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Unit 1: Origins of a New Nation

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Unit 1: Origins of a New Nation Chapter 1 Many Cultures Meet Chapter 2 Europeans Establish Colonies Chapter 3 The American Colonies Take Shape – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 1: Origins of a New Nation


1
Unit 1Origins of a New Nation
  • Chapter 1Many Cultures Meet
  • Chapter 2Europeans Establish Colonies
  • Chapter 3The American Colonies Take Shape

2
Arrival of the first Americans
  • 10,000-40,000 years ago.
  • Crossed land bring connecting Siberia and Alaska.
  • Where is it now?
  • Why this bridge?
  • Spread in N S Amer
  • 3 most advanced civilizations in Central and
    South America.
  • Inca
  • Peru and Ecuador
  • Mayan
  • Southern coach of Gulf of Mexico
  • Aztec
  • Mexico

3
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4
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5
The Vikings
  • Came from Norway
  • 800-1000 AD
  • Eric the Red, Leif Ericson
  • True Blood anyone?
  • Why no credit?
  • No claims, little evidence.

6
Reasons for European Exploration and Explores
  • Renaissance
  • More learning, new scientific techniques, ideas
    and instruments.
  • Religious Conflict, Crusades
  • Catholic victory Spain
  • Protestant revolt Northern Europe
  • Want more cool stuff
  • Dyes, silk, spices OH MY!

7
Reasons for European Exploration and Explores
  • Expanding trade
  • Marco. Polo!
  • Influence, Merchant from Venice
  • Went to China, exciting descriptions!!!
  • Rise of Nation-States in Europe
  • Expansion of commerce
  • Dont forget the 3 Gs..
  • GOD, GOLD, GLORY!

8
Follow the Leader
  • First.. Spain Portugal.
  • Then France Holland.
  • Finally Great Britain.

9
Why did they come?
  • Portugal water routes to India Asia
  • Claimed colonies, ie Brazil
  • Spain water routes, conquistadors
  • Land, wealth, slaves
  • Colonies sugar
  • Indian then African slaves
  • FR water routes, colonization
  • Fur trade around Great Lakes
  • Known as coureurs de bois
  • Friendly with Indians
  • Britain - Upper hand in North American and set
    the stage for.. US!

10
Who came?Portugal
  • Prince Henry the Navigator
  • Est. Nautical school
  • Water route to Asia
  • Made it to West Africa
  • Vasco de Gama
  • Sailed around Southern tip of Africa to India
  • Amerigo Vespucci
  • Italian mapped coast of S. America.
  • Work used to map the New World

11
Who came?Spain
  • Christopher Columbus
  • Italian sent by Ferdinand Isabella
    to Asia (didnt quite make it)
  • 3 ships, 90 sailors, landed San Salvador
    10/12/1492
  • Balboa
  • Sailed to Panama 1st European to
    see Pacific

12
Who came?Spain
  • Ferdinand Magellan
  • Sailed around S. Amer tip (straight of Magellan)
  • Called Pacific peaceful waters
  • Sailed around the world
  • Hernando Cortes
  • Conquistador
  • Sailed to Mexico with Army
  • Destroyed Aztecs, claimed Mexico

13
Hernan Cortes Francisco Pizzaro
  • Hernan Cortes
  • Sent by Spanish Governor of Cuba to conquer the
    Aztecs in Mexico.
  • Aztec capital, Tenochtitlan (present day Mexico
    city) had 400,000 people there.
  • Aztecs governed about 20 million people (twice
    the size of Spains) and Cortes could only gather
    600 soldiers.
  • Cortes learned that the Aztecs conquered many
    Native Americans and were able to enlist the help
    of 200,000 Mexicans.
  • By 1521, Cortes had conquered one of the largest
    empires in the world.
  • Francisco Pizzaro
  • Conquered the Inca (what is now Peru)

14
Control of the Spanish Empire
  • These new lands and people became
  • Colonies areas settled by immigrants who
    continue to be ruled by their parent country.
  • The Spanish became soooo rich!
  • Had enslaved Native Americans and Africans, mined
    silver and gold in Peru, established farms and
    ranches, etc.
  • Didnt make Indians leaveforced them to become
    part of Spanish culture.
  • Because they all lived togethera new race
    emerged
  • Mestizo Mix of Spanish and Native American.

15
  • "With my own eyes I saw Spaniards cut off the
    nose, hands and ears of Indians, male and female,
    without provocation, merely because it pleased
    them to do it. ... Likewise, I saw how they
    summoned the caciques and the chief rulers to
    come, assuring them safety, and when they
    peacefully came, they were taken captive and
    burned."

16
"The Spaniards took babies from their mothers'
breasts, grabbing them by the feet and smashing
their heads againt rocks. ...They built a long
gibbet, low enough for the toes to touch the
ground and prevent strangling, and hanged
thirteen natives at a time in honor of Christ
Our Saviour and the twelve Apostles. ...Then,
straw was wrapped around their torn bodies and
they were burned alive."
17
Who came?Spain
  • Ponce de Leon
  • Sought the fountain
    of youth
  • Claimed Florida
  • Land of Flowers
  • Spanish Empire caused inflation to rise in Europe
  • San Salvador, Mexico, Florida, etc.

18
Who came?France
  • Jacques Cartier
  • Looking for Northwest Passage,
    explored St. Lawrence River
  • Samuel de Champlain
  • Founded colony of Quebec in 1608
  • Robert LaSalle
  • Followed Mississippi River, claimed it
  • Named Louisiana after King Louis XIV
  • Great location!

19
Who came?Britain
  • Sir Francis Drake
  • Sea Dog, sent by Queen Elizabeth I
  • Mission pillage Spanish America and ships
  • Defeated Spanish Armada
  • Huuuge fleet 130 ships 27,000 sailors
  • Ensured GBs naval dominance in North Atlantic

20
Others
  • Henry Hudson
  • British but sailed for Dutch
  • Explored NY Harbor settled New Amsterdam (later
    NY)
  • Had patroonships feudal estates

21
Important terms
  • Scurvy
  • Disease caused by lack of fresh fruit and vegs
  • Plagued sailors
  • Line of Demarcation
  • N/S line in Atlantic drawn by Pope
  • Catholic church to Christianize both sides of it
  • Encomienda system
  • Plantation system set up by Spanish in America
  • Grew sugar, used slave labor
  • Presidios
  • Forts built to protect Spanish settlements from
    Indians and other countries

22
Now lets talk
about
  • The
  • British
  • Colonies

23
3 types of colonies
  • Joint stock
  • Have a charter from the King
  • Begun as a profit-making venture
  • Owned and financed by various investors
  • Proprietary
  • Land in America given by the King to an
    individual as payment for a debt
  • Royal
  • Colony owned and operated/governed by the King

24
JamestownEnglands first permanent colony
  • Est. by the VA Comp.
  • 144 settlers came and settled on James River
  • No women
  • Only 4 carpenters

25
Hardships for Jamestown
  • Diseases (Malaria)
  • Not used to hard work
  • Starvation
  • Dependent on supplies from GB and Natives
  • 1st year only 38 survivors
  • 800 more came only 60 survived starving time
    of winter 1609.
  • Ate rats, mice. Even resorted to cannibalism

26
Governing Jamestown
  • John Smith
  • Forceful leader
  • John Rolfe
  • Est. tobacco
  • industry
  • Slavery introduced
  • Pocahontas
  • Rolfes wife
  • Helped with Indian
  • relations

27
Jamestown in peril
  • Tobacco successfully cultivated
  • Slavery introduced, but
  • VA Co. goes into debt
  • Charter is revoked
  • VA becomes first Royal Colony
  • Appointed a Governor Sir William Berkeley
  • Berkeley
  • Policies favored large planters, antagonized
    backwoods farmers on VAs western frontier
  • Burned to ground b/c Bacons Rebellion

28
Bacons Rebellion
  • Many settlers instead of buying land, tried to
    take it from the Indians.
  • In 1676, Nathaniel Bacon raised an army to fight
    the Indians.
  • Rebelled against Berkeleys govt too
  • Governor declared him a rebel gathered an army
  • Berkeley died of dysentery and rebels army
    collapsed
  • Bacon burned J-town.
  • He controlled VA, but died.

29
Importance of Bacons Rebellion
  • 1.) Sharp class differences between wealthy
    planters and landless/poor farmers
  • 2.) Colonial resistance to royal control

30
Early VA characterized by
  • Growth of tidewater aristocracy
  • Arrival of the cavaliers
  • Misrule of Governor Berkeley
  • Cultivation of tobacco

31
The Roanoke Disaster
  • Walter Raleigh tried twice to start a colony on
    Roanoke Island (1580s).
  • Along coast of North Carolina
  • 1st attempt settlers facing starvation returned
    home
  • 2nd attempt settlers disappeared
  • Were they defeated by the Indiansdid they join
    themno one knows.

32
Plymouth Colony
  • Joint Stock
  • Jamestown est. for economic reasons, Plymouth
    est. by religious separatists
  • AKA PURITANS
  • The PILGRIMS, came on the .
  • MAYFLOWER (1620)
  • Signed Mayflower Compact
  • First written governing doc. of our nation!
  • Laws made by majority all would obey

33
Plymouth Colony, cont.
  • ½ settlers died by Spring
  • Squanto corn
  • Deep faith and determination helped them
    survive
  • THANKSGIVING!
  • Leader
  • William Bradford
  • Became part of Mass. Bay Colony.

34
Massachusetts Bay Colony
  • Started as joint stock, 1630
  • Many came b/c of GREAT MIGRATION
  • Home to many Puritans, City on a Hill
  • Wanted to purify Church of England
  • Under Calvinist leaders, became a theocracy
    (whats that)?
  • Church is paramount in all decisions, political
    and religious.

35
Mass Bay, cont.
  • Ironic - Religious intolerance
  • Banished if dont agree
  • Dissident founded many other colonies
  • First English Colony to est. basis of
    representative govt
  • No ______ without ______!

36
Other colonies Connecticut New Hamp
Maine.
  • New Hampshire Maine
  • 2 Englishmen given a govt grant to areas north
    of Mass., divided land
  • New Hampshire
  • Founder John Wheelwright (expelled)
  • Joint stock, then royal
  • Maine part of Mass Bay Colony until 1820.
  • Joint stock
  • Founder Thomas Hooker
  • Religion less imp. Than commerce
  • First to write a Constitution

37
Other ColoniesRhode Island
  • Joint Stock
  • Founder Roger Williams
  • Banished from Mass b/c wanted sep. of church
    state
  • Est. Providence (later RI)
  • Bought land from Indians!
  • Was unique
  • Recognized rights of N. Americans and paid them
    for land
  • Complete religious toleration all allowed to come
    and worship
  • Religious refugees came
  • 1663, Parliament granted free religion charter

38
Halfway Covenant
  • Mid 17th cent, a generation has gone by since
    first Puritans came to NE.
  • New generation seemed less committed to religion
    more interested in .
  • Halfway Covenant offered by some clergymen to
    those who professed limited religious commitment.
  • People could now participate without declaration
    their total belief in JC.

39
New England Confederation
  • Plymouth, Mass Bay, Connecticut New Haven
  • Formed a military alliance from threat of
    Natives.
  • Lasted until 1684
  • Crown ended it.
  • Est. a precedent to take unified action against
    Natives.

40
King Phillips War
  • Metacom (King Philip, in Eng.)
    leader of the Algonquin people.
  • United many tribes in Southern
    New England against English
    settlers.
  • Vicious War (1675-76)
  • Thousands killed on both sides
  • Dozens towns/villages burned
  • English struck back.
  • Metacom was caught and killed
  • Head placed on display in Boston.
  • Significance
  • Virtually ended Indian resistance
    in New
    England.

41
The Middle and Southern Colonies
42
Middle Colonies
  • Included New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and
    Delaware.
  • In middle of the Atlantic coast of North America.
  • New York was very diverse

43
The Middle ColoniesNew York
  • Est. by Dutch Joint Stock
  • Then GB Proprietary, became English colony
    through conquest
  • England Holland in war over N.Amer fur trade
  • Duke of York given a fleet by brother King
    Charles II to capture New Netherland
  • Did in 1664 named for him after capture
  • Ethnically diverse area

44
Middle ColoniesNew Jersey Delaware
  • New Jersey
  • Also Dutch Joint Stock then GB proprietary
  • Originally owned by Duke York too, gave it to
    other rich guys
  • Delaware
  • Proprietary
  • Started by Swedes, taken by Dutch, then taken by
    English.
  • Also owned by Duke of York, later purchased by
    William Penn
  • Scared Penn was land-locked

45
Middle ColoniesPennsylvania
  • Proprietary William Penn given grant for
    settlement
  • Founded as sanctuary for Quakers
  • Passive resistance
  • Non-paid clergy
  • Equality for women
  • Simple meeting houses
  • Very democratic
  • No military service
  • Anti-slavery
  • No paid clergy
  • No swearing oaths to King
  • Most successful and diverse of all 13 colonies
  • Philly City of Brotherly Love

46
Southern Colonies
  • Virginia, Maryland, Carolinas, Georgia
  • Maryland (Proprietary)
  • Refuge for Catholics by Lord Baltimore
  • Bicameral legislature est.
  • Religious probs b/t Cath and Christians
  • 1649 Maryland Toleration Acts
  • Freedom of worship for Christians

47
Southern ColoniesCarolinas
  • Carolinas (Proprietary)
  • Land reward for those who restored monarchy after
    English Civil War
  • Religious and political freedom but slavery?
  • Tobacco Tarheels
  • Not indentured servitude
  • Proprietors had investments in slave trade
  • 1729 Split in two
  • SC thought better than NC
  • Better harbors grew sugar, rice indigo

48
Southern ColoniesGeorgia
  • Proprietary
  • Started as a Penal colony by James Ogelthorpe
  • Rum, Catholics and Slaves prohibited!
  • In the beginning
  • Originally a haven for those who had been jailed
    in England b/c they couldnt pay their debts.
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