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CLASSICAL PERIPHERIES: EMERGING AREAS ON THE BORDERS OF CLASSICAL CIVILIZATIONS

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Title: EARLY SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA Author: Paul Philp Last modified by: paulphilp Created Date: 11/24/2005 2:21:01 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CLASSICAL PERIPHERIES: EMERGING AREAS ON THE BORDERS OF CLASSICAL CIVILIZATIONS


1
CLASSICAL PERIPHERIES EMERGING AREAS ON THE
BORDERS OF CLASSICAL CIVILIZATIONS
2
THE CLASSIC WORLD
3
NOMADIC SOCIETY AND ECONOMY
  • Nomadic peoples
  • Pastoral nomads
  • Clans from common ancestors, with related
    languages
  • Central Asia's steppes
  • Good for grazing, little rain, few rivers
  • Nomads and their animals few settlements
  • Nomads drove their herds in migratory cycles
  • Lived mostly on animal products
  • Produced millet, pottery, leather goods, iron
  • Nomads and settled peoples
  • A love, hate relationship of war and trade
  • Trade, exchange Nomads maintained caravan routes
  • Exchanged horses for finished goods including
    silk
  • Fluidity of classes, gender in nomadic society
  • Two social classes nobles and commoners
  • Patriarchal society but women accorded many
    rights, privileges
  • Religions
  • Mostly shamanistic
  • Diviners influence forces of nature, interpret it

4
THE NOMADS WORLD
5
Central Asia 2000 1000 BCE
6
Indo-Europeans
  • Obscure pastoral nomads
  • Central Eurasian pastoral
  • Lived in area around
  • Northern Black Sea
  • Northern Caspian Sea
  • Language
  • Is basis of Indo-European languages
  • Now spoken on every continent
  • Spoken by over ½ of worlds people
  • Spread throughout Eurasia
  • Left no written records
  • Deeds remembered orally and written down later
  • Often called chariot peoples
  • Migration split culture into different branches
  • Hittites were first in Western History

7
Proto-Indo-European
  • Groups
  • Indo-Europeans
  • Indo-Iranians
  • Indo-Aryans
  • Chariot Peoples
  • Domesticated horse
  • Developed metallurgy technologies
  • Created chariots, archery, cavalry
  • Herded sheep, horses, cattle

8
Indo-European Languages and Groups
  • Linguists cannot date divergence of branches
  • Vocabulary included
  • Mother-Father
  • Mutter-Vater (German)
  • Matar-Patar (Sanskrit)
  • Madre-Padre (Spanish)
  • Mater-Pater (Latin)
  • God
  • Dyas (Sky God Aryans/Sanskrit)
  • Zeus (Greek)
  • Deus (God Latin)
  • Dios, Dieu (God Spanish, French)
  • Dream
  • Soma God of Dreams, Sanskrit
  • Sonar Dream, Spanish
  • Fire, Combust
  • Agni God of Fire, Sanskrit
  • Ignite Explode, combust, English

9
First Migrations
  • c. 4500 BCE
  • First Indo-European cultures north of Caspian Sea
  • Sub-division into tribes with distinct cultures
  • Early chariots, stone idols, stone circles
  • Domestication of the horse
  • c. 4000 BCE
  • Indo-Europeans bury leaders in artificial hills
    with all belongings
  • Anatolian migration begins
  • c. 3500 BCE
  • Animal husbandry, permanent settlements, hill
    forts
  • Subsisting on agriculture and fishing, along
    rivers.
  • Beginning of Bronze Age
  • c. 3000 BCE
  • Indo-Europeans extend across entire steppe north
    of Black Sea to China
  • Migration begins into Europe from the Volga to
    the Rhine River
  • Rise of distinct, individualized cultures with
    distinct languages
  • Anatolian (Hittite) and Tocharian (in Xingjian
    Province)
  • Loose contact spreads technology

10
  • SPREAD OF THE INDO-EUROPEANS

Redsettling up to ca. 2500 BCE Orangesettling
up to ca. 1000 BCE
  • SPREAD OF THE CHARIOT HORSE

11
Break-Up and Spread
  • c. 2500 BCE
  • Rise of distinct proto-languages due to
    geographic separation and physical geography
  • Proto-Greek is spoken in Balkans
  • Proto-Indo-Iranian is spoken North of the Caspian
    Sea
  • Bronze Age reaches Europe
  • c. 2000 BCE
  • Chariot is invented in its modern form
  • Chariot leads to split, spread of Iranians,
    Indo-Aryans over Central Asia, Northern India,
    Iran
  • Anatolian splits into Hittite and lesser
    languages
  • c. 1500 BCE
  • Proto-Germanic and Proto-Celts emerge in Central
    Europe, Scandinavia
  • Proto-Celts become masters of bronze technology
  • Proto-Italians migrate into Italian peninsula
  • Rise of the Rig Veda and Vedic Culture in the
    Indus-Ganges River Valley
  • Mycenaean civilization arises in Peloponnesian
    Peninsula.
  • c. 1000 to 500 BCE
  • Celts spread throughout Western Europe Germanic
    culture arises in Scandinavia
  • Vedic Age gives way to Brahamanism and Upanishads
  • Medes and Persians establish Achaeamenid Empire
    in Southwest Asia

12
Eurasian Migrations
13
Migrations into europe
14
Later Migrations
  • In Europe
  • Celts to Iberia, British Isles c. 750 BCE
  • Scythians, Sarmatians c. 500 BCE along Black Sea
  • Germans 100 600 CE in Central, Western Europe
  • Slavs 300 700 CE from Eastern to SE, Central
    Europe
  • Scandinavian (Vikings) 600 900 CE along rivers,
    coasts
  • In Central Asia
  • Shang to China, c. 1500 BCE
  • Bactrians to Persia, Afganistan 250 BCE
  • Parthians to Persia 250 BCE
  • Tocarians/Kushans to Afghanistan 100 BCE
  • Sakas (Indo-Scythians) to Afghanistan, India 100
    CE

15
Scythians Sarmatians
16
THE CELTS
  • Celts
  • History
  • Arose in Alps, Central Europe 1200 BCE
  • Settled in France, Spain, Britain, Ireland
  • Migrated into Italy, Balkans, Greece, Turkey
    around 1000 BCE
  • Pauls Letter to the Galatians Celt tribe of
    Turkey
  • Strong tradition of warfare, raids
  • Civilization at Ancient Bronze Age similar to
    Mycenae Greece
  • Some cities but generally fortified hill sites
  • Grew wheat and barley and kept sheep, cattle and
    some pigs
  • Developed crafts, strong artistic tradition
    pottery
  • Controlled salt deposits as source of trade
  • Strong trade with Mediterranean, Greeks,
    Etruscans
  • Developed Iron technologies around 1000 BCE
  • Structures and hierarchies
  • Organized into clans, tribes ruled by kings and
    druids
  • Polytheistic, deified nature priests druids
  • Strong tradition of bards, story tellers,
    ballads, heroes, saints
  • Rome and the Celts

17
Celtic Migrations
18
CELTIC WORLD
CELTS BECAME Treveri Helveti Parisi Veneti Regni
Iceni Caledones Celtiberi AND LATER Irish Welsh
Scots Britons Cornish Manx
19
THE GERMANS
  • Early Bronze Age History
  • Original Homeland Sweden
  • Migrated into Germany, Denmark
  • Sometimes allies, slaves of Celts
  • later established independence of Celts
  • Settled 2/3 of Europe
  • Eastern Europe, Central Europe, steppes of
    Ukraine
  • Pushed up to Rhine, Danube border
  • Germans and Romans
  • With defeat of Celts, Germans became threat to
    Rome
  • Germans were stronger than Celts, defied Romans
  • In 1st century, defeated Romans, remained
    independent
  • Romans erected elaborate defense systems against
    Germans
  • Late 3rd century Germans become Roman
    mercenaries
  • Late 4th century Germans allowed to settle in
    Roman empire
  • Society
  • Agrarian society small villages, fortified
    areas some trade
  • Strong tribes, loyalty to warlords raiding very
    important
  • Two classes nobility and commoners both owned
    land

20
THE GERMAN WORLD
Teutons Became Goths Visigoths Ostrogoths Vandals
Franks Burgundians Suevi Alans Angles Saxons Jutes
Lombards Norsemen Germans Austrian Dutch Flemish
English Swiss Swedes Danes Norwegians Icelanders
21
Germanic MigrationsThe Volkerwanderung
22
THE EARLY SLAVIC MIGRATIONS
Slavs were Originally Part of the
German World. The tribes were allied. When
the Germans Moved West, Slavs Were ruled First
by Huns and Later Independent. They filled Hun
and German vacuum.
23
Slavic Migrations
  • Homeland Pripet Marshes (Belarus)
  • 400 650 CE
  • Come to dominate Central, Eastern Europe
  • Filled in for exiting Germans
  • Spread across Carpathians
  • 650 750 CE
  • Spread into Southeast Europe, Balkans
  • Byzantines too weak to prevent
  • Bulgars (Turks) adopt Slavic customs
  • Spread across Northern European Plain

24
Late Indo-European Steppe Peoples in Central Asia
25
BORDERS OF CHINA
  • Relative Location
  • Korea, Vietnam borders of China
  • Japan located off coast of East Asia
  • Physical Characteristics
  • Korea, Vietnam
  • Mountainous, cut by river valleys
  • Population located on plains
  • Japan
  • Volcanic islands, very mountainous
  • Deep valleys with plains
  • Demography
  • Peoples related to Chinese
  • Populace generally heavy on plains
  • Rice was principal crop
  • Cities exist but rarer than China
  • Cities centers of Chinese culture
  • Countryside resistant to Sinification

26
THE CONFUCIAN WORLD
27
Yue, yueh who are they?
  • Yangzi and South
  • China Two cultural hearths where agriculture
    arose
  • Yellow River were clearly Chinese or Han
  • The peoples south of the Yangzi were not Chinese
  • Rice, yams cultivated pig, water buffalo,
    chicken domesticated
  • Strong aquaculture and use of sea-borne
    technologies
  • 1st Wave Voluntary migration to Taiwan,
    Philippines
  • The Yue and the Chinese
  • Ancient Chinese name for peoples south of Yangzi
  • Chinese identify 100 different peoples
  • Qin and Han push control south
  • Increasingly brought under Chinese influence
    language, customs
  • Ethnic Chinese settled throughout area
  • People forced to migrate to hills, leave area
  • Second Wave Westward into hills of Sichuan
  • Third Wave Southward into Vietnam

28
MIGRATION IN EAST AND SOUTH-EAST ASIA
Conquests by Qin and Han armies plus Pressure
from Han peasants migrating To south began the
migrations.
29
Malayo-Polynesians
  • Theories for Origin
  • They migrated from Taiwan, Philippines
  • They migrated from New Guinea
  • They migrated from Yunnan down Mekong
  • Dates
  • Hard to define
  • Thought to be have begun around 2000 BCE
  • Migration Pressures
  • Over-population
  • Technology allowed ease of sailing, navigation
  • Areas Settled
  • Indonesia, Philippines, Malay Peninsula, South
    Vietnam
  • Madagascar, New Zealand, Hawaii
  • New Guinea, Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia

30
Mapping Their Movement
31
THE POLYNESIANS OCEANIC NOMADS
  • Polynesians
  • Originated in New Guinea
  • Developed shifting agriculture, portable
    agriculture
  • Farm one area intensively, move on
  • Raised banana, taro, sweet potato, fish, pigs,
    chickens
  • Sailing Technology
  • Double hulled canoes central platform with sail
  • Use stars, winds, wave patterns, air/sea
    patterns, islands, atolls, birds
  • Migrated across island chains in boats
  • By 1500 BCE settled Madagascar by 300 CE Easter
    Island
  • By 500 CE settled Polynesia, Micronesia, Hawaii
  • By 1000 CE settled New Zealand totally
    different climate
  • Social Structures
  • Migration needed to avoid overpopulation
  • Depleted resources, shortages, environmental
    degradation, conflict
  • Eastern Island was example of this problem
  • Hamlet and villages
  • Hamlets on volcanic islands, up to 5 houses
    often one family
  • Villages on larger islands, up to 30 houses
    often an important chief, king

32
POLYNESIAN WORLD
KEY 1. Polynesia 2. Hawaii 3. New Zealand 4.
Easter Island 5. Samoa 6. Fiji 7. Tahiti
33
Oceanic Nomads
34
Micro, Mela, Poly-nesia
Micro Small IslandsMela Black Islands
(Volcano)Poly Many Islands
35
EARLY KOREA
  • Pre-Historic Korea
  • Region had extensive Paleolithic, Neolithic
    settlements
  • Evolved into pottery producing societies
  • Evolved both dry field, wet field production of
    rice
  • Practiced elite burial
  • Gojoseon
  • Claimed to be the first Korean historical state
  • Founded c. 2300 BCE
  • People were descendants of Altaic tribes
    migrating from Manchuria
  • First capital was Liaoning but later moved to
    Pyongyang
  • Bronze Age Culture to 400 BCE
  • Feudal culture became centralized
  • Agriculture expanded with new crops
  • Iron Age Culture
  • Warfare in China pushed Chinese refugees into
    Korea
  • Refugees brought iron technology into Korea
    leading to collapse of state
  • Period saw rise of culture in Southern Peninsula
    which traded with Japan
  • Han China
  • Qin and Han conquered Northern Korea, ruled them
    as four provinces

36
EARLY JAPAN
  • Ancient Japan
  • Earliest inhabitants were nomadic Caucasians
    (Ainu) from Northeast Asia
  • Japanese related to Koreans, migrated into
    islands, pushed Ainu north
  • Ruled by several dozen states dominate by clans,
    1st millennium BCE
  • Shinto Ancestor veneration with deification of
    nature, spirits (kami)
  • Nara Japan (710-794 C.E.)
  • Yamato clan claimed imperial authority
  • The imperial court modeled on that of the Tang
  • Built a new capital (Nara) in 710 C.E., modeled
    on Chang'an
  • Adopted Confucianism, Buddhism, but maintained
    Shinto
  • Heian Japan (794-1185 C.E.)
  • Moved to new capital Heian (modern Kyoto) in 794
  • Japanese emperors as ceremonial figureheads and
    symbols of authority
  • Effective power in the hands of the Fujiwara
    family, bureaucrats
  • Emperor did not rule lived in splendid isolation
    along with court elite
  • Chinese learning dominated Japanese education,
    culture
  • The Tale of Genji
  • Women contributed most to Japanese literature and
    writing
  • Decline of Heian Japan

37
Dai Viet or Vietnam
  • Yue People
  • Chinese name for Vietnamese
  • Settled in Red River Valley
  • Subject to Chinese rule until 900 CE
  • Vietnamese State
  • Many Chinese cultural forms
  • But distinctive Vietnamese qualities
  • Constant battle with Chinese
  • Later State
  • Pushed south along coast
  • Settled Vietnamese peasants to farm rice, raise
    fish
  • In early modern era, absorbed Champa
  • Pushed up Mekong River against Khmer People

38
The Vietnamese Champa
  • Genetic Markers
  • Indicate an origin in South China
  • Southern Chinese (Yue, Intermarriage)
  • The Thai, Malayo-Polynesians
  • Originated as the Yue People of South China
  • Came under increasing Chinese presence
  • Migration to avoid assimilation
  • Moved into Red River Valley
  • Tributary to China for 1500 years
  • From 500 BCE to 1000 CE were tributary to China
  • Around 900 began successful revolt to throw off
    Chinese
  • Vietnamese state expanded
  • Expanded south along coast absorbed related
    Champa
  • Push inland from coast up to highlands
  • Champa
  • A Malayo-Polynesian state establish in South
    Vietnam
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