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Title: Leadership

  • Research focuses on
    2 Key Leadership Issues
  • Why some organizational members Become Leaders
    while others do not
  • Why some leaders are Effective, while others are

What is Leadership?
  • A person may be a Leader without being a
    Manager, or a Manager without
    being a Leader.

What is Leadership?
  • Leadership the process of Directing and
    Influencing the work-related
    activities of other Group Members
    toward achievement of
    Organizational Goals.

What is Leadership?
  • Leadership involves
  • 1. Other People (Followers/Subordinates)
  • 2. Unequal Distribution of Power
  • 3. Influence (exerted on Followers)

McGregor Attitudes of Leaders
  • Leaders may hold either Theory
    X or Theory Y assumptions about subordinates.

McGregor Attitudes of Leaders
  • Theory X Assumptions
    Employees do not like to work, do not want
    responsibility, and are basically lazy.
    Subordinates prefer to be closely supervised,
    told exactly what to do, and only want job
    security from their employment.

McGregor Attitudes of Leaders
  • Theory Y Assumptions
    Employees like to work, seek
    responsibility, and can be
    self-directed. Employees want to be creative

McGregor Attitudes of Leaders
  • Leader Attitude determines
    Leadership Style
  • Theory X Leaders are Authoritarian or directive
  • Theory Y leaders are Sensitive to people and tend
    to allow more Participation.

Leaders Power Sources
  • Reward Power
  • Coercive Power
  • Legitimate Power
  • Referent Power
  • Expert Power

Organizational Encounter (p. 442)
  • Leadership Has No Age Limits
  • ? Who is Michael Sessions?
  • ? What characteristics made him a Leader?

Organizational Encounter (p. 443)
  • Growing Leaders
  • Does Growing you own leadership talent have
    real benefits? Explain.

Leadership Theories
  • 3 Main Categories
  • Trait Theories
  • Behavioral Theories
  • Situational (Contingency) Theories

Trait Approaches to Leadership
  • Assumes a set of individual traits are associated
    with effective leadership.
  • Intelligence
  • Personality
  • Physical Characteristics
  • Based on research that relates various traits to
    success criteria.
  • Research findings are inconclusive.

Traits Associated With
Leadership Effectiveness
  • Research studies find various traits associated
    with effective leadership.
  • Commonly identified traits include
  • Self-Confidence
  • Emotional Maturity/Intelligence
  • Cooperativeness
  • Integrity
  • Job-Relevant Knowledge

Trait Theory Shortcomings
  • List of potentially important traits is endless.
  • Trait test scores are not consistently predictive
    of leader effectiveness.
  • Effective leader behavior depends
    largely on the situation.
  • The trait approach fails to provide insight
    into what an effective leader does on the job.

Behavioral Approaches to Leadership
  • Behavioral Theories contrast
    2 Styles of Leadership Behavior
  • 1. Task-Oriented Getting the Job Done!
  • 2. Employee-Oriented Tries to Motivate rather
    than control.

Behavioral Approaches to Leadership Ohio State
  • Initiating Structure
  • Task Orientation
  • Defines and Organizes the roles of group members
    for goal attainment.
  • Consideration
  • Employee Orientation
  • Creating mutual Trust and Respect with

Behavioral Approaches to Leadership University
of Michigan Studies
  • Production-Centered Leader
  • Focuses on completing the task.
  • Uses close supervision and prescribed work
  • Relies on coercion, reward, and legitimate power
    to influence behavior and performance of

Behavioral Approaches to Leadership University
of Michigan Studies
  • Employee-Centered Leader
  • Focuses on the people doing the work.
  • Encourages subordinate participation in
    goal-setting and work-related decisions.
  • Concerned with subordinates personal
    advancement, growth, and achievement.

Blake Moutons Leadership Grid
  • Identifies 5 Distinctive
    Leadership Styles, depending on
    the leaders level of Concern for
    People (Employee Orientation) and Concern for
    Production (Task

Blake Moutons Leadership Grid
  • 1. Impoverished (Laissez-Faire) Leadership
    Low concern for both People and Production.
    Leader abdicates leadership role.
  • 2. Country Club Leadership High concern for
    People, but Low concern for Production.
  • 3. Authoritarian-Compliance Leadership
    High concern for Production, but
    Low concern for People.

Blake Moutons Leadership Grid
  • 4. Middle-of-the-Road Leadership Intermediate
    level of concern for both Production and Employee
  • 5. Team (Democratic) Leadership High concern
    for both Production and Employee
    morale and satisfaction.

Behavioral Theories in Perspective
  • Emphasizing Behaviors which can be
    learned, Behavioral theories contend that
    Leaders are Made, not born, to
    play the leadership role.

Behavioral Theories in Perspective
  • Behavioral theories have moderate success in
    consistently identifying a relationship between
    leader behaviors and group performance.
  • However, research results emphasize that
    effectiveness of leadership behavior depends on
    the situation.

Situational (or Contingency)
Theories of Leadership
  • Propose that Effective Leadership depends on the
    Interaction between the Situation and the
    leaders Behavior.
  • The contingency concept of leadership can be
    summarized as It all depends

Key Situational Leadership Theories
  • Fiedlers Contingency Leadership Model
  • Vroom-Jago Leadership Model
  • Houses Path-Goal Model
  • Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory

Fiedlers Contingency Leadership Model
  • The Performance of groups is dependant on the
    Interaction between Leadership Style and
    Situational Favorableness.

Fiedlers Contingency Leadership Model
  • Leadership Style
  • Task-Oriented leadership
  • Relationship-Oriented leadership
  • Situational Factors
  • Leader-Member Relations
  • Task Structure
  • Position Power

Fiedlers Contingency Leadership Model
  • To Achieve Effective Group Performance
  • 1. Match the Leader with the Situation. OR
  • 2. Change the Situation to fit the
    Leaders Style.

Fiedlers Contingency Leadership Model
  • First Step Determine the managers Leadership
    Style with the
    Least Preferred Co-Worker Scale
  • High LPC Leader Relationship-Oriented
  • Low LPC Leader Task-Oriented

Summary of Fiedlers Situational Variables and
Their Preferred Leadership Styles
Situational Characteristics
Situation Leader-Member Relations
(Trust) Task Structure Position Power
VIII Good Good Good Good Poor Poor Poor Poor
High High Low Low High High Low
Low Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak
Strong Weak
Preferred Leadership Styles
Very Favorable Situation
Very Unfavorable situation
Leadership Actions to Change Situations
  • Changing Leader-Member Relations
  • Request particular people for work group
  • Transfer particular subordinates out of the work
  • Volunteer to direct difficult or troublesome

Leadership Actions to Change Situations
  • Changing Task Structure
  • Bring new or unusual tasks or problems
    to the group.
  • Break jobs down into smaller sub-tasks
    that can be more highly structured.

Leadership Actions to Change Situations
  • Changing Position Power
  • Show subordinates who is boss by
    fully exercising the authority you have.
  • Make sure that information to the group gets
    channeled through you.
  • Let subordinates participate in planning and
    decision making.

Fiedlers Contingency Leadership Model
  • What would Fiedler suggest about the usefulness
    of Leadership
    Training programs?

Vroom-Jago Leadership ModelAssumptions of the
  1. The Model assists managers in determining which
    leadership styles they should use in various
  2. No single leadership style is applicable to all
  3. The main focus is the problem to be solved and
    the situation in which the problem occurs.

Vroom-Jago Leadership ModelAssumptions of the
  1. The leadership style used in one situation should
    not constrain the styles used in other
  2. Situational Factors influence the optimum amount
    of participation by subordinates
    in problem solving.

Vroom-Jago Leadership Model
  • Decision Effectiveness
  • Decision Quality
  • Subordinate Commitment
  • Time considerations
  • Decision Styles
  • Autocratic (A)
  • Consultative (C)
  • Group (G)
  • Delegated (D)

Vroom-Jago Leadership Model
  • Diagnostic Procedure Key Questions
  • How important is the technical quality
    of the decision?
  • How important is subordinate commitment
    to the decision?

Vroom-Jago Leadership Model
  • Diagnostic Procedure Key Questions
  • Do you have sufficient information to make a
    high-quality decision?
  • Is the problem well structured?

Vroom-Jago Leadership Model
  • Diagnostic Procedure Key Questions
  • If you made the decision by yourself,
    is it reasonably certain that your
    subordinates would be committed
    to the decision?
  • Do subordinates share the organizational goals to
    be attained in solving this problem?

Vroom-Jago Leadership Model
  • Diagnostic Procedure Key Questions
  • Is conflict among subordinates over preferred
    solutions likely?
  • Do subordinates have sufficient information to
    make a high-quality decision?

Path-Goal Leadership Model
  • Path-Goal Leadership Model is based on the
    Expectancy Theory of Motivation.
  • Effective leaders strengthen the relationship
    between performance and outcomes, and improve the
    valence of outcomes. Also strengthen
    effort-to-performance expectancy by providing
    support and resources.

Path-Goal Leadership Model
  • Leaders Influence/Motivate Employees by
  • Determining most valued Rewards
  • Making valued rewards Contingent on performance.
  • Clarifying the Path to high performance (and the
    desired rewards).

Path-Goal Leadership Model
  • Styles of Leader Behavior
  • Directive
  • Supportive
  • Participative
  • Achievement-Oriented
  • Situational Variables
  • Personal characteristics of the subordinates
  • Environmental pressures and demands

Framework of Revised Path-Goal Leadership
Employee Characteristics
  • Ability
  • Locus of control
  • Need for clarity
  • Need for achievement
  • Experience
  • Increase employee confidence to achieve
  • Clarify paths to desired rewards
  • Establish challenging goals
  • Utilize full range of talents of all group
  • Increase need satisfaction
  • Improve work performance
  • Reduce uncertainties

Categories of Leader Behaviors
  • Clarifying paths
  • Achievement oriented
  • Being supportive
  • Facilitating productive interaction
  • Group decision making
  • Networking
  • Projecting values

Leader Effectiveness
Environmental Dimensions
  • Task structure
  • Work group dynamics

Path-Goal Leadership Model
  • Leader Effectiveness is measured by
  • 1. Employee Motivation
  • 2. Employee Satisfaction
  • 3. Leader Acceptance

Path-Goal Leadership Model
  • In Contrast to Fiedlers ideas,
    Path-Goal model contends that effective
    leaders select the most appropriate leadership
    style for a particular work situation.

Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory
  • Emphasis is on followers and their level of
  • Leader must judge subordinates maturity levels
    and use a leadership
    style that fits that level.

Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory
  • Readiness Followers
    Skills (Job Readiness) and Willingness
    (Psychological Readiness).

Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory
(SLT) Leadership Styles
  • Telling Leader provides specific
    directions and close supervision.
  • Selling Leader explains decisions and provides
    clarification opportunities.

Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory
(SLT) Leadership Styles
  • Participating Leader and followers
    share decision making responsibilities.
  • Delegating Followers responsible for decision
    making and implementation with
    little direction from the leader.

Situational Leadership Model
Degree of followers Readiness to assume personal
R1 Unable Unwilling
R2 Unable Willing
R3 Able Unwilling
R4 Able Willing
S2 Selling Explaining and clarifying
S3 Participating Sharing and facilitating
S4 Delegating Coaching and assisting
S1 Telling Instructing and supervising
Leadership Behavior appropriate to the situation
Summary of Situational Leadership Models
Fiedlers Contingency Model
Leadership Qualities Assumptions About Followers Leader Effectiveness History of Research Problems
Leaders are Task- or Relationship-oriented. Job should be engineered to Fit situational factors. Followers prefer different leadership styles depending on task structure, leader-member relations, and position power Effectiveness of the leader is determined by the interaction of environment and personality factors. If investigations not affiliated with Fiedler are used, the evidence is contradictory on the accuracy of the model.
Summary of Situational Leadership Models
Vroom-Jago Leadership Model
Leadership Qualities Assumptions About Followers Leader Effectiveness History of Research problems
Leaders make either individual or group decisions and can choose from five different styles. Followers participate in varying degrees in decisions involving problems. Effective leaders select the appropriate decision set and permit the optimal participation for followers. Research support for the model is mixed and limited. The model is considered by some to be complex.
Summary of Situational Leadership Models
Path-Goal Model
Leadership Qualities Assumptions About Followers Leader Effectiveness History of Research Problems
Leaders can increase followers effectiveness by applying proper motivational techniques. Followers have different needs that must be fulfilled with the help of a leader. Effective leaders are those who clarify for followers the paths or behaviors that are best suited. Model has generated modest research interest in past two decades.
Summary of Situational Leadership Models
Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership
Leadership Qualities Assumptions About Followers Leader Effectiveness History of Research problems
Leader must adapt style in terms of task behavior and relationship behavior on the basis of followers. Followers maturity (readiness) to take responsibility and ability influence the leadership style adopted. Effective leaders can adapt directing, coaching, supporting, and delegating style to fit followers levels of maturity. Not enough research available to reach a definitive conclusion about predictive power of the theory.
Charismatic Leadership
  • Characteristics of a Charismatic Leader
  • Has a Vision
  • Willing to take Risks to achieve that vision.
  • Sensitive to Followers Needs.
  • Exhibits Unconventional Behavior.

Charismatic Leadership Two Types
  • Visionary Charismatic Leaders
    focus on the Long Term
  • See the Big Picture and communicate how
    followers goals and needs are linked.
  • Crisis-Based Charismatic Leaders focus on the
    Short Term
  • Communicate what must be done,
    and why.

Transactional Leadership
  • Two Key Characteristics
  • Leaders rely on Performance-Contingent Rewards to
    Motivate employees.
  • Leaders take Corrective Actions when employees
    fail to accomplish performance goals.

Transactional Leadership
  • Transactional Leader focuses on interpersonal
    transactions between the manager and the
  • Transactional approach uses the path-goal
    concepts as its framework.

Transactional Leadership
L Recognizes what F needs
L Recognizes what F must do to
attain designated outcomes
L Leader F Follower
L Clarifies how Fs need fulfillment will
be exchanged for enacting role to attain
designated outcomes
L Clarifies Fs Role
F Feels confidence in meeting role
requirements (subjective probability of success)
F Recognizes value of designated
outcomes (need-fulfilling value for F)
F Develops Motivation to attain desired
outcomes (Expected Effort)
Transformational Leadership
  • Ability to inspire and motivate followers to
    pursue Organizational Goals, rather than the
    employees own self-interest.
  • The leaders vision provides the follower with
    motivation for hard work that is

Transformational Leader Characteristics
  • Charisma Ability to instill a sense of value,
    and to articulate a vision.
  • Individual Attention Attentive to followers
    needs makes meaningful assignments to followers
    to promote personal growth.
  • Intellectual Stimulation Encourages followers to
    Think Creatively.

Transformational Leader Characteristics
  • Contingent Reward Clarifies for followers the
    Performance level required for rewards.
  • Management by Exception Does
    not intervene in the followers task
    accomplishment unless goals are not
    being met.

Leader-Member Exchange (LMX)
  • Suggests that Leader Behavior may be Inconsistent
    across subordinates.
  • Each Relationship is Unique.
  • One-to-one Relationships determine subordinate
  • Classifies subordinates into
  • In-Group members
  • Out-Group members

Leader-Member Exchange (LMX)
  • In-Group members
  • Share a common bond and value systems with
  • Interact with the leader regularly.
  • Receive more challenging assignments and more
    meaningful rewards.
  • Are more positive about the organization and have
    higher job performance and satisfaction.
  • Out-Group members
  • Have less in common with the leader.
  • Have limited interactions with the leader.
  • Receive less desirable assignments and less
    positive reinforcement.
  • Become bored and frustrated, resulting in higher

Leader-Member Exchange (LMX)
  • LMX approach to leadership assumes that a
    leaders Perceptions of the subordinate impacts
    the leaders behavior toward the follower, which
    influences subordinate behavior.
  • Research supports these conclusions.

Multicultural Leadership
  • Leadership attributes associated with
    effective leadership vary
    across cultures.

Global OB (p. 465)
  • The Value of Global Experience
  • ? How can global assignments be a gamble?
  • ? How can global experience benefit both the
    individual and the organization?

Substitutes for Leadership
  • Leadership Substitutes Situational factors that
    render leadership unnecessary
    (or even impossible).
  • Leadership Substitutes negate the leaders
    ability to either increase or decrease follower
    satisfaction or performance.

Substitutes for Leadership
  • Substitutes for Leadership include
  • Cohesive Work Groups
  • Intrinsically Satisfying Tasks
  • High levels of subordinate Ability, Experience,
    and Knowledge
  • Rigid Rules and Procedures

(No Transcript)
Case 15.1 (pp. 474-477)
  • Rotating Leaders
  • Describe the situation and
    the organization.

Rotating Leaders
  • 1. What would business organizations gain from

    observing Orpheus in action?

Rotating Leaders
  • 2. Orpheus rotates the concertmaster among
    core-group members. What is
    the logic of rotating the leader?

Rotating Leaders
  • 3. What are some of the substitutes
    for permanent leadership
    within Orpheus?

Next Week
  • Exam 2
  • Chapters 9 - 17
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