Leadership - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

About This Presentation



... it is the influence to shape the group s or organizational ... to leadership The appropriate leader behavior ... approaches to leadership The ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:133
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 23
Provided by: venc2


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Leadership

  • Lecture 11

Leadership definitions
  • Leadership can be defined as a process or
  • As a process, it is the influence to shape the
    groups or organizational goals, motivate
    behaviour toward the achievement of those goals
    and help define group or organization culture.
  • As a property, it is a set of characteristics
    attributed to the individuals who are perceived
    as leaders.

Leadership and management
  • Give example for leaders in organization
  • Are there differences between leaders and

Power and leadership
  • Power is the ability to affect the behaviour of
    others. There are five kinds of power in any
  • Legitimate power. It is the power granted through
    the organizational hierarchy. It is the same as
    authority. All managers have legitimate power
    over subordinates
  • Reward power. It is the power to give rewards
    such as salary increases, promotions, praise,
    recognition and interesting job assignments.

Forms of power
  • Coercive power. It is the power to force
    compliance by means of psychological, emotional
    or physical threat It may take the form of
    verbal reprimand, written reprimands,
    disciplinary layoffs, demotion and termination.
  • Referent power. The personal power that is given
    to someone based on identification, imitation.

Forms of power
  • Expert power. It is the personal power given to
    someone based on the information or expertise
    they possess. The more important the information
    is and the fewer people who have access to it,
    the greater is the expert power possessed by the

Using power
  • The legitimate request. It involves the manager
    requesting that the subordinates comply as they
    recognize that the organization has given the
    right to manager to make the request.
  • Instrumental compliance. It is based on reward
    power and it is based on reinforcement theory of
  • Coercion- by using coercive power. When the
    manager suggests that subordinate will be
    punished, coercion is being practiced.

Theories of leadership
  • Theory of the traits of a leader.
  • Gizeli is the author of the theory. He examines
    traits of managers, who are successful in their
    work. These traits include
  • Abilities to inspect, to direct the work of
    others, to organize and integrate their actions
  • Need of professional advancement and
    achievements, intelligence, need of
    self-actualization, self-confidence and ability
    to take decisions.

Conclusions from Gizelis theory
  • The successful leaders have higher needs of
    achievements, are ready to work on their own and
    are confident in the job they are doing
  • The leaders are communicative, able to estimate
    others in the right way.

Behavioral approach to leadership
  • It focuses on what leaders do, not on what traits
    they have. The behavioral approach is presented
  • The Michigan studies. There are two forms of
    leader behavior
  • Job-centered leader behavior. It means that
    leader is paying close attention to subordinates
    work, explain work procedures and is interested
    in their performance.
  • Employee-centered leader behaviour. In this case,
    leader is interested in developing working group
    and ensuring that employees are satisfied with
    their job.

The Ohio state studies
  • There are two basic leader styles
  • Initiating structure behaviour. The leader
    clearly defines the leader-subordinate role so
    everyone knows what is expected, establishes
    formal lines of communication and determines how
    tasks will be performed.
  • Consideration behaviour. The leader shows concern
    for subordinates and attempts to establish
    supportive climate.

Conclusions of the Ohio state studies
  • Leaders who exhibit high levels of both behaviors
    would tend to be more effective than other
  • Employees of supervisors who ranked high on
    initiating structures were higher performers but
    with lower level of satisfaction

Managerial Grid
  • It is a model of leadership based on two forms of
    leader behavior
  • Concern for people
  • Concern for the production.
  • There are 5 leader styles
  • Task management or authoritarian management
    having high concern for the production and low
    for people
  • Liberal management style with high concern for
    people and low concern for the production
  • Management of the orphanage. It is typical for
    low concern on both dimensions.
  • Management of the middle road. It is
    characterized by average concern for people and
  • Democratic management.

Situational approaches to leadership
  • The appropriate leader behavior varies from one
    situation to another
  • The goal is to identify key situational factors
    and to specify how they interact to determine
    leader behavior.

Fiedlers contingency theory
  • Fiedler identifies two styles of leadership-
    task-oriented and relationship-oriented.
  • The style of leader behavior is a reflection of
    the leaders personality.
  • Fiedler is using the Least preferred colleague.
    To use this measure, the manager is asked to
    describe the person with whom he or she is able
    to work at least well. The higher numbers are
    associated with a relationship orientation,
    whereas low points mean that the leader is task

Fiedlers model
  • Favorableness of the situation. It means that
    appropriate leader behaviour varies from one
    situation to another. The key situation factor is
    the favorableness of the situation. This factor
    is determined by three things
  • leader-member relations
  • Task structure
  • Position power.

Task structure
  • It is the degree to which the group task is well
    defined. In routine task, the group has
    standardized procedures and precedents to rely
  • If the task is unstructured, then leader plays an
    important role.

Position power
  • It is the power in leaders position. Position
    power is strong if the leader can assign work,
    reward and punish employees.

Flexibility of leader style
  • Leader style is fixed and can not be changed.
    When the leaders style and situation do not
    match, the situation should be changed to fit the
    leader style.

The Path-Goal theory
  • Authors of the theory are Evans and House.
  • The theory is based on the expectancy theory.
  • The functions of the leader are to make valued or
    desired rewards available and to clarify to
    subordinates what kind of behavior will lead to
    goal accomplishment.

Path-goal theory
  • There are 4 types of behaviours
  • Directive leader lets the subordinates know what
    is expected from them, giving guidance and
  • Supportive leader.
  • Participative leader, who is consulting
    subordinates and allowing participating in the
    decision making.
  • Achievement oriented leader. He is setting goals,
    expecting high performance from subordinates,
    encouraging them.

Situational factors
  • Leader style depends on situational factors
  • Personal characteristics of subordinates
  • Environmental characteristics of the work place
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com