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SOUTH ASIA Geography 200 Dr. Stavros Constantinou INDIA The name India comes from the Sanskrit word sindhu which was used to identify the ancient civilization in the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • Geography 200
  • Dr. Stavros Constantinou

  • The name India comes from the Sanskrit word
    sindhu which was used to identify the ancient
    civilization in the Indus Valley.
  • This word became sinthos in Greek descriptions
    of the area and then sindus in Latin.
  • Corrupted to indus (means river), it was
    applied to what constitutes today's Pakistan.
  • Subsequently it was again modified to India to
    refer generally to the land of river basins and
    clusters of peoples from the Indus River in the
    west to the Brahmaputra River in the east.

  • India is located between 8 N and 37 N. The
    Tropic of Cancer passes through northern India.
  • Such cities as Ahmadabad, Kolkata (Calcutta),
    Karachi, Bhopal and Dhaka are located close to
    the tropic.
  • India, the world's seventh largest country, has
    an area of 3,286,170 sq km (1,269,340 sq mi)
    which represents 2.2 percent of the total land
    area of the planet (57,900,000 sq mi).

  • There are three main landform regions in South
    Asia Alpine chains, sedimentary covers, and
    Gondwana Shield.
  • Alpine system The Himalayas form a major
    barrier to the movements of air masses north and
    south and exceed 6,096 m (20,000 ft) in several
  • Mount Everest (Nepal Sagarmatha Tibetan
    Chomolungma) is the worlds highest mountain at
    8,848 m (29,035 ft).
  • The climate ranges from tropical lowlands to
    Arctic conditions in the high altitudes of Mount
    Everest and other peaks.
  • The Karakoram Pass provides access from
    north-central India through the Himalayan and
    Hindu Kush mountains.
  • The Khyber Pass in the west was used by invading
  • Population in the Himalayas is limited except in
    the Vale of Kashmir and in Nepal (25,200,000
  • Bhutan has 900,000 and Sikkim less than one
    million. Sikkim has been incorporated into India
    and is one of its provinces.
  • Rice and wheat are the dominant grain crops.

  • Sedimentary covers The riverine plains of the
    Indus, the Ganges (known as Ganga to Indians),
    and the Brahmaputra and the coastal plains of the
    Indian Peninsula form this region.
  • The North Indian Plain forms a belt of alluvial
    lowlands stretching from Pakistans Indus River
    on the west to the Brahmaputra on the east.
  • The Ganges River with its various tributaries is
    the major river of northern India.
  • This region of plains is from 320 to 500 km (200
    to 300 mi) wide and it extends through Pakistan,
    India, and Bangladesh.
  • The climate varies from arid in Punjab to
    tropical around the Bay of Bengal.
  • Soils (inceptisols) are derived from alluvium and
    they are relatively fertile and generally level.
    In the arid areas, irrigation has created
    environmental problems through accumulation of
    salts (salinization).

  • Gondwana Shield This landform region extends
    southward from the southern borders of the Ganges
    drainage area and includes the lava covered
    Deccan Plateau.
  • This plateau is framed on the north by the
    Vindhyas and the Tapti and Godavari Rivers on
    the west, the Western Ghats (Hills) lining the
    Malabar Coast on the east, the Eastern Ghats
    paralleling the Coromandel Coast at the southern
    margin are the Blue Mountains which exceed 2,600
    m (8,800 ft).
  • The central portion of the Deccan Plateau has
    fertile soils (vertisols), derived from volcanic
    materials, primarily cultivated with cotton.
  • Elevations of the Deccan Plateau are
    approximately 305 to 450 m (1,000 to 1,500 ft).
  • The coastal areas have a humid tropical climate
    with abundant rain from the orographic effect of
    the Ghats.

  • The monsoon (the seasonal reversal of wind
    systems) is the dominant climate force.
  • With few exceptions the climate of Monsoon Asia
    is tropical or sub-tropical.
  • Air flows from land to sea with dry conditions in
    winter and a sea-to-land movement in summer with
    humid conditions.
  • The causes of the monsoon are the shifting of the
    jet stream north and south of the Himalayas and
    the differential heating between land and water.
  • During the summer the jet stream moves north of
    the Himalayas allowing moist air to penetrate the
    continent from the oceans.
  • In winter, the jet stream is divided with one
    part south of the Himalayas.
  • The air movement effectively prevents moisture
    from the oceans from moving into the core area of
    India along the Ganges and dry conditions
  • Land heats quickly and loses the heat quickly
    while bodies of water heat up slowly and lose
    heat slowly.

  • Tropical rainforest (Am) Coromandel and
    Malabar coastal regions. Controls-latitude and
    orographic effect.
  • Humid subtropical (Cwa) Ganges Valley.
  • Tropical savanna (Aw) Western reaches of
    Vindhya Ranges to Ganges Delta.
  • Subtropical steppe (BSh) Deccan Plateau.
    Inadequate summer moisture. Rainshadow effect
    of Western Ghats.
  • Subtropical desert (BWh) Indus Valley and the
    Thar (Great Indian) Desert.

  • The main vegetation regions of India are the
  • Broadleaf deciduous Extensive area in
    northwestern India and Pakistan. Shrubs can grow
    to a maximum of one meter (three feet) singly or
    in groups.
  • Broadleaf deciduous Same as above except trees
    grow to a minimum of one meter singly or in
    groups. It surrounds the area above.
  • Broadleaf deciduous ( terai) An extensive area
    from the Gangetic Plains to southern India. Terai
    Lowlands in Nepal.
  • Broadleaf evergreen Malabar Coast, Coromandel
    Coast and Sri Lanka.
  • Semi-deciduous broadleaf evergreen and
    broadleaf deciduous They are found in an area
    inward from the Malabar Coast and the lower
    valley of the Ganges.
  • Broadleaf deciduous trees. Bihar and Orissa.
    Broadleaf evergreen, shrub form, minimum height
    one meter (3 feet).

  • The main soil regions of India are the following
  • Aridisols Northwestern India and Pakistan.
    Salts may accumulate on or near the surface of
    these soils which are poor in organic matter.
  • Alfisols Northern sections of the Gangetic
    plain and extending to Kathiawar Peninsula. They
    are also found in area south of 20 degrees N
    latitude and along the Coromandel Coast.
  • Inceptisols They are found in the Gangetic
    plains and the Malabar Coast. They are immature
    and weakly developed soils.
  • Vertisols An extensive area from north of
    Mumbai (Bombay) to the Ganges River. These soils
    are rich in clays and crack deeply during dry
  • Ultisols They are found in northeastern India
    (Bihar and Orissa).

  • India has a rather poor resource base. The
    country does not lead the world in any of the
    important minerals or other sources of energy
    useful for industrialization and development.
  • India is the second largest producer of grains.
    The possibility for expanding production of
    grains remains very low, despite gains. Low
    productivity per person in the agricultural
    sector accentuate the problems of population,
    making it difficult to increase production.
  • India has the largest deposit of high-grade iron
    ore in the world. In Bihar state alone, a single
    range is estimated to hold nearly three billion
    tons of iron ore. Iron ore deposits are also
    important in the state of Karnataka. India
    produces 5.6 percent of the world's iron ore and
    has 6.6 percent of the world's reserves in iron

  • India produces 3.8 percent of the world's coal.
    Coal and steel are produced in the Damodar Valley
    fields of northeastern India which account for
    more than 50 percent of coal production. Limited
    coking-coal deposits are found in Chota Nagpur.
  • India has discovered oil deposits in the Bay of
    Bengal which hold promise for further expansion.
  • India has a great hydroelectric potential,
    provided dams are constructed to exploit the
    rivers of the country.
  • India has important deposits of uranium
    phosphates in the Thar Desert, and manganese (5.2
    percent) in the central Deccan plateau and
    eastern Coromandel Coast.
  • India produces 2.5 percent of the world's
    bauxite, and it produces 5.2 percent of the
    world's chromite.

  • India had 1,068,600,000 people in 2003 (17 of
    the world total), the world's second largest
    country in population after China.
  • India has a rate of natural increase of 1.7
    (compared to a 1.3 world rate) and a projected
    population of 1,363,000,000 by 2025.
  • At this rate, it is only a matter of time before
    India becomes the world's most populous country.
  • The largest clusters of the Indian population are
    found in the Gangetic plains in the north and the
    coastal areas of the country. These are the most
    fertile parts of India.

  • There was an increase of 19,100,000 people from
    2002 to 2003.
  • From 2001 to 2002, the absolute population
    increase of 16,500,000.
  • In 2000, India had 1,002,100,000 people, while in
    1920 the population of the country was
  • The population of the country quadrupled in 80
  • The Ganges-Brahmaputra and Indus River systems
    are crucial lifelines for hundreds of millions of

  • In India, population arithmetic density (in
    2003) was 325 persons per sq km (842 persons per
    sq mi) physiological density (in 2000) was at
    557 persons per square kilometer (1442 persons
    per square mile).
  • In neighboring Bangladesh the arithmetic density
    is approximately 2.5 times as high, 1,040 persons
    per sq km (2,639 persons per sq mi).

  • In 1952, the Indian government adopted family
    planning as a national policy.
  • By 1961, there were 4,165 family planning
  • As a part of the government campaign to limit the
    number of children, the government has put up
    billboards with the following slogan "four is a
    family, five is a crowd."
  • In 1976, a national population policy was adopted
  • the increase of the age of marriage for females
    to 18 years and for males to 21,
  • tying financial grants from the federal
    government to the state governments to their
    performance in limiting births,
  • provision of sex education in schools,
  • expansion of compensation for voluntary
  • and use of incentives by governments to encourage
    people to limit their family size.
  • In 1977, this policy was made voluntary following
    the collapse of the Indira Gandhi government.
    Only 8 of federal assistance was tied to
    performance on birth control by states.

  • In 2003, India was one of the least urbanized of
    the large in population countries of the world,
    given that only 28 percent of the country's
    population resided in urban areas.
  • Although the proportion classified as urban is
    small, in absolute numbers India had 299,208,000
    people residing in urban centers.
  • Mumbai (formerly Bombay), with 11,914,398 people,
    is the largest city of India in terms of
    population. Delhi ranks second with 9,817,439
    followed by Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) with
  • 11 Indian cities have populations in excess of
    one million inhabitants.
  • The largest metropolitan area populations of
    India are
  • Mumbai 16,368,084
  • Kolkata 13,216,546
  • Delhi 12,791,458

  • Indian urbanization is accelerating, and urban
    India is today growing more than twice as rapidly
    as the country's overall population.
  • Attendant problems include poor sanitation,
    street dwellers, and riots.
  • In 1984, riots between Hindu and Moslems in
    Mumbai left hundreds dead.
  • Reasons for migration to cities (internal
  • Loosening of ties between poor peasants and their
  • Widespread establishment of village men or "caste
    brothers" who encourage friends and relatives to
    move to the cities.

  • The location of India's modern urban centers is a
    reflection of colonialism.
  • The British founded and developed Kolkata
    (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay), and Chennai (Madras)
    as regional trading centers and as coastal focal
    points for their colony's export and import
  • In Chennai (Madras), they built a fort in 1640.
  • In Mumbai (Bombay) in 1644, they fostered the
    growth of a port-city that was closest to Britain
    and Europe. Mumbai is located on the west coast
    of India
  • Kolkata (Calcutta) lies 130 kilometers (80 miles)
    from the east on the Hooghly River, and a myriad
    of Ganges River delta channels connect it to its
  • Kolkata (Calcutta) lost a large part of its
    hinterland to Pakistan at the time of the
    partitioning of British India. This area is now a
    part of Bangladesh.
  • An 1812 rebellion forced the British to move the
    colonial capital from Kolkata (Calcutta) to the
    safer interior city of New Delhi, built
    adjacently to the old Mogul headquarters of Delhi.

  • Population densities in urban centers are very
  • Kolkata (Calcutta) averages 13,900 persons per sq
    km (36,000 persons per sq mi) for its entire area
    of 1036 sq km (400 sq mi).
  • By comparison, New York City averages 1544
    persons per sq km (4,000 persons per sq mi).
  • In Kolkata (Calcutta), an estimated 200,000
    residents are known as street people and sleep
    under bridges, railway overpasses, in doorways or
    wherever they can find a spot.
  • Slightly better off are the residents of the
    bustees, hovels made of cardboard, burlap, or
    other scrap material.
  • An estimated 2,000,000 people live in bustees.

  • Indian urbanization reveals several regional
  • The northern heartland, the west (wheat growing
    area) is more urbanized than the east (where rice
    forms the main staple crop).
  • In the west urbanization may be as much as 40
    in the east only about 10 of the population
    resides in urban centers.
  • India's larger cities (more than 100,000) are
    concentrated in three regions
  • (1) the northern plains from Punjab to the Ganges
  • (2) the Bombay-Ahmadabad area
  • (3) the southern end of the peninsula, which
    includes Madras and Bangalore
  • Large cities(more than one million) outside these
    regions include centrally positioned Nagpur and
    Hyderabad (capital of Andhra Pradesh).

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  • India is indeed a Babel of languages. In 1947,
    the Indian subcontinent had 550 princely states,
    900 separate dialects and 15 major languages.
  • The two major linguistic families are the
    Indo-European and the Dravidian.
  • Languages that are members of the Indo-European
    family are spoken in the central and northern
    parts of the country, and languages that belong
    to the Dravidian family are spoken in southern
  • Dravidian languages are spoken by about 25
    percent of the Indian population. They include
    Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, and Malayalam.
  • Today India has fourteen official languages
    including Hindi and English (associate official).
    Hindi is the official and predominant language
    of India.
  • Hindi was one of the 14 languages given national
    status by the Indian constitution, 10 in the
    north and 4 in the Dravidian south.
  • Before World War II, the British recognized 179
    official languages and 544 dialects (total723).
  • English would remain a lingua franca when Hindi
    could not serve as a medium of communication at
    government and administrative levels.

  • Southern Asia Is marked by strong cultural
  • Division is largely based on religious
    differences between Moslem dominated and Hindu
    dominated regions.
  • The Ganges River is the most important river of
    South Asia. It is the most sacred of all rivers
    to the Hindus, and provides water to a major
    urban area along its course, including Kolkata
    (Calcutta) in India and Dhaka in Bangladesh.
  • The Hindustan holy city of Varanasi is located on
    the Ganges.

  • Religions
  • Hinduism 81.3
  • Muslim 12.0
  • Sunni 9.0
  • Shiite 3.0
  • Christian 2.3
  • Protestant 1.1
  • Roman Catholic 1.0
  • Sikh 1.9
  • Buddhist 0.8
  • Jain 0.4
  • Zoroastrian 0.01
  • Other 1.3

  • Hinduism
  • This system of beliefs forms the cultural basis
    of the Indian society, which is highly
  • The caste system is an integral part of
  • A caste is a hereditary social group limited to
    persons of the same rank, occupation, etc., and
    having distinctive mores.
  • Dharma in Hinduism is the individual duty of each
    person. Dharma is related to the rigid social
    order of India (caste system), since the caste to
    which one is born in determines the duty that
    must be followed.

  • Hinduism
  • Four broad castes exist in Hindu Society
  • Brahmans are the teachers, religious leaders,
    and scholars.
  • Kshatriya political leaders and warriors.
  • Vaisya are engaged in trades or farming.
  • Sudra are the lowest class and provide services
    to support the society.

  • Hinduism
  • Each of these four broad groups is broken down
    into subgroups whose relative status is dependent
    upon their extent of ritual purity (avoidance of
    contact with unclean objects).
  • Those dealing with death or decaying materials
    were in the lowest classes of the sudra.
  • At the very bottom of the order are the
    untouchables (harijans), so called, because in
    the past (and among many Indians today) it is
    believed that they would contaminate others
    ritual purity if there was any personal contact
    between them.
  • Untouchables lived in separate communities, had
    separate wells for water, and in the 19th
    century, were prohibited from using roads used by
    other castes

  • Hinduism
  • Aspect of life related to the cycle of life,
    death, and rebirth, or reincarnation.
  • For the Hindu, life is not simply a progression
    from birth until death, but a progression in a
    circular fashion until freedom is obtained from
    the cycle.
  • Freedom from continued reincarnation can be
    obtained through nirvana, which consists of
    obtaining spiritual unification with the cosmic
    forces, and being liberated from the human
    processes of death and birth.

  • Associated with nirvana and reincarnation is the
    concept of karma, or law of the deed.
  • Karma specifies that for each good act there will
    be a reward and for each evil act there will be a
  • An individual's status in the caste system
    reflects actions in the previous incarnations.
  • It is impossible to move upward in the caste
    system through education or acquisition of wealth
    or social change, since a specific caste is a
    result of previous actions.
  • Suttee is a Hindu practice whereby a widow
    immolated herself on the funeral pyre of her

  • Aryan invaders from Western Asia conquered the
    early Indus Valley civilization around 3500 BC.
  • They pushed settlement frontiers east into the
    Gangetic Plain and south into the center of the
  • Indias culture developed from this beginning,
    including the Hindu religion and the caste system
    rigid social stratification.
  • Buddhism was dominant during the Mauryan Empire
    (3rd century BC to 2nd century AD).
  • Buddhism soon declined in South Asia, remaining
    strong only in Sri Lanka, where it still
  • Buddhism today is centered mainly in East and
    Southeast Asia.

  • Arabs invaded northwestern India shortly after
    700 AD, bringing with them Islam.
  • After the 10th century, Islam was a strong
    influence in India, driving out Buddhism, but not
    Hinduism, which remained dominant in Indias
    Ganges core area and southern India.
  • Muslims remain a sizeable minority (slightly less
    than 15) in India, and form overwhelming
    majorities in Pakistan and Bangladesh.
  • The Mogul dynasty was founded in 1526.
  • Taxation of land was based on granting rights to
    tax to a local authority.
  • Under the Mogul system the individual peasant
    retained ownership of the land.
  • The Mogul dynasty collapsed in 1707, leaving a
    kingdom without a ruler and presenting the
    opportunity for European domination.

  • European contacts in south Asia were made by the
    Portuguese, Dutch, French, and British.
  • All European colonial powers established trading
    posts for spices and fabrics, but eventually
    Britain emerged as the dominant colonial power in
    South Asia.
  • The period of British colonial dominance in
    India can be divided into two parts
  • Period I (1757-1857). Domination of India by the
    British East India Company.
  • Period II (1858-1947). India as a British Crown
  • In 1600, Queen Elizabeth I granted exclusive
    rights to the spice trade of Asia to the British
    East India Company, under which India began to
    come under British control.

  • By 1858, nearly 2/3 of the subcontinent was ruled
    directly by the company the remaining
    inaccessible areas were controlled by more than
    500 princely states.
  • Rebellion of Indian troops against the British in
    1857 culminated in a decision to strip the
    British East India Company of its monopoly and
    proclaim the subcontinent a crown colony (1858).
  • Britain exercised outright political control over
    India from 1857 to 1947.
  • The British introduced many innovations to India,
    but forced the colonial economy of India to
    become a raw material producer subservient to the
    English master.

  • The impact of colonialism on India can be
    summarized as follows
  • Pros
  • Creation of a civil service patterned after the
    British model which became part of the new
    independent governments that were set up upon the
    departure of the British.
  • Development of an extensive railroad and road
    transportation system. Although the development
    of this system had as its objective the movement
    of troops to troubled spots, India inherited a
    well planned and developed system.
  • Improvements in sanitation and simple hygienic
    practices that led to the beginnings of rapid
    population increases.

  • Cons
  • The British East India Company granted the
    village representatives deeds to the lands from
    which they had collected taxes under the Moguls.
    Thus, the village representatives became
    landlords charging cash rent. Property
    ultimately ended in the hands of urban
    moneylenders as peasants borrowed at exorbitant
    interest rates to pay taxes, and a large rural
    landless class emerged.
  • Peasants produced crops demanded by the British
    East India Company including coffee, tea, sugar,
    spices, cotton, indigo, and jute. As British
    influence in Asia spread to China, opium also
    became an important crop, as it could be resold
    or traded in China for additional high-value
    spices. Because crops encouraged by the British
    East India Company were for export, an
    asymmetrical relationship developed in trade
    between the Indian subcontinent and the British
    East India Company.
  • Destruction of a large Indian textile handicraft
    industry, because of the production of a surplus
    of textile goods by the mechanized British
  • Maintenance of the cultural fragmentation of the
    subcontinent through the application of indirect

  • Indians began calling for independence from
    Britain in the 1930s and 1940s.
  • At the same time, Muslims Indians were demanding
    a separate state from Hindu India.
  • The British left India in 1947.
  • Before withdrawing they separated their former
    territory into Hindu India and Islamic Pakistan
    West Pakistan (now Pakistan) and East Pakistan
    (now Bangladesh, and independent from Pakistan).
  • This partitioning involved mass migrations of
    approximately 15,000,000 people.
  • It also caused conflict and social stresses that
    persist to the present day.

  • Primary Sector
  • Indian agriculture is inefficient and labor
  • Animals are frequently used for power.
  • The village is the focus of life for 74 percent
    of the Indian population with an estimated
    580,000 villages.
  • Approximately 2/3 of India's huge working
    population (63 percent) depends directly on the
    land for its livelihood.
  • Substantial progress toward modernization has
    been made in the Punjab's wheat zone.
  • In the early 1980s more than 1/4 of India's
    cultivated area was still owned by only 4 percent
    of the country's farming families.
  • Half of all rural families either owned as little
    as a half hectare (1.25 acres) or less, or no
    land at all.
  • Land consolidation efforts have had only limited
    success, except in the states of Punjab, Haryana,
    and Uttar Pradesh.

  • Major crop zones
  • Wheat. Dry northwest notably in the Punjab and
    neighboring areas of the Upper Ganges. Many
    gains from the Green Revolution through the
    introduction of high-yielding varieties developed
    in Mexico.
  • Rice. Moist east and a summer monsoon drenched
    south. More than 1/4 of all of India's farmland
    lies under rice cultivation, most of it in the
    states of Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, and
    eastern Uttar Pradesh. This area has more than
    100 cm (40 inches) of rainfall. India has the
    largest acreage of rice among the world's
    countries. Yields per hectare are still low at
    below 1,000 kg (900 lbs./acre), however.
  • Coconut. Malabar Coast. (Kerala)
  • Millet. Southwestern India. A cereal grass,
    Setaria italica, extensively cultivated in the
    East and in southern Europe for its small seed or
    grain, used as food for man and fowls, but in the
    U.S. grown chiefly for fodder.
  • Groundnut. Kathiawar Peninsula.
  • Cotton. West-Central India (Deccan Plateau).
  • Chick Peas. Northwest.
  • Plantation. Northeast.

  • Livestock
  • India has more livestock than any other country
    in the world.
  • Cows - 200,000,000
  • water buffalo - 60,000,000
  • Goats and sheep - 60,000,000
  • Horses, donkeys, and elephants - 5,000,000
  • Sheep are of major importance in the drier west
    where the Islamic population is clustered.
  • Water buffalo is dominant in the Ganges Delta and
    coastal regions.
  • Cattle (particularly the Brahman or Zebu breeds)
    are found throughout India.

  • Cattle are an integral element of the Indian
    agricultural economy.
  • They are the primary source of draft power
    (plowing, pulling carts, grinding grain, and a
    host of other tasks).
  • Cattle graze on forage which would otherwise be
    wasted during a dry season.
  • Cattle consume secondary agriculture byproducts
    (straw, rice husks, and corn stalks).
  • Cattle produce an estimated 771,000,000 metric
    tons (850,000,000 tons) of cow dung, the
    principle source of domestic fuel a year.
  • Dung is also mixed with mud and used for plaster
    also a major source of fertilizer.
  • Cattle also produce most of India's milk (the
    bulk of which comes from the water buffalo).
  • When a cow dies, it is consumed by the
    untouchables (who have no prohibitions about
    consuming beef when it is available) of the large
    Hindu population.
  • Cow hides are a major source of leather.
  • The maintenance of the large numbers of cows and
    buffalo is a completely rational activity in the
    Indian agricultural economy.

  • Green Revolution describes the development of
    extremely high-yielding grain crops that allow
    major increases in food production, particularly
    in subtropical areas.
  • In 1953, scientists developed rust-resistant
    dwarf wheats which doubled Mexico's per acre
    production in the next decade.
  • After a major drought in India in 1965, Mexican
    dwarf wheat was widely planted in the Punjab
    region, producing dramatic increases in wheat
  • The improved rice (IR)- IR-8 was spotted in 1965
    at the Los BaZos research institute in the
    Philippines, which was set up using aid from the
    Ford and Rockefeller Foundations.
  • Its first harvest, from 60 trial tons of seeds,
    produced a six-fold increase of rice under field
  • About 10 of India's paddy land is now planted
    with IR-8 varieties.

  • Green Revolution benefits
  • Two to four times the yield of indigenous grains.
  • A shortened growing season allows two crops per
  • Miracle grains" have a wider tolerance for
    climatic variations.
  • Green Revolution problems
  • Need for high application of fertilizer and
    insecticide, and in the case of rice, there is a
    need for copious irrigation.
  • "Miracle grains" have been adopted in the most
    prosperous areas and among the most prosperous
    farmers. As a result, interregional and social
    gaps have widened.
  • Traditional marketing patterns have been upset.
    Thailand and Myanmar (Burma) have found their
    traditional markets disappearing, and Japan now
    looks for exports.

  • Secondary sector
  • At the time of independence (1947), Indian
    industries emphasized textiles and food
  • Gandhi championed development of the cottage
    industries that existed prior to the intervention
    of Britain.
  • A cottage industry involves small scale
    production using high labor inputs.
  • Cottage industries are very important because
    they are labor intensive.
  • They employ 40 individuals for every one employed
    in a large automated factory producing the same
  • A total of 750 products is produced by small
    industries which use lt100,000 in capital.
    (Receivers, tools, plumbing fittings, etc.).
  • Manufacturing employs only 13 of the labor

  • Manufacturing Regions
  • Kolkata (Calcutta) and Jamshedpur form an
    emerging industrial region in northeastern India.
  • Calcutta forms the center of the Bihar-Bengal
    area where jute manufacturing dominates, but
    engineering, chemical and cotton industries also
    exist. Jute a strong, coarse fiber used for
    making burlap, gunny, and cordage it is obtained
    from two East Indian plants-Corchorus capsularis
    and Corchorus olitorius of the linden family.
  • The Jamshedpur region 240 km (150 mi) west of
    Calcutta has the Tata Steel Works, Indias single
    largest steel making complex (Indian Ruhr).
  • In the nearby Chota-Nagpur district, coal mining
    and iron and steel manufactures have developed,
    and Bhilai is a growing nucleus of heavy industry.

  • Manufacturing Regions
  • 2. Western Zone-Mumbai (Bombay)-Ahmadabad
    This Maharashtra, Gujarat area specializes in
    cotton and chemicals with some engineering and
    food processing, automobiles, and petrochemicals.
  • 3. Southeastern Zone- Chennai (Madras)
    specializing in textiles.
  • 4. Bangalore supports diversified electrical
    manufacturing, machine tools, the construction
    industry, and food processing.

  • It is remarkable that India has been able to
    survive such centrifugal forces (divisive).
  • Forces that tend to bind a political system
    together are call centripetal forces. Among the
    most important centripetal forces of India are
  • The cultural and religious strength of Hinduism
  • Strong, charismatic leaders (Gandhi, Nehru,
  • The flexibility on the language issue that was
    demonstrated by the federal government, an
    ability to tolerate individuality in its states,
    and its capacity to modify and re-modify the
    federal map.

  • India is the world's largest and most complex
    federal democracy, and it forms a federation of
    28 states and 6 union territories (UTs) and 1
    National Capital Territory (NCT).
  • The UTs are small in area and population and they
    come under direct federal control.
  • The capital of modern India is New Delhi, located
    in the NCT, along with Delhi. This area has more
    than 13,000,000 people.
  • India became independent on August 15, 1947,
    following partition of British India (West and
    East Pakistan, India, and Sri Lanka).
  • As many as 15 million people crossed the
    superimposed boundary which was determined on the
    criterion that all contiguous civil divisions and
    territories with Moslem majorities had to be
    incorporated in the Muslim state (Pakistan).
  • The Taj Mahal is a remnant of the Muslim presence
    in India.
  • As early as 1953, the federal government yielded
    to demands for the creation of a Telugu speaking
    state from Tamil dominated Madras thus, the
    state of Andhra Pradesh was formed.

  • In 1960, the state of Bombay was fragmented into
    two linguistic states, Gujarat and Maharashtra.
  • Naga peoples (less than half million) in the east
    put up a struggle against federal authority and
    local Assamese administration and Nagaland was
    established as a state in 1961.
  • The religion Sikhism developed and is still based
    in the Punjab region of India. The Sikh religious
    capital is Amritsar.
  • In the northwest, the Sikhs demanded the breakup
    of the original state of Punjab into a Sikh
    dominated west (now Punjab) and a Hindu east (now
  • Pressure for greater regional autonomy continues
    in several other parts of India especially Assam
    and Tamil Nadu.

  • Three new states were created in November 2000.
    Those were the following Chhattisgarh (11/1/00),
    Uttaranchal (11/8/00), and Jharkhand (11/15/00).
  • Chhattisgarh was carved out of the eastern
    districts of the state of Madhya Pradesh in order
    to accommodate the demands of the local people
    who felt exploited and without a voice in state
  • Uttaranchal covers the northern hilly sections of
    the state of Uttar Pradesh, the largest state in
    population (160,000,000). It was granted
    statehood because the environment and the ways of
    life are very different from those prevalent in
    the Ganges Valley.

  • Kashmir
  • The state of Jammu and Kashmir is located
    adjacent to India, Pakistan, China, and
  • The control of Jammu and Kashmir is still under
    dispute by India and Pakistan.
  • At the time of independence (1947) this state was
    one of the 562 princely states in India.
  • The population was 4,750,000, about half of them
    lived in the Vale of Kashmir where the capital of
    Srinagar is also located.
  • About 45 of the population lived in Jammu with
    the remainder scattered in the high mountains

  • Kashmir
  • The main conflict between India and Pakistan
    arose over the sovereignty of the state of
    Kashmir, because the ruler was Hindu and about
    75 of the population was Muslim.
  • While at the time of independence the maharajah
    chose autonomy over union with either India or
    Pakistan, soon he was faced with a Muslim
    rebellion against Hindu rule.
  • The maharajah invited the assistance of India and
    Pakistani troops came the help of the Muslims.
  • The war between India and Pakistan lasted for
    more than one year and the negotiation of the
    cease fire line left about 80 of the states
    population under the control of India.
  • Pakistan is worried that India, by controlling
    the Kashmir, controls the vital water resources
    of the Indus River, which also flows through
  • Moreover, Kashmir presents the same situation
    that existed at the time of independence with the
    separation of Muslims and Hindus into Pakistan
    and India.
  • The recent nuclear tests of both countries do not
    bode well for accommodation any time soon.

  • Pakistan is the second largest country in
    southern Asia, after India, both in area and
  • With 149,100,000 people in 2003, Pakistan is one
    of the world's ten largest countries in
  • As a dry-world country, Pakistan owes much of its
    existence to the waters of the exotic Indus River
    that originates in the northern reaches of the
    country to flow through the middle of the country
    and empty in the Arabian Sea.
  • For the most part, Pakistanis live around this
    river like the Egyptians cluster around the Nile.
  • Pakistan is an Islamic Republic.
  • Pakistan is bordered by Iran, Afghanistan,
    Tajikistan, China and India.

  • Pakistan lacks any major resources with the
    exception of some natural gas and chromite in
    Baluchistan and minor iron deposits which are
    used in a small plant at Multan.
  • Pakistan is a highly rural society with only 34
    percent of the population classified as urban
    (world average is 47 percent).
  • The region called the Punjab was partitioned in
    1947. Consequently, both India and Pakistan have
    areas called the Punjab. In Pakistan, the Punjab
    is the core area of the country.
  • The major urban centers of the country are
    Karachi and Lahore. Both are located within the
  • Karachi with 4,901,627 (5,300,000) inhabitants
    was Pakistan's first capital city and major

  • Lahore with 2,707,215 (3,025,000) residents is
    located very close to the sensitive boundary with
  • Founded in the first or second century A.D.,
    Lahore became established as a great Moslem
    center during the Mogul period.
  • In 1959, after just over a decade as the federal
    capital of Pakistan, Rawalpindi became the new
    capital, until Islamabad was completed near the
    boundary of Kashmir.
  • Islamabad is a forward capital, a manifestation
    of Pakistan's determination to emphasize its
    presence in the contested north.
  • Agriculture is labor intensive and the output is
  • In Sind where large estates exist, yields are
    low because of outdated irrigation systems and
    the paucity of incentives for landless peasants.
  • The most significant industry of Pakistan is
    textiles that use the country's substantial
    cotton production.

  • The political geography of Pakistan has been a
    turbulent one since the inception of the country
    in 1947.
  • At first it was the conflict with India later
    the secession of East Pakistan and the formation
    of Bangladesh (1971) then the Soviet invasion of
    Afghanistan and the 3,000,000 of refugees that
    fled into Pakistan.
  • An additional problem is the manifestation of
    irredentism in Baluchistan along the border with
    Iran and Pathanistan which is along the border
    with Afghanistan.
  • Pakhtuns (also called Pashtuns, Pathans, or
    Pushtuns) constitute about 50 of the population
    of Afghanistan (28,700,000) and have encouraged
    those living in the northwestern region of
    Pakistan to demand their own state of
    Pakhtunistan (Pathanistan).
  • Pakistan's response to this problem was to hasten
    integration through education, improved
    communications, and other facilities, but Afghan
    irredentism continues.

  • Bangladesh became independent from Pakistan in
  • Until then, Bangladesh was called East Pakistan
    and formed a part of Pakistan, since the
    partition of the British India (1947).
  • East Pakistan provided most of Pakistans
    foreign exchange, mostly from jute.
  • Bangladesh is a comparatively small country in
    area, 130,173 sq km (50,260 sq mi) with
    146,700,000 people (Ohio's area is 40,953 sq mi).

  • Territorially, Bangladesh is surrounded by India
    on all sides, with the exception of a short
    stretch of boundary that adjoins Myanmar (Burma)
    on the southeast and the southern coastal area.
  • Bangladesh occupies the deltaic plains of the
    Ganges-Brahmaputra river system which empties
    into the Bay of Bengal through numerous
  • In the hinterland of Chittagong, the flat terrain
    of the floodplains rises into hills and
  • Bangladesh has a very high proportion of its land
    that is agriculturally useful.
  • The land is fertile, with rice, jute, and tea
    being the major crops.
  • In most places three harvests of rice per year
    are possible however, harvests are not big
    enough to support the huge population, especially
    following the war of secession.

  • Cyclones (as hurricane or typhoon type storms
    are called there) constitute a major natural
    hazard because much of southern Bangladesh lies
    less than four m (13 feet) above sea level.
  • In early 1971, a devastating tropical cyclone
    exacted 600,000 lives.
  • It was the second greatest natural disaster of
    the 20th century after the 1976 earthquake that
    killed upwards of 700,000 in Tangshan, China.
  • Resources of natural gas, coal, timber, and
    several minerals remain unexploited because of
    the focus on the fighting of malnutrition.

  • In 2003 the population of Bangladesh was
    146,700,000 -- as compared to 128,100,000 in
  • The country has an average annual growth of 2.2
    percent and a density of 1,019 persons per sq. km
    (2,639 persons per sq. mi).
  • For comparison purposes, the world density is 47
    persons per sq. km (122 persons per sq. mi.)and
    the U.S. density is 30 persons per sq. km (78
    persons/sq.. mi).
  • The population of Bangladesh is 87 percent
    Islamic and 11 percent Hindu.

  • Bangladesh is one of the world's poorest
    countries with a per capita income in 2000 of
    only 350.
  • It lacks any major urban centers with the
    exception of Dhaka, the centrally positioned
    capital, which has 3,637,892 people (6,537,308 in
    the metropolitan area) and the port of
    Chittagong with 1,566,070 residents (2,342,662 in
    the metropolitan area).
  • Only 23 percent of the people live in towns and

  • A tier of landlocked countries occupy the
    mountainous zone between India and China.
  • The independent kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan are
    in the east of this frontier.
  • Sikkim, which was wedged between Nepal and
    Bhutan, was taken over by India in 1975 and made
    into a state.
  • This development underscores the vulnerability of
    these kingdoms.

  • The country of Nepal has three distinct zones
  • The Terai, a southern, subtropical, and fertile
  • A central zone which comprises the Himalayan
    foothills and is dominated by swift flowing
    streams and deep valleys.
  • A northern zone which includes the lofty peaks of
    the Himalayas including Mount Everest (29,035

  • The core of the country is in the Valley of
    Kathmandu, where the capital of the country is
  • Hinduism is the official religion, a blend of
    Hindu and Buddhist elements.
  • Although a dozen languages are spoken, about 90
    of the people speak Nepali, a language related to
  • The total population of the country is 25,200,000
    in 2003.

  • Nepal faces serious economic problems that stem
    from environmental degradation.
  • Deforestation is particularly severe in the
    alpine woodlands regions of the country.
  • A growing population exacerbated these problems.
  • About 95 of the population is engaged in
    subsistence farming (rice, wheat, millet, and
  • Nepal has substantial tourist industry because of
    the Himalayas.

  • Following tensions in the 1980s, the country
    became a constitutional monarchy.
  • But as the bloody royal killings have
    demonstrated, the country is far from a tranquil
  • The southern Terai zone is much more similar to
    neighboring India than the core of the country.
  • The Nepalese are fearful of Indian domination.
  • Nepal has problematic relations with Bhutan over
    the treatment of the Nepalese minority in the

  • In Bhutan, the king rules with absolute power,
    although officially the country is a
    constitutional monarchy.
  • Bhutan has considerable mineral resources, and
    forestry, hydroelectricity, and tourism have a
    great potential.
  • Isolation and distance from world markets have
    prevented economic development in this landlocked
    buffer state that is sandwiched between India and
  • The dominant religion is Buddhism.
  • Ethnic tensions between the declining Nepalese
    minority and the Bhutia have resulted in the
    exodus of Nepalese refugees from Bhutan in the
  • The capital of the kingdom of Bhutan is Thimphu
    with about 50,000 people in the northwestern part
    of the country.
  • The total population is 900,000 in 2003.

  • Until 1975, Nepals eastern neighbor, Sikkim, was
    an independent country.
  • That year, the overwhelming majority of the
    people voted to join India.

  • Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon) is a compact,
    pear-shaped island located off the southern tip
    of India.
  • It has been sovereign since 1948.
  • Population was 18,900,000 people in 2003.
  • This is neither a Hindu nor a Moslem country the
    majority -- some 75 of its population -- is
  • Unlike India or Pakistan, Sri Lanka is a
    plantation country (a legacy of European
  • The majority of Sri Lanka's people are not
    Dravidian, but are of Aryan origin with a
    historical link to ancient northern India.
  • Emigrants from India brought to Ceylon the
    Buddhist religion and irrigation techniques.
  • Today their descendants, the Sinhalese, speak a
    language belonging to the Indo-Aryan language
    family of northern India.

  • The Dravidian from southern India introduced the
    Hindu way of life, brought the Tamil languages to
    Sri Lanka and today constitute 12 of the total
  • Their numerical strength increased in the second
    half of the 19th century, when the British
    brought thousands of Tamils from the mainland to
    work on the plantations.
  • The Tamils practice the Hindu religion.
  • Sri Lanka sought the repatriation of these people
    in an agreement with India.
  • In 1978, Tamil was granted the status of a
    national language in Sri Lanka.

  • Sri Lanka is not a large island -- 64,621 sq. km
    (24, 950 sq. mi) but it has considerable
    topographic diversity.
  • The upland core lies in the south where
    elevations reach 2,500 m (8,000 feet).
  • This upland is surrounded by a lowland, most of
    which lies below 300 m (1000 feet).
  • Northern Sri Lanka is entirely low-lying.
  • Rivers flow radially from the interior highland
    across this lowland rim.
  • The focus of Sinhalese Empire was Anuradhapura.
  • The present focus is the moist upland southwest.

  • Plantation economy is the dominant feature of Sri
    Lankas economic geography.
  • Three important plantation crops
  • 1. Coconuts in the hot lowlands
  • 2. Rubber up to about 600 m (2,000 feet) and
  • 3. Tea in the highlands above. Tea constitutes
    2/3 of Sri Lanka's annual exports by value.
  • Rice production is not as efficient as plantation

  • Graphite is the most valuable mineral export.
  • Sri Lanka's limited industry is located in
    Colombo (population 740,000), the country's
    capital, largest city, and leading port.
  • In 1983, extremist Tamils rioted to demand the
    creation of a separate homeland in the island's
    northern lowland this triggered a violent
    response by Sinhalese bands.
  • Religions Buddhist-69 Hindu-15 Islam-8
    Christian 8.

  • The Maldives are an insular country with more
    than 1,000 islands and an area of 300 sq. km (115
    sq. mi).
  • Their highest point barely exceeds two m (6 ft)
    above sea level.
  • The population is 300,000, about a fourth of
    which resides in the capital Maale.
  • The country is a popular European tourist
  • There is a danger of submergence even with a
    minor rise in the level of the ocean.
  • The population adheres to Islam

  • Punjab A northwestern province of India.
  • Tributary A smaller stream that flows into a
    bigger one.
  • Exotic (allogenic) A stream that originates in a
    humid environment and flows through a dry
  • Salinization The process by which salts
    accumulate on the surface in dry environments.
  • Orographic Mountain induced precipitation.
  • Monsoon The reversal of the wind systems in
    southern Asia.
  • Jet stream A band of fast-moving air usually
    found in middle latitudes in the upper
  • Terai A type of vegetation found in northern
  • Green Revolution A western technology package
    that is used to increase agricultural
    production in developing countries.

  • Cottage industries Small scale industries in
  • Hinduism The predominant religion of India.
  • Caste system The hierarchical, hereditary social
    organization of India.
  • Brahmans The upper caste in India comprising
    the scholars and teachers.
  • Kshatriya In the caste system of India, the
    political leaders and warriors.
  • Vaisyas The people engaged in trades and
    farming in the caste system of India.
  • Sudra The lowest caste that provides
    services and support to the rest of the
  • Harijans The lowest caste in India because it
    is believed that they would contaminate
    one's ritual purity, if there was any
    personal contact with them.

  • Nirvana In Hinduism, the spiritual unification
    with cosmic forces.
  • Karma In Hinduism, the law of the deed.
  • Suttee A Hindu practice whereby a widow
    immolated herself on the funeral pyre of her
  • Dravidian The languages spoken in southern
  • Lingua franca The language of common use in areas
    where more than one language is in use.
  • Centripetal forces A set of forces that tends to
    unite a certain population.
  • Centrifugal forces A set of forces that tends to
    disunite a certain population.
  • Bustee A shanty town in south Asia

  • Typhoon A name used to describe a hurricane type
    storm in Asia.
  • Distributary One of the smaller channels into
    which a river channel divides before it
    empties into the sea.
  • Sind A region in southern Pakistan.
  • Forward capital A capital city that is relocated
    into a new area where a certain country wants
    to make a statement of interest about that
    part of the country, i.e. Islamabad in
  • Sinhalese The majority group in Sri Lanka. The
    Sinhalese are descendants of people who
    emigrated from northern India.
  • Tamils The minority people in Sri Lanka. They
    are descendants of people that emigrated from
    southern India and laborers that were
    introduced by the British to work in the
    plantations of the area.
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