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Middle Colonies (Delaware, Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey)

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Middle Colonies (Delaware, Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey) Climate was cold in winter, mild in summer. Great soil conditions for farming. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Middle Colonies (Delaware, Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey)


1
Middle Colonies (Delaware, Pennsylvania, New
York, and New Jersey)
  • Climate was cold in winter, mild in summer. Great
    soil conditions for farming.
  • Fertile soils and areas clear of forests drew
    colonists.
  • Small and large farms developed for both
    subsistence and commercial farming.
  • (subsistencegrow the food that you need for your
    family)
  • (commercialagricultural products to sell for
    profit)
  • Grain products like wheat, oats, corn were grown
    and traded to other colonies.
  • Because of location and factors such as rivers
    and harbors, trade was conducted with both New
    England and Southern Colonies.
  • Religious diversity developed and they encouraged
    diversity.
  • Quakers settled with Anglicans and other
    protestant groups and Jews.

2
From Dutch to British
  • The regions of New York, New Jersey, and Delaware
    were colonies of the Dutch.
  • The British fought the Dutch and captured the
    Dutch colonial capital, New Amsterdam in 1664.
  • New Amsterdam was renamed New York and the
    British took over the Dutch territories.

1. Why could Albany become a center of trade?2.
Could Philadelphia become a port city? Why?3.
Why were the Middle colonies centers of farming
and trade?
3
William Penn
  • William Penn (1644-1718)
  • Born in London into a merchant family, Penn
    joined the Quakers, also known as the Religious
    Society of Friends, in 1666.
  • The Friends believed in direct guidance from the
    Holy Spirit, did not recognize the authority of
    an ordained ministry, believed in simple dress,
    and opposed war.
  • William Penn received a charter in 1681 to
    establish the colony that became known as
    Pennsylvania (Penns forest).
  • He established the colony in Pennsylvania as a
    refuge for Quakers and a place where they could
    create a government based on freedom, self-rule,
    and respect for others.
  • He helped planned the layout of the city of
    Philadelphia for future development.

4
Summary of Quaker Beliefs
  • Equality of men and women
  • Equality of all races and ethnic groups
    (abolitionists)
  • Practiced true religious tolerance (all religions
    welcome)
  • Non-violent (anti-war)

5
1. What geographic factors would allow the Middle
Colonies to develop manufacturing industries?
2. Why do you think New Jersey has the motto, The
Garden State?
6
1. Which region had a reason for settlement
different than the other two regions? What was it?
7
Southern Colonies
  • Climate had long growing season with warm weather
    and plentiful rainfall. Flat land was very
    fertile and suitable for large scale farming and
    agriculture.
  • Colonies were founded for several reasons.
  • Jamestown, Virginia in 1607 was the first English
    Colony.
  • The Carolinas were first settled by a chartered
    company.
  • Maryland was formed as a homeland for English
    Catholics.
  • Georgia was first a colony for imprisoned debtors
    (debtorspeople that owed money had had no way to
    pay it back).
  • Because of a long growing season, plantations
    developed for cash crops like tobacco, rice,
    indigo, and cotton.
  • Cash crops were sent to Britain in exchange for
    manufactured goods.

8
Charter Colony /Proprietary Colony / Royal Colony
  • A charter is a written grant for use of land.
  • A charter was given by the king or the Parliament
    to a business company. The London Company
    (Virginia Company) was given the charter to
    establish the settlement at Jamestown in 1607.
  • A Proprietary Colony was a charter for a land
    grant given to an individual. The individual was
    given power to rule the territory of the land
    grant.
  • William Penn was the Proprietor of Pennsylvania.
  • A Royal Colony was establish by a charter, land
    grant form the king.
  • The Royal Charter granted a person or company the
    authority to establish settlements.
  • James Oglethorpe received a Royal Charter to
    establish Georgia in 1732.

9
James Oglethorpe and Georgia Colony
  • James Oglethorpe (1696-1785) was an English
    General who founded Georgia.
  • Oglethorpe had political and social aims.
  • He wanted to establish a colony between the
    English colonies and the Spanish territories held
    in Florida.
  • That way Georgia would be a buffer.
  • He also suggested that this new colony could be a
    place for English poor to go, especially people
    in debtors prison.
  • He wanted to ban slavery but was pressured to
    change his mind.

10
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11
Enslaved Africans Brought Agricultural Knowledge
with Them
  • Rice was introduced into the Southern Colonies by
    Africans who were experienced growing this crop
    in Africa.
  • Many crops that the Africans grew were similar to
    the crops that could be easily grown in the South.

12
Interpret
  1. Which of the colonial regions would be the most
    likely to be dependent upon trade with England?
    Why? Cite your evidence.
  2. Which of the colonial regions, New England,
    Middle, or Southern, would most likely have an
    economy that was independent from England? Why?
    Cite your evidence.
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