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Early Societies in Southeast Asia and the Indo-European Migrations

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Chapter 2 Early Societies in Southeast Asia and the Indo-European Migrations Deciphering Cuneiform Sumerian Scribes Tablet House Uses for Writing Trade ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Early Societies in Southeast Asia and the Indo-European Migrations


1
Chapter 2
  • Early Societies in Southeast Asia and the
    Indo-European Migrations

2
Civilization Defined
  • Cities/Urban
  • Political/Military system
  • Social Hierarchy
  • Economic/Job Specialization
  • Complex Religion
  • Written language
  • Higher Culture Art Architecture
  • Public Works

3
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5
Early Mesopotamia 3000-2000 B.C.E.
  • Between the Rivers
  • Tigris and Euphrates
  • Modern-day Iraq
  • Cultural continuum of fertile crescent
  • Sumerians the dominant people

6
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7
The Wealth of the Rivers
  • Nutrient-rich silt
  • Key irrigation
  • Necessity of coordinated efforts (reservoirs,
    canals, dikes, dams)
  • Promoted development of local governments
  • City-states
  • Sumer begins small-scale irrigation 6000 BCE
  • By 5000 BCE, complex irrigation networks
  • Population reaches 100,000 by 3000 BCE
  • Attracts Semitic migrants, influences culture

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9
Sumerian City-States
  • Cities appear 4000 BCE
  • Dominate region from 3200-2350 BCE
  • Ur (home of Abraham, see Genesis 1128), Nineveh
  • Ziggurat - home of the city god
  • Divine mandate to Kings
  • Regulation of Trade
  • Defense from nomadic marauders

10
The Ziggurat of Ur
11
Ziggurat at Ur
  • Temple
  • Mountain of the Gods

12
Example of Defensive Walls
13
Sumerian Religion - Polytheistic
Enki
Innana
Anthropomorphic Gods
14
Political Decline of Sumer
  • Semitic peoples from northern Mesopotamia
    overshadow Sumer
  • Sargon of Akkad (2370-2315 BCE)
  • Destroyed Sumerian city-states one by one,
    created empire based in Akkad
  • Empire unable to maintain chronic rebellions
  • Hammurabi of Babylon (1792-1750 BCE)
  • Improved taxation, legislation
  • Used local governors to maintain control of
    city-states
  • Babylonian Empire later destroyed by Hittites
    from Anatolia, c. 1595 BCE

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16
Akkadian Empire
17
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18
Hammurabi
The upper part of the stele of Hammurabis code
of laws
19
Hammurabi
The upper part of the stele of Hammurabis code
of laws
20
Legal System
  • The Code of Hammurabi
  • Established high standards of behavior and stern
    punishment for violators
  • lex talionis law of retaliation
  • Social status and punishment
  • women as property, but some rights

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22
Hittite Chariot and Soldiers
23
Later Mesopotamian Empires
  • Weakening of central rule an invitation to
    foreign invaders
  • Assyrians use new iron weaponry
  • Beginning 1300 BCE, by 8th-7th centuries BCE
    control Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, most of
    Egypt
  • Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon (r. 605-562) takes
    advantage of internal dissent to create Chaldean
    (New Babylonian) Empire
  • Famously luxurious capital

24
The Hanging Gardens by Martin Heemskerc,
16th C.
25
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26
Mesopotamian Empires, 1800-600 BCE
27
Technological Development in Mesopotamia
  • Bronze (copper with tin), c. 4000 BCE
  • Military, agricultural applications
  • Iron, c. 1000 BCE
  • Cheaper than bronze
  • Wheel, boats, c. 3500 BCE
  • Shipbuilding increases trade networks

28
Sophisticated Metallurgy Skills at Ur
29
Social Classes
  • Ruling classes based often on military prowess
  • Originally elected, later hereditary
  • Perceived as offspring of gods
  • Religious classes
  • Role intervention with gods to ensure fertility,
    safety
  • Considerable landholdings, other economic
    activities
  • Free commoners
  • Peasant cultivators
  • Some urban professionals
  • Slaves
  • Prisoners of war, convicted criminals, debtors

30
Patriarchal Society
  • Men as landowners, relationship to status
  • Patriarchy rule of the father
  • Right to sell wives, children
  • Double standard of sexual morality
  • Women drowned for adultery
  • Relaxed sexual mores for men
  • Yet some possibilities of social mobility for
    women
  • Court advisers, temple priestesses, economic
    activity
  • Introduction of the veil at least c. 1500 BCE

31
Development of Writing
  • Sumerian writing systems form 3500 BCE
  • Pictographs
  • Cuneiform wedge-shaped
  • Preservation of documents on clay
  • Declines from 400 BCE with spread of Greek
    alphabetic script

32
Cuneiform Wedge-Shaped Writing
33
Cuneiform Writing
34
Deciphering Cuneiform
35
Sumerian Scribes
Tablet House
36
Uses for Writing
  • Trade
  • Astronomy
  • Mathematics
  • Agricultural applications
  • Calculation of time
  • 12-month year
  • 24-hour day, 60-minute hour

37
Mesopotamian Literature
  • Epic of Gilgamesh, compiled after 2000 BCE
  • Heroic saga
  • Search for meaning, esp. afterlife
  • This-worldly emphasis

38
Gilgamesh
39
Gilgamesh
40
Gilgamesh Epic Tablet Flood Story
41
The Early Hebrews
  • Patriarchs and Matriarchs from Babylon, c. 1850
    BCE
  • Parallels between early biblical texts, Code of
    Hammurabi
  • Early settlement of Canaan (Israel), c. 1300 BCE
  • Biblical text slavery in Egypt, divine
    redemption
  • On-going conflict with indigenous populations
    under King David (1000-970 BCE) and Solomon
    (970-930 BCE)

42
Egypt's king, Ramses II, written about in the Old
Testament, is now thought to have reigned between
1290-1224 B.C.E. This Egyptian wall art depicts
Ramses holding what is suspected to be three
slaves. One is black, one appears to be East
Asian, and the third, in the foreground, appears
to be Semitic. The blacks and Semite came from
close by. The East Asian leaves us wondering.
43
David and Goliath by Caravaggio, 1600
44
David with the Head of Goliath,
c. 1450/1455, Andrea del Castagno
45
Model of Solomons Temple
46
Moses and Monotheism
  • Hebrews shared polytheistic beliefs of other
    Mesopotamian civilizations
  • Moses introduces monotheism, belief in single god
  • Denies existence of competing parallel deities
  • Personal god reward and punishment for
    conformity with revealed law
  • The Torah (doctrine or teaching)

47
Foreign conquests of Israel
  • Assyrian conquest, 722 BCE
  • Conquered the northern kingdom
  • Deported many inhabitants to other regions
  • Many exiles assimilated and lost their identity
  • Babylonian conquest, 586 BCE
  • Destroyed Jerusalem
  • Forced many into exile
  • Israelites maintained their religious identity
    and many returned to Judea

48
The Phoenicians
  • City-states along Mediterranean coast after 3000
    BCE
  • Extensive maritime trade
  • Dominated Mediterranean trade, 1200-800 BCE
  • Development of alphabet symbols
  • Simpler alternative to cuneiform
  • Spread of literacy

49
Israel and Phoenicia , 1500-600 BCE
50
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53
Indo-European Migrations
  • Common roots of many languages of Europe,
    southwest Asia, India
  • Implies influence of a single Indo-European
    people
  • Probable original homeland modern-day Ukraine
    and Russia, 4500-2500 BCE
  • Domestication of horses, use of Sumerian weaponry
    allowed them to spread widely

54
Indo-European Migrations 3000-1000 BCE
55
Implications of Indo-European Migration
  • Hittites migrate to central Anatolia, c. 1900
    BCE, later dominate Babylonia
  • Influence on trade
  • Horses, chariots with spoked wheels
  • Iron
  • Migrations to western China, Greece, Italy also
    significant
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