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Introduction to Leadership


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Title: Introduction to Leadership

Introduction to Leadership
Leadership Overview of Topics
  • Overview
  • What is leadership and why does it matter?
  • What leaders and managers do
  • Are leaders and managers different ?
  • Trait approaches
  • Power
  • Power and influence
  • Politics
  • Impression management
  • The ethical bases of power
  • Contingency
  • The Managerial Grid
  • Blanchard Hersey
  • LMX
  • Substitutes for leadership
  • Self-leadership
  • Superleadership
  • Charisma and transformational leadership
  • Leadership, culture and gender
  • Dysfunctional leadership

Leadership Definitions Overview
  • Ability to influence a group toward the
    achievement of goals
  • Requires a leader and follower(s)
  • Different from management??
  • Leadership doing the right things
  • Management doing things right
  • Successful vs. effective managers

What is Management?
  • A universal activity that uses resources to
    attain organizational goals in an effective and
    efficient manner through planning, organizing,
    leading, and controlling organizational resources
  • Getting work done through other people
  • A manager integrates and coordinates the work of
    other people

What is Leadership?
  • The process of influencing others to understand
    and agree about what needs to be done and how it
    can be done effectively, and the process of
    facilitating individual and collective efforts to
    accomplish the shared objectives
  • A role -- a process

Why Leadership?
  • More complex external environment
  • Technology
  • Global environment
  • Knowledge-based economy
  • Changed people
  • More education
  • Less security

The Management Process
Planning Select goals and ways to attain them
Organizing Assign responsibility for task
Controlling Monitor activities and make
Leading Use influence to motivate employees
The Leadership Process
Leader traits and skills
Leader behavior
Influence processes
Follower attitudes and behaviors
Situational variables
Performance outcomes
Managers vs. Leaders
  • Managers
  • Rational, problem-solving, control
  • React and respond
  • Interact rationally with other people
  • Leaders
  • Mystical, define problems, inspire
  • Vision, proactive
  • Emotional relationship with other people

Leadership Trait Approaches
Trait Approaches
  • A 1991 study shows strong evidence for these
  • Drive achievement, ambition, energy, tenacity,
    and initiative
  • Leadership motivation personalized vs.
  • Honesty and integrity truthful, ethical,
  • Self-Confidence including emotional stability
  • Cognitive ability
  • Knowledge of the business
  • Weaker support was found for
  • Charisma
  • Creativity and originality
  • Flexibility

The Need for Power
  • Personalized
  • Desire for power for its own sake
  • Power to fulfill personal needs
  • Socialized
  • Desire for power to accomplish goals
  • Power to fulfill needs of others (and self, too)

Ghisellis Trait Research
  • Important
  • Supervisory ability
  • Need for achievement
  • Intelligence
  • Need for self-actualization
  • Self-assurance
  • Decisiveness
  • Moderately important
  • Low need for security
  • Initiative
  • Low need for financial rewards
  • Decisiveness
  • Unimportant
  • Masculinity / femininity

Another Way To Look At It
  • Personal characteristics
  • Behavior
  • Situation

  • Power, Influence, Politics and Impression

Power and Influence
  • Defined
  • Power is the underlying ability, used or not,
    that a person has to influence the thoughts or
    actions of another person
  • Sources of power and influence
  • Results or consequences
  • Commitment / compliance / resistance
  • Instrumental compliance / internalization /
    personal identification

How Power is Gained
  • Social exchange
  • Leadership based on exchange of material and
    psychological benefits
  • Leader gains (or loses) power based on benefits
    to followers
  • Strategic contingencies
  • Looks at units, not individuals
  • Power based on
  • Expertise
  • Position within organization
  • Unique expertise (can unit be replaced)

Sources of Power
Types of Power
  • Based on original French and Raven work (1959)
  • Types of power
  • Legitimate
  • Reward
  • Coercive
  • Information
  • Referent
  • Expert
  • Associative

Bases of Power
Type Basis
Coercive Punishment
Reward Reward (tangible or intangible)
Legitimate Position
Referent Liking, respect
Expert Knowledge and expertise
Informational Insider information (how-to)
Charismatic Communicating desire to achieve a vision inspiring others
Charismatic Power
  • Self-confidence
  • Vision
  • Ability to articulate the vision
  • Strong convictions about the vision
  • Behavior that is out of the ordinary
  • Change agent
  • Environmental sensitivity

Power Where Effective
Responses to the Use of Power
Power Good or Bad ???
  • How much control is ethical ?
  • Coercive power sometimes necessary ?
  • Can too much power (expert, charismatic) lead to
    downfall through arrogance ?
  • Can too much power lead to micromanagement or
    dependent subordinates ?

The Limits of Power
  • Is power unlimited?
  • Does power transfer from one setting to another?
  • The entrepreneurial transition
  • What about the Zone of Indifference?
  • Should power be unlimited?
  • Power corrupts
  • Ethical implications of control over others

The Zone of Indifference
? Bring sandwiches to boss for lunch No Type
school papers for bosss kids No Fudge bosss
expense accounts
Influence Behaviors
  • Focus here on what you actually do behaviors
  • Influence tactics
  • Rational persuasion (logic)
  • Apprising (Whats in it for you)
  • Inspirational appeals (values)
  • Consultation (buy-in)
  • Exchange (you scratch my back)
  • Collaboration (Ill help you with it)
  • Personal appeals (Do me a favor)
  • Ingratiation (praise and flattery)
  • Legitimating tactics
  • Pressure
  • Coalition (Joe said hed do it)

Influence Tactics
Source Yukl Tracey, 1992
Tactic Definition Comparison to Power
Rational persuasion Bring in logic and facts Expert
Inspirational Appeal Call on values encouragement Charismatic
Consultation Ask for participation
Ingratiation Buttering up (inducing a favorable mood)
Exchange Whats in it for you Reward
Personal Appeal Friendship and loyalty Referent
Coalition Everyone else is doing it
Legitimating Draw on authority Legitimate
Pressure Threats or coercion Coercive
Directions of Influence
Source Yukl Tracey, 1992
Tactic Best Direction Commitment ?
Rational persuasion ? Yes
Inspirational Appeal ? Yes
Consultation ? Yes
Ingratiation ? or ? Yes
Exchange ? least ? Yes
Personal Appeal ? Yes
Coalition least ? No
Legitimating ? Negative
Pressure ? Negative
  • When you dont have authority
  • Political skill
  • An interpersonal styleconstruct that combines
    social astuteness with the ability to relate
    well, and other wise demonstrate situationally
    appropriate behavior in a disarmingly charming
    and engaging manner that inspires confidence,
    trust, sincerity and genuineness

Political Skill
Social intelligence
Emotional intelligence
Tacit knowledge
Ego resiliency
Self monitoring
Social self-efficacy
Niccolò Machiavelli
  • 1469-1527
  • The Prince
  • Effective leadership in a hostile environment
  • Bad reputation today
  • Machiavellian manipulative and unethical
  • But, a very pragmatic approach to leadership
  • What actually occurred and what actually worked
  • Examples (III, IV)
  • the gulf between how one should live and how one
    does live is so wide that a man who neglects what
    is actually done for what should be done learns
    the way to self-destruction rather than
    self-preservation (XV)

What Machiavelli Actually Advised
  • The end -- stable rule -- justifies the means
  • a prince, and especially a new prince cannot
    observe all those things which give men a
    reputation for virtue, because in order to
    maintain his state, he is often forced to act in
    defiance of good faith, of charity, of kindness,
    of religion (XVIII)
  • Importance of good advice
  • If a prince has the discernment to recognize the
    good or bad in what another says or does, ever
    though he has no acumen himself, he can see when
    his ministers actions are good or bad(XXII)

The Ethical Bases of Leadership
Oprah, Bill Gates and Ethics
  • Paradox 1 leader has opinions and wants to
    make them known, to change the world
  • But ethically, does leader give people choice,
    the freedom to accept or not
  • Paradox 2 change the world vs. money
  • Stay true to own values
  • The leaders responsibility

But do values need to be good?
Leaders and Ethical Decisions
  • The dilemma when there is no right answer
  • The choice is between competing yet both
    important values
  • Must blend idealism and realism
  • What is the role of the leader?
  • Focus on basic, core values
  • Serve as a role model
  • Take charge to lead group to action

Servant Leadership
  • The leaders role is to nurture, defend and
    empower followers
  • The leader is the moral role model
  • The leader is responsible for providing
    meaningful work and caring for the weak
  • Values
  • Honesty
  • Openness
  • Trust

Charismatic Leadership and Ethics
  • Do we know what is best for other people?
  • Is it right to change others beliefs and values?

Situational Approaches
Situational Models
It Depends
Situational Factors Affecting Leadership (1)
  • External environment
  • Stable vs. turbulent (complexity and dynamism)
  • Political / social pressures
  • Economic conditions (munificent environment)
  • Social context
  • Firm ownership
  • The organization
  • Structure (centralization, span of control)
  • Culture
  • Industry

Situational Factors Affecting Leadership (2)
  • Follower attributes
  • Competency
  • Motivation
  • Group attributes
  • Size
  • Group dynamics (cohesion, norms)

Situational Factors Affecting Leadership (3)
  • The task
  • Leaders task competence
  • Task complexity
  • Task structure
  • Interdependence
  • Goal clarity
  • Other factors
  • Environmental stress (role overload, role
    ambiguity and role conflict)
  • Panic and disasters

Ohio State Model
  • Concern for people
  • Concern for the job
  • Are they mutually exclusive?

The Managerial Grid
Situational Leadership
  • Blanchard Hersey
  • Different people have different needs
  • One-style-fits-all leadership doesnt work
  • Also, theres research evidence that the ability
    to use multiple styles is associated with more
    effective managers

Leadership Styles
Development Levels
LMX (Leader-Member Exchange)
  • Moves to treating each follower as an individual,
    rather than all followers as a group variance in
    Average Leadership Style is not error
  • Leadership as social exchange
  • Original roles / exchanges imperfectly defined
  • Final roles based on unstructured negotiation
    between leader and individual followers
  • Relationships can be of two types
  • Standard leader-follower relationship
  • Special exchange relationships with trusted

  • Low exchange (outer circle)
  • Low mutual influence
  • Followers and leader fulfill standard role
    requirements formal work requirements, formal
  • High exchange (inner circle)
  • Follower receives special status, benefits,
    influence, privileges
  • Leader engages in more person-oriented behavior,
    less task-oriented behavior
  • In return, followers are more committed, loyal,
    hard working
  • Leader and followers view themselves as having a
    common fate
  • Exchange viewed as equitable by both parties

LMX Life Cycle
  • Relationships stable once formed
  • Development process

Testing Phase
Development Phase
Leader and follower move past self- interest to
mutual commitment and respect
Mature Stage
LMX - Antecedents
  • Follower attributes
  • Competence
  • Dependability
  • Perceived contributions
  • Similarity to leader
  • Personal compatibility
  • Values and attitudes
  • Leader is in an LMX
  • Modeling effects
  • Leader has resources to establish
  • LMX with his subordinates
  • The relationship
  • Mutual liking
  • Trust

Results of LMX
  • Liden Graen (1980) found that
  • LMX followers assumed more responsibility
  • Contributed more to unit
  • Received higher performance reviews from manager
    (contamination ??)
  • With independent criteria, results are mixed

Substitutes for Leadership
  • Substitutes
  • Characteristics of task, subordinates, or setting
  • Make leader action unnecessary
  • Neutralizers
  • Characteristics of subordinates or setting
  • Negate or nullify leaders actions

Leader Action
Subordinate Performance
Substitutes and Neutralizers
Subordinate Characteristics Subordinate Characteristics Subordinate Characteristics
Experience, ability, training ?
Professional orientation ?
Indifference toward rewards ?
Task Characteristics Task Characteristics Task Characteristics
Structured, routine task ?
Feedback provided by task ?
Intrinsically satisfying task ?
Organization Characteristics Organization Characteristics Organization Characteristics
Cohesive work group ?
Low position legitimate power ?
Formal roles and procedures ?
Inflexible rules and polices ?
Dispersed work sites ?
Evaluating the Theory
  • Substitutes makes sense
  • Little theoretical basis for the substitutes and
  • Empirical research limited and results mixed

Charisma and Transformational Leadership
Charismatic Power
  • Self-confidence
  • Vision
  • Ability to articulate the vision
  • Strong convictions about the vision
  • Behavior that is out of the ordinary
  • Change agent
  • Environmental sensitivity

Charismatic Leaders
I know I have but the body of a weak and feeble
woman but I have the heart of a king, and of a
king of England, too.
Max Weber
  • Adapted theological concept of charisma to
    leadership in general
  • Extraordinariness bestowed by followers, rather
    than God
  • Five requirements
  • Extraordinary gifts
  • A crisis
  • A radical solution to the crisis
  • Followers who believe in a link, through leader,
    to transcendent powers
  • Validation through repeated success

Conger and Kanungo
  • Charisma is attributed to leaders by followers
  • Depends on both leader attributes and the
  • Leader behaviors
  • Vision of change (within limits)
  • Self-sacrificing, risk-taking
  • Confidence
  • Environmental sensitivity

Other Approaches
  • The psychodynamic approach
  • Followers idolize or worship charismatic leader
  • Leader takes on followers unexpressed guilt,
    fears, etc.
  • Social contagion
  • Personal identification with leader
  • Followers adopt symbols to set themselves apart
    from others
  • Identification spreads in manner of fashions or

Transformational and Transactional Leadership
  • Can we adapt the behaviors of charismatic leaders
    to the work setting?
  • Transactional leadership..
  • Clarify task and role requirements
  • Provide structure and rewards
  • Meet subordinates social needs
  • Transformational leadership.
  • Broadens and elevates subordinates interests
  • Promotes awareness and acceptance of a shared
  • Moves employees to pursue the best interests of
    the organization

Becoming a Transformational Leader The Four Is
  • Idealized Influence
  • Serving as a role model
  • Inspirational Motivation
  • Encouraging subordinates to challenge processes
    and impart meaning to work
  • Intellectual Stimulation
  • Fostering subordinates sense of creativity and
  • Individual Consideration
  • Attending and responding to individual needs

Source Bass, 1998
Idealized Influence
  • Serving as a role model or example for
    subordinates in order to earn their respect,
    trust, and admiration
  • Focusing on group needs the Greater Good
  • Sharing risk and accountability
  • Consistently behaving morally and ethically
    Doing the right things

Inspirational Motivation
  • Encouraging subordinates to challenge processes
    and impart meaning to work involves
  • Communicating a vision of a desirable future to
  • Involving subordinates in the vision to share

Intellectual Stimulation
  • Fostering subordinates senses of creativity and
    innovation involves
  • Questioning assumptions and re-framing questions
  • Soliciting creative ideas by participation in the
    decision-making process
  • Never criticizing subordinates and their ideas

Individual Consideration
  • Attending and responding to individual needs
  • Active listening
  • Managing by Walking Around (MBWA)
  • Delegating to develop employees

Another Approach
  • Focusing attention on specific issues of concern,
    concentrating on analysis, problem solving, and
  • Communicating with empathy and sensitivity.
  • Demonstrating consistency and trustworthiness by
    one's behavior, being honest, sticking with a
    decision, and following through on decisions.
  • Expressing active concern for people including
    one's self, thus modeling self-regard, and
    reinforcing feelings of self-worth in others.

Popular Approaches Self-Management
  • Based on commitment, not control
  • Individuals mange own decisions, take
    responsibility for outcomes
  • Manz Sims (1991) SuperLeadership
  • Strong Man makes things happen
  • Transactor rewards performance
  • Visionary Hero larger than life vision
  • SuperLeader unleashes followers powers

This is one of the Popular Books
Becoming a SuperLeader
  • Become a self-leader
  • Model self-leadership
  • Encourage subordinates to set own goals
  • Create positive thought patterns (build
  • Develop self leadership through rewards and
    constructive criticism
  • Promote teamwork (self-managing teams)
  • Build a self led culture
  • Policies and procedures
  • Symbolic acts

Another Popular Approach The Leadership Challenge
  • Challenge the Process
  • Search for Opportunities
  • Experiment and Take Risks
  • Inspire a Shared Vision
  • Envision the Future
  • Enlist Others
  • Enable Others to Act
  • Foster Collaboration
  • Strengthen Others
  • Model the Way
  • Set the Example
  • Plan Small Wins
  • Encourage the Heart
  • Recognize Individual Contribution
  • Celebrate Accomplishments

Kouzes Posner (1995)
How To Become A Transformational Leader
  • Actively listen
  • Invite employee participation
  • Delegate
  • Encourage and reward creativity
  • Walk Your Talk

Dysfunctional Leadership
Fatal Flaws of Leaders Who Derail
  • Insensitive to others
  • Aloof and arrogant
  • Betrayal of trust
  • Overly ambitious
  • Over-managing
  • Unable to think strategically
  • Unable to adapt to situations
  • Overly dependent on an advocate or mentor

Dysfunctional Leadership
  • Too much vision
  • Personal needs made paramount
  • Building a monument to themselves
  • Blind drive prevents seeing external environment
  • Pyrrhic victory
  • Victory -- but at what cost?
  • Blind ambition, empire building
  • Chasing a vision before its time
  • Failure to reality-test ideas
  • Blind to the market and what it wants
  • Manipulative management, impression management
  • Lack of administrative skills

Neurotic Leaders
  • Paranoid
  • Suspicious, untrusting
  • Downfall reacting to threats that arent there
  • Compulsive
  • Perfectionist, detail-obsessed
  • Downfall unwillingness to make decisions, focus
    on details at expense of overall situation
  • Dramatic
  • Excessive expression of emotions and feelings,
    narcissistic, attention-seeker
  • Downfall overreaction, surface thinking
  • Depressive
  • Low self-esteem, preoccupied with guilt,
    inadequacy, hopelessness
  • Downfall Trouble concentrating, indecisive
  • Schizoid
  • Detached, uninvolved
  • Downfall unable to empathize with others

When Great Goes Bad
  • For entrepreneurs, success and failure comes
  • Need for total control
  • Refusing to hear no
  • Ignoring the experts
  • Single-minded and stubborn
  • Charismatic leaders..
  • Arrogance and narcissism
  • Believing their own myth

Leadership Downfall
  • The Case of William Agee and Mary Cunningham

The Events
1979 Bill Agee (CEO of Bendix) hires recent HBS grad Mary Cunningham as his Executive Assistant
1980 Mary Cunningham promoted to VP Corporate Communications Three months later, promoted to VP Strategic Planning Agee denies rumors of an affair Cunningham leaves Bendix
1982 Cunningham and Agee marry
1989 Agee asked to lead Morrison Knudsen (large, but fading Idaho construction company) He attempts to salvage company with grand strategic changes Neither Agee nor Cunningham attempt to fit in with MK culture or in Boise
1995 Agee fired
So What Happened?