.
  • What is the main conflict/tension in this
    section?
  • How did the Puritans view other sects of
    Christianity? According to the author why did
    they feel this way?
  • What does it mean to believe one holds the
    candle that lights the world?
  • Explain the concept of the New Jerusalem.
  • List three character traits your peers should
    understand about the Puritans
  • Look up the word JUNTA in the dictionary, and
    write the definition here that makes the best
    sense with how it is used in this section.
  • What governmental change occurred that may
    have seemed frightening to the Puritan people?
  • How does Miller explain a THEOCRACY? (And
    what might "material or ideological enemies"
    mean?)
  • Other than possible witches, what does Miller
    say made these Puritans feel panic?
  • Even though Millers play is about historical
    figures in Salem in the 1690s, the play is also
    known to be an expression of his feelings about
    his own period in the 1950s. What does he say
    about repressions that could apply to the 1950s
    and even to our own time?
  • Why does Miller feel pity for the people of
    his play (the people of 17th century Salem)?
  • What does Miller say are two or three reasons
    that people felt good about crying witch against
    their neighbors?
  • Based on the previous question In this
    section, what is Millers attitude about the
    strictness of the Puritans?

52
Day 13
  • Journal
  • Fact vs Fiction
  • Act I

53
Journal 3
  • Re-read pages 3-8
  • Describe Salem Village as given in Millers
    Commentary. Comment on the people, their beliefs,
    and their possible biases.

54
Act I
  • Study Guide
  • Character Map
  • Conflicts
  • Setting

55
So, Whats the Truth?
  • AND THIS IS FACT
  • Tituba was asked to bake a witchcake in order
    to figure out who was afflicting Betty Parris.
    She was later accused of witchcraft by Betty and
    Abigail.
  • Betty Parris and Abigail Williams were the first
    to become afflicted.
  • Actual symptoms consisted of violent, physical
    tantrums.
  • Rebecca Nurse was hung on July 19th, John Proctor
    on August 19th, and finally, Martha Corey on
    September 22nd.
  • Tituba brought stories of voodoo and other
    supernatural events from Barbados. This alone
    compelled the girls to take part in harmless
    fortune-telling.
  • THIS IS FICTION
  • Tituba led six girls into a nearby forest to cast
    charms and spells, followed by a wild dancing
    ritual.
  • Ruth Putnam was the first girl to become
    afflicted.
  • The only symptom of bewitchment was that the
    victim could not be woken from a deep slumber.
  • John Proctor, Rebecca Nurse, and Martha Corey
    were all hung on the same day.

56
The Parris Family
  • THIS IS FICTION
  • Mrs. Parris had been dead for years and the
    family consisted of Betty (daughter), Mr. Parris,
    Abigail (niece), and Tituba (slave).
  • Betty was present for the trials.
  • Mr. Parris claimed to be a graduate of Harvard.
  • Tituba was single and didnt have family as a
    slave. Tituba confessed quickly.
  • AND THIS IS FACT
  • Mrs. Paris was alive during the incident and died
    in 1969, four years after the incident. The
    Parris family consisted of Mr. and Mrs. Parris,
    Betty, Thomas, and Susannah Abigail was only
    kinfolk.
  • After the trials began Betty was sent away.
  • Mr. Parris actually went to Harvard, but dropped
    out.
  • Tituba was actually an Indian woman who had a
    husband named John and a daughter named Violet.
    She was also tortured for a long time before she
    confessed.

57
The Proctor Family
  • THIS IS FICTION
  • John Proctor is young and is a farmer.
  • Elizabeth is his only wife.
  • John Proctor only has two young sons.
  • Mary Warren was 17 in the story
  • John and Abigail committed adultery. Abigail
    worked for the Proctors before Mary
  • AND THIS IS FACT
  • John is actually 60 and a tavern keeper.
  • Elizabeth is his third wife.
  • John has a daughter that is 15, a son that is 17,
    and another son that is 33 from a previous
    marriage.
  • Mary Warren is 20.
  • The adultery between Abigail and John is unlikely
    to occur as they lived far from each other and
    Abigail never worked for them.

58
The Putnams, Nurses, Giles Corey
  • AND THIS IS FACT
  • The daughters real name is Ann, just like her
    mothers.
  • The Putnams had 6 living children.
  • Rebecca Nurse was considered least likely to be a
    witch she was seen as saint-like.
  • The Nurses were not extremely respected because
    they owed money.
  • Corey was accused of witchcraft and didnt enter
    a plea. He was pressed with stones in an attempt
    to force him to plea either way, but he refused.
  • THIS IS FICTION
  • Daughter is named Ruth Putnam.
  • Ruth was the only child of 8 to survive.
  • Both of the Nurses were deeply respected and
    revered.
  • Giles Corey was executed for refusing to reveal
    the name of a witness.

59
Act I
  • Remember that the play takes place in Salem,
    Massachusetts in 1692. The Puritans' government
    is a theocracy - ruled by God through religious
    officials. This is important to note as you
    recognize the importance and power of the
    character Reverend Parris.
  • The play opens with the town's minister, Reverend
    Parris, praying in front of his daughter's bed.
    The rumor is that his daughter, Betty, is the
    victim of witchcraft. Reverend Parris has sent
    for Reverend Hale, an expert on witchcraft, to
    determine the cause of Betty's illness. This is
    merely just the beginning of the hysteria that
    unfolds in the play.

60
Stage Directions
  • Located at the beginning of a script and
    throughout, stage directions may identify the
    setting tell actors how to speak and move or
    describe the characters, the scenery, or the
    arrangement of props. In The Crucible, Miller
    also uses the stage directions to convey
    historical background, occasionally drawing
    parallels to the American political scene of the
    1950s.

61
Activity
  • The stage directions of a play are instructions
    for the director, actors, and stage crew. Stage
    directions may describe the props, scenery,
    costumes, and sound effects used during a
    performance and tell how characters look, move,
    speak, and feel. Create a chart using the
    headings below
  • . Choose two stage directions for each of the
    following characters Parris, Mr. Putnam, Mrs.
    Putnam, Tituba, Giles Corey, Proctor, Abigail,
    Rebecca Nurse, Rev. Hale, Mary Warren.
  • Page Quote
    Character Explanation
  • 25 ...feverish with Mrs.
    Putnam all of this
  • curiosity excites
    her

62
Day 16
  • Act II
  • Dialogue

63
Act II
  • The relationship between John Proctor and his
    wife Elizabeth is a delicate one. Obviously,
    Elizabeth has lost a lot of trust in John which
    is shown in the opening lines of Act II. Notice
    how cold Elizabeth is towards Proctor and how he
    responds to her. Should she just forgive him
    and move on? Is Elizabeth's treatment of John
    understandable considering he cheated on her with
    Abigail?
  • Mary Warren and Reverend Hale become integral
    characters in the play's plot. Both Mary and Hale
    have to deal with an internal conflict of their
    own. Mary is torn between whether to tell the
    truth at the trials or whether to protect herself
    from a possible accusation. Reverend Hale now
    believes that the trials have gotten out of hand
    and starts to believe John Proctor.

64
  • 1. What does the reader learn about the Proctors
    marriage through the discrepancy between what
    John Proctor does before he sees his wife and
    when he talks to her?
  • 2. In what ways is Millers use of dialogue
    effective in the first two pages of this scene to
    show the rift between the couple?
  • 3. What does Proctors hesitation to travel to
    Salem indicate about his inner conflict?
  • 4. Whom does Elizabeth call, A mouse no more?
    What does she mean by this metaphor?
  • 5. Explain the ironic ultimatum the head of the
    court has given to those who have been arrested.
  • 6. Explain the metaphor The magistrate sits in
    your heart that judges you.

65
Dialogue
  • Dialogue is written conversation between two or
    more characters. Found in all forms of literature
    but most important in drama, dialogue moves the
    plot forward and provides clues about characters'
    motives and relationships. For example, consider
    the following dialogue between Elizabeth and John
    Proctor.

66
Dialogue
  • Elizabeth. You were alone with her Abigail
    Williams?
  • Proctor. (stubbornly) For a moment alone, aye.
  • Elizabeth. Why, then, it is not as you told me.

67
Dialogue
  • Why does Elizabeth react so strongly to the news
    that John was alone with Abigail?
  • What does Proctor's stubborn reply reveal about
    him?
  • You might infer that John and Elizabeth are both
    uneasy about John's relationship with
    Abigail--John feels guilty about what happened
    between them, and Elizabeth does not trust her
    husband.

68
Activity
  • With two classmates, examine other passages of
    dialogue in Act Two
  • the exchanges between Mary Warren, Proctor, and
    Elizabeth in which Mary reveals Sarah Good's
    confession of witchcraft (60-62)
  • the exchanges between Mr. Hale, Proctor, and
    Elizabeth in which Proctor tries to recite the
    Commandments (70-71)
  • the exchange between Proctor and Mary Warren at
    the end of the act (84-85).
  • Read these exchanges aloud.
  • Determine what the dialogue reveals about the
    characters.

69
Writing Assignment
  • Writing Dialogue
  • Between Acts 1 and II eight days elapsed. What
    happened during those eight days? Fill in the
    missing events by creating a script.
  • You must use at least two characters.
  • You must use stage directions and dialogue.
  • It must be 350 words.
  • Use correct format for writing dialogue using The
    Crucible as a guide.

70
Rubric
MLA Format 10 points
Correctly written dialogue 30 points
Content 30 points
Length 10 points
Grammar 20
71
Day Eight
  • Journal
  • Irony Activity
  • Irony Assessment
  • Group Quotes
  • Help with dialogue
  • Act III

72
Journal 5
  • Choose one character from Act I or Act II. Write
    about what you think will happen to them in Acts
    III and IV.

73
Irony
  Verbal irony   Occurs when someone states one thing and means another often recognized as sarcasm i.e. narrator refers to honesty as an incumbrance or burden
  Situational irony   A contrast between what is expected to happen and what actually does happen i.e. gentleman who is admired and envied commits suicide
  Dramatic irony (SEE pg. R113) Occurs when a reader knows more about a situation or a character in the story than the characters do  
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75
Allusion a reference to another literary work,
event in history, or any other cultural piece.
The play "There are wheels within wheels in this
village, and fires within fires!" speaker Mrs.
Putnam
The Allusion This was the appearance and
structure of the wheels They sparkled like
chrysolite, and all four looked alike. Each
appeared to be made like a wheel intersecting a
wheel. Ezekiel 116
Complex interacting processes, agents, or
motives, as in It's difficult to find out just
which government agency is responsible there are
wheels within wheels. This term, which now evokes
the complex interaction of gears, may derive from
a scene in the Bible (Ezekiel 116) Their
appearance and their work was as it were a wheel
in the middle of a wheel. c. 1600
76
Day 18
  • Watch Video on Real Trials
  • Read/Listen to Act III
  • Foil Assignment

77
Act III
  • In Act III, court is in session. Things are
    really intense in Salem. Elizabeth has been
    arrested for allegedly making a voo-doo doll.
    Proctor's only goal is to free his wife and prove
    that Abigail is a liar in the process. You will
    read some very intense questioning from Danforth.
    This is where the play gets really good!
  • Proctor really needs Mary to tell the truth about
    Abigail and the rest of the girls if he is going
    to be able to prove Elizabeth's innocence. Read
    Act III to find out if Mary does the right thing
    and if Proctor is successful in his efforts to
    save Elizabeth's life. Think back to the song
    "Witchy Woman." Are the descriptions of witches
    anything like the women accused of being witches
    in the play?

78
Foil
  • A foil is a character who provides a striking
    contrast to another character. For example, a
    down-to-earth, practical character may be a foil
    to an absent-minded, flighty character.
  • A writer might use a foil to emphasize certain
    traits of another character or simply to set off
    or enhance this character through contrast.
  • Use a chart to contrast Elizabeth and Abigail.
    Record details about how they differ in
    personality, values, and their feelings for John
    Proctor.
  • Locate 2 quotes from the text that prove your
    observations.

79
Compare/Contrast
80
Day 19
  • Read Act IV
  • Complete Chart
  • Discuss Introductory paragraph.
  • Quiz tomorrow on Crucible
  • Writing Assignment

81
Act IV
Reverend Hale returns to Salem in Act IV after
quitting the court. He wants to beg the
prisoners to confess to witchcraft in order to
save themselves from the gallows. You know from
reading Act III that Proctor has now also been
arrested. Elizabeth is safe for now because she
is pregnant, but other respected citizens such as
Rebecca Nurse are still scheduled to hang. The
choice is simple confess to being a witch and
you are saved don't confess and you will be
hanged. For most, this is an easy decision, but
consider the morals and values of the Puritans.
It would be very difficult for a Puritan to lie
about being a witch and to sacrifice his/her
integrity.
82
Day 20
  • Final Essay
  • Complete Introduction
  • Complete Conclusion Paragraph

83
Final Assessment - The Crucible Essay
  • Your major assessment for this unit is to write a
    critical analysis essay over The Crucible.
  • In order to fully analyze a piece of literature,
    you must have opinions, as well as facts. In
    addition, it is imperative that you explain the
    significance of your ideas. This is the point
    when you will truly begin to analyze the text.

84
Choose one of the following topics to focus on in
your paper
  • 1. In the play, The Crucible, many of the
    characters learn things about themselves, as well
    as others. Discuss the insight gained by the
    characters of Elizabeth Proctor and Abigail
    Williams.
  • 2. Analyze one of the contrasts found in The
    Crucible, and discuss how it is prevalent
    throughout the play in reference to Abigail and
    Elizabeth. Why is it important, as a reader, to
    recognize these contrasts?
  • 3. Analyze the change or lack of change
    undergone by Elizabeth and Abigail. Why is this
    significant to the overall plot of the story?
  • 4. Analyze the role of Elizabeth Proctor or
    Abigail Williams in The Crucible. Why is their
    character a vital role in the play? What can
    readers learn from them?

85
Steps to Writing with POWER
  • Plan
  • Organize your thoughts/Choose your quotes
  • Write your 1st draft
  • Edit, Edit, Edit, Edit
  • Revise

86
  • Introduction
  • Your introduction should start out general and
    should get more specific as you work your way
    down to the thesis. Mention the author and
    title of the work you are writing about in your
    introduction. The thesis statement is the main
    idea of the entire paper. It should also
    include your opinion about the given topic.
  • Body
  • Your body paragraphs should have a topic and
    concluding sentence. Use transitions!!! After
    you give a fact, detail, etc. about the topic you
    are writing on, give your opinion about that
    fact. This will help you explain the
    significance of your points, as well as make your
    paper stronger. Each body paragraph needs a
    quote of support from the text.
  • Conclusion
  • No new information or points in your conclusion.
    Your conclusion is a summary of your main points
    from your paper.

87
Things to use
  • include a brief summary of the paper's main
    points.
  • ask a provocative question.
  • use a quotation.
  • evoke a vivid image.
  • call for some sort of action.
  • end with a warning.
  • universalize (compare to other situations).
  • suggest results or consequences.

88
Essay Requirements
  • Your paper should be at least 3 pages typed in
    length - 4 paragraph minimum.
  • It should be formatted in MLA format. (double
    spaced, Times New Roman or a similar font, 12
    point font, correct headings and header, 1 inch
    margins, parenthetical citations, etc.)
  • At least 6 quotes from the play must be
    integrated within your paper.
  • Remember to write in 3rd person only.
  • You also need to use literary present tense.
    Watch your verbs!
  • Create an original title for your essay - The
    Crucible Essay is not acceptable.

89
Introduction
Hook (Big Idea about life)
Tie hook to play (author and title)
Summarize Play (include setting, plot, characters)
Thesis statement (tied to big ideainclude Abigail and Elizabeth)

90
Day 21
  • Type essay
  • Interactive Witch Hunt

91
Day 23
  • Movie
  • Writing the body paragraphs of the essay

92
Body Paragraph
Topic sentence  
Example 1  
Explain 1  
Example 2  
Explain 2  
Example 3  
Explain 3  
Closing sentence  
93
Day 26
  • Review
  • Review
  • Review
  • Writing a Conclusion

94
Review
  • Settings Acts I-IV
  • Characters Names/Relationships
  • Conflicts Internal/External
  • Plot Major Events Acts I-IV
  • Themes (Message for mankind)

95
Conclusion
  • Answer the question "So What?"
  • Show your readers why this paper was important.
    Show them that your paper was meaningful and
    useful.
  • Synthesize, don't summarize
  • Don't simply repeat things that were in your
    paper. They have read it. Show them how the
    points you made and the support and examples you
    used were not random, but fit together.
  • Redirect your readers
  • Give your reader something to think about,
    perhaps a way to use your paper in the "real"
    world. If your introduction went from general to
    specific, make your conclusion go from specific
    to general. Think globally.

96
Conclusion
Restatement  
  Big Why 1.   2.  
Eloquent conclusion  
97
  • Elizabeth Proctor determined her destiny-a place
    in heaven. Her love for John and her family
    makes her angelic against Abigails evilness. If
    the Abigail has any redeeming qualities, they
    fail to appear in the play. Miller's emphasis on
    the Abigail's traits of arrogance, jealousy, and
    revenge make it apparent that anyone who might
    have known Abigail personally would have based
    his opinion of her on these three personality
    "flaws." Ultimately, our opinion of the Abigail
    is not a favorable one, and it is clear that
    Miller meant us to feel this way He wanted
    Elizabeth to be the heroine of the play.

98
Interactive Witch Hunt
  • In order to leave behind the "safe world" of the
    present and get a taste of what it was like in
    Salem in 1692 at the height of the witch hunts,
    you are going to participate in an interactive
    web site created by the National Geographic
    Society. By fully entering into the activity,
    you will gain insight into the emotional power of
    the Salem witch trials and will gain a fuller
    understanding of the play's literary and
    historical significance
  • http//www.nationalgeographic.com/salem/

99
Day 28
  • Good Night and Good Luck
  • McCarthyism
  • McCrucdiblism
  • McCarthyism
  • Group Reading/Assignment
  • Individual Assignment
  • Draft of essay due!!!!!!

100
Final Product
  • Write recipe on provided index card on the lined
    side.
  • On the blank side, create or find a picture of
    the dish. Be creative as possible.

101
Day 29
  • Type your Crucible Essay
  • Extra Credit Assignment

102
Rubric
MLA Format 10 points
Quotes from play 20 points
Parenthetical citations (Miller 10). 10 points
Content 30 points
Length 10 points
Grammar 20 points
Works Cited 10 points
103
Elizabeth Proctor Pie
Jealousy
Truth
Suspicion
Betrayal
REgret
104
Character Recipe
  • Objective You will demonstrate your
    understanding of a character by creating them
    in a recipe form.
  • Imagine that you were to cook up that character.
    Im asking you to record what comprises that
    person.
  • Preparation Tips
  • Prewriting
  • 1. Select a character from The Crucible, which
    you are currently devouring.
  • 2. List character traits and descriptions as they
    appear in the play.
  • 3. Determine and list events or forces that you
    believe helped shape the character.
  • 4. Look at a few recipes from magazines to see
    how they are written.
  • Writing
  • Create a recipe that the author might have used
    to develop the character you have selected. Baste
    them in creative juices every so often.
  • Revising
  • Stir. Add ingredients. Check to make sure
    preparation instructions are clear and in logical
    order.
  • Proofreading
  • Check spelling, abbreviations for measurements,
    and that preparation instructions are delivered
    using imperative sentences (if you dont know
    what one is, find out!).

105
Heres an example
  • Recipe for Elizabeth Proctor Pie
  • Ingredients
  • 4 tablespoons Jealousy
  • 2 cups Suspicion
  • 3 teaspoons Betrayal
  • 1/2 cup Regret
  • 4 pints Truth (use Salem brand)
  • 5 drops Realization
  • Directions
  • Gather all ingredients. Start with Jealousy and
    mix Suspicion deep into the middle of it. Beat
    until mixed. Heat the 3 teaspoons of Betrayal
    until it comes to a boil Pour into mixture. Let
    sit for 2 months until fermented.
  • In a separate bowl add 1/2 cup of regret Then
    the Truth is stirred throughout. (mix until all
    clumps are smooth). Roll out and form into a
    crust.
  • Pour the mixture into the crust.
  • Bake for 3 months. Make sure to set the oven at
    1000 degrees for intense heat.
  • Pull from oven.
  • Finally, sprinkle the Realization on top. Cool
    until ready to serve.
  • Preparation Time 5 months
  • Serves 1 town which is completely deluded.

106
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107
Think about the following, an then answer in a
well thought out paragraph.
  • What does it mean to be independent OF something?
  • What is the most important component of
    persuasion?
  • What do you know about Thomas Jefferson?
  • Why was the Declaration of Independence written?
  • Why is the Declaration of Independence important
    to us now?
  • Write a good paragraph discussing your thoughts.

108
Rhetoric
  • is the use of language to communicate
    effectively.  Politicians, advertisements, and
    persuasive essays all use rhetoric to help get
    their point across.  Rhetoric involves three
    audience appeals logos, pathos, and ethos.  From
    ancient Greece to the late 19th century, it was a
    central part of Western education, filling the
    need to train public speakers and writers to move
    audiences to action with arguments.  However,
    rhetoric is definitely a part of our daily
    culture.
  • The founding fathers are known for their
    persuasive speeches and political documents that
    call for action.  The rhetoric they used helped
    to persuade congress to go to war with Britain
    and to persuade the colonists to keep fighting
    and to not give up. These men were effective
    speakers and writers!

109
Reading persuasion When you begin to examine the
rhetoric of a piece of writing, you will look for
  • Define these using 96-98 and your literary
    handbook
  • tone
  • diction
  • Ethos/ ethical appeal
  • Pathos/emotional appeal
  • Logos/logical appeal
  • repetition
  • parallelism
  • alliteration
  • assonance
  • rhetorical questions
  • figurative langage
  • analogies
  • allusions
  • anaphora
  • anecdotes

110
Logos, Pathos, Ethos
  • Logos is the use of evidence such as facts,
    statistics and examples to support
  • your point. For example, if you are trying to
    convince someone that California
  • needs to put more money towards education and
    less into the construction of
  • prisons, you would tell them that California is
    first in the nation in prison
  • spending and 41st in education spending. Of
    course, this is why approximately
  • 80 of all public schools are in need of repair,
    let alone more credentialed
  • teacher and current textbooks.
  • Pathos is the emotional power of language that
    appeals to the readers needs,
  • values and attitudes. A writer often relies on
    pathos to motivate their reader to
  • take some type of emotion. Consider the following
    pitches for a mans cologne
  • Words such as bold, power, and in charge, appeal
    to those qualities many men
  • want to cultivate, so they will be motivated to
    buy this product. Like an
  • advertisement, you must use emotional words and
    phrases to strengthen your
  • message. If you believe in legalization of
    marijuana, you might use words such
  • as liberty, herb, and responsibility. If you
    favor the criminilization of
  • marijuana, you would use words such as menace,
    narcotic and irresponsible.
  • Ethos is credibility or reliability. You cannot
    expect people to accept your
  • viewpoint unless they believe that you know what
    you are talking about! Fr
  • example, Four out of five dentists recommend
    using BRITE toothpaste. After

111
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos?
112
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos?
113

114
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos?
115

116
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos?
117
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos?
118
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos?
119
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos?
120
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121
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos?
122
Ethos, Pathos, Logos?
123
Ethos, Pathos, or Logos?
124
Reading Persuasion
  • It is also important to analyze the diction and
    tone of the piece.
  • Ask yourself these questions Why is it important
    that the writer used repetition? How does
    parallelism help to get his point across? Why is
    it significant that the writer used alliteration
    and assonance in this sentence? How are
    rhetorical questions persuasive? How does the
    word choice help to get the point across? What
    is the tone of the piece?
  • Once you begin to analyze a piece of writing, you
    will better understand the speech or document.
    You will also understand why the piece was so
    effective and persuasive. Keep in mind that
    rhetoric is not limited to these examples. It is
    appropriate to examine figurative language ,
    analogies , allusions , anaphora , anecdotes ,
    etc as well.

125
Rationalism
  • Between the mid 1760s and 1770s, King George III
    and Parliament imposed a number of regulations
    and threatened the liberties of the colonists.
    This begun what is known as The Age of Reason or
    Enlightenment.
  • Rationalism is the belief that human beings can
    arrive at truth by using reason, rather than
    relying on authority of the past, on religious
    faith, or intuition. Unlike the Puritans,
    rationalists believed in the power of reason and
    science to further human progress.
  • Deism is a branch of rationalism and states that
    God made it possible for people at all times to
    discover natural laws through their God-given
    power of reason. Deism was shared by many 18th
    century thinkers and founding fathers, such as
    Benjamin Franklin. They believed that people are
    by nature good, not evil. Deists believed in a
    perfect society and thought this was an
    achievable goal.

126
Group Work
  • Read the example, try to determine the rhetorical
    devices used.
  • In The Crisis No. 1, Thomas Paine says, "
    ...God Almighty will not give up a people to
    military destruction, or leave them unsupportedly
    to perish, who have so earnestly and so
    repeatedly sought to avoid the calamities of
    war... "
  • Once again, in The Crisis No. 1, Paine states,
    "My own line of reasoning is to myself as
    straight and clear as a ray of light."
  • In his speech to the Virginia convention, Patrick
    Henry makes this statement "We are apt to shut
    our eyes against a painful truth, and listen to
    the song of that siren till she transforms us
    into beasts."

127
Answers
  • 1. This is an example of ethos. He is
    referencing God because he knows his audience are
    God-fearing men who will fight if God is on their
    side.
  • Paine uses a simile to compare his reasons for
    fighting the war to a ray of light. Like a ray
    of light, his reasons are clear and to the point.
  • Henry makes an allusion to the sirens in The
    Odyssey. It is a poem by Homer that his audience
    would be familiar with. Like the beautiful
    sirens in the poem who lure the sailors off
    track, he is saying the British are trying to
    keep the colonists from fighting for independence
    with their promises.

128
Day 31
  • Review Terms and Ethos, Logos, Pathos
  • Quiz-terms/Ethos, Logos, Pathos
  • Patrick Henry-Speech in the Va. Convention/AKA
    Give me liberty or give me death.
  • Activity on speech

129
Henry Page 101
  • Patrick Henrys Speech in the Virginia
    Convention played a key role in turning colonial
    ideas against negotiation with England and toward
    armed rebellion.
  • As we read and listen, he begins with respectful
    rebuttal of previous speeches, but towards the
    end, his tone intensifies thus heightening the
    climax of the speech.
  • He establishes that the British are preparing for
    war, asserts the war has already begun. Thus, he
    dismisses any thoughts for peaceful compliance.

130
Patrick Henry
  • Patrick Henry uses examples of parallel structure
    to get his point across.
  • He also uses loaded or charged words to add to
    his point
  • Finally, he uses his words to persuade the
    statesmen and readers to fight for what they
    believe in, and do not give in to the British

131
Speech in The VA Convention
  • 1. Choose two examples of the following from the
    speech of ethos, pathos, and logos. Were you more
    convinced by Henrys appeals to logic or by his
    appeals to emotion? What conclusions can you draw
    about the art of persuasion?
  • 3. In paragraph four, what metaphors does Henry
    use to describe the coming war?
  • 4. Henry makes use of the rhetorical questiona
    question that is asked for effect. Rhetorical
    questions, which are often used in persuasion,
    presume the audience agrees with the speaker on
    the answers, and so no answer is expected or
    required. Find a series of rhetorical questions
    in the fifth paragraph of this speech. Why do you
    think Henry uses this device, rather than
    straightforward statements of fact, to make his
    points? How does this technique make his speech
    more persuasive?

132
Speech in The Va Convention
  • 5. Because Henrys audience knew the Bible, as
    well as classical myt
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